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THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) NARR... > THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) ... - Pg. 22

Re-Theorizing Human Resource Management and Human Resource Management in Context THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) NARRATIVE: THE CAREER OF THE HRM CONCEPT During the early 1980s a central theme around the new management of human resources emerged when a number of large companies began to search for the Competitive Advantage through People (Pfeffer, 1994), which has changed the rules of the game with regard to personnel management and labour relations 1 . Along with other contributions from management academ- ics and commercial management consultants, new concepts, new strategies, and new policies emerged within organizations that were essentially employee and customer-oriented as well as en- abling, innovative and productive organizations. What sparked off the enormous interest was that the employed human resources could actually have to pick up the cultural cues and construct an organizational self." Anyone who reads Kramer and Schmalen- berg's (1988a; 1988b) investigation of life in 16 magnet hospitals is able to discern the plausible stories of how the new management of nurs- ing resources began to permeate the everyday perceptions and language of employees. Other researchers followed the attributes and practices 2 described by Kramer and Schmalenberg (2002; 2003a; 2003b; 2004; 2005) and searched for what it takes to attract and retain well-qualified nursing staff within hospital organizations that had the reputation of being good places to work and giving good nursing care (Buchan, 1994; 1999; Havens, 2001; Havens & Aiken, 1999; Havens & Johnston, 2004; Lewis & Matthews, 1998; McClure & Hinshaw, 2002). The results were manifold as these magnet hospitals dealt ef- fectively with the personnel shortage by creating