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Managing and Motivating INTRODUCTION Much has been written in the past decade about the health workforce crisis that is crippling health service delivery in many middle and low-income countries (Hagopian, Thompson, Fordyce, Johnson & Hart, 2004; Ntuli, 2004; McAuliffe & MacLachlan, 2005; Padarath et al., 2003). High-income countries with high salaries and attractive living conditions are drawing qualified doctors and nurses from these countries to fill gaps in their own health human resources pool. The emigration of skilled labour in search of better returns on knowledge, skills, qualifications and competencies is depleting human capital in many developing countries (Lowell & Findlay, 2001). The UN Commission for Trade and Development estimated that each migrating African professional represents a loss of US $184,000 to Africa (Oyowe, 1996). While low income countries have limited to500 patients in the city, while remote districts suffer from a 1:100,000 physician to patient ratio. The migration of health professionals from one geographical region to another, from the public to the private sector, from areas of generalization to areas of specialization, from medical to non- medical fields, and from one country to another affects the capacity of the health system to main- tain adequate coverage, access and utilization of services (Awases, Gbary, Nyoni & Chatora, 2004; Padarath et al., 2003). Health workers' migration is influenced by a combination of factors that either "push" profes- sionals from the source countries or "pull" them to a recipient country. Push and pull factors refer to influences that are felt by professionals within the source country that either create an impetus to leave or an attraction to seek work in a re- cipient country. A WHO study (1996) suggested that regardless of the pull factors from recipient