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What Stuart is lacking is emotional intelligence. There may be little hope of salvaging Stuart's career, but there is good news for managers who are similarly deficient in emotional intelli- gence capacities but willing to try to change their ways: emotional intelli- gence can be developed and enhanced. DEALING WITH EMOTIONS In articles published in 1990, psychol- ogists Jack Mayer of the University of ABOUT THE AUTHORS Marian N. Ruderman is a research scientist at CCL in Greensboro. She holds a Ph.D. degree from the University of Michigan. Kelly Hannum is a research associate at CCL in New Hampshire and Peter Salovey of Yale University coined the term emo- tional intelligence, referring to the constellation of abilities through which people deal with their own emotions and those of others. Mayer and Salovey later went on to define emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive emotional information and use it to guide thought and actions; they distinguished it from cognitive intelligence, which is what determines whether people will be successful in school and is measured through IQ tests. The concept of emotional intelli- gence was popularized by psycholo- gist Daniel Goleman in his books Emotional Intelligence and Working with Emotional Intelligence, among other writings. Goleman broadened the notion of emotional intelligence to include an array of noncognitive abilities that help people adapt to all aspects of life. He focused on four basic competencies--self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and social skills--that influence the tives to understand themselves and others better, to increase their self- awareness, self-management, and interpersonal skills--in other words, to expand their emotional intelli- gence, although CCL has not used that term. CCL has done this through a range of programs, simulations, publications, and tools--including Benchmarks ® , a 360-degree assess- ment instrument that measures lead- ers' strengths and development needs as compared with those of other lead- ers. Although CCL and others have long believed that people's levels of emotional competency are related to their effectiveness as leaders, little had been done to scientifically exam- ine and document whether specific elements of emotional intelligence are linked to specific behaviors associated with leadership effectiveness and inef- fectiveness--and if they are, how they are linked. With this goal, CCL designed and conducted a study that correlated Benchmarks results with scores from an assessment instrument through which people gauge their