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2.5 Case Study: UNIX® File System Layeri... > 2.5.1 Application Programming Interf... - Pg. 91

2.5 Case Study: unix File System Layering and Naming 91 2.5 CaSe StUDy: UNIx ® FIle SySteM layerING aND NaMING The unix family of operating systems can trace its lineage back to the unix operating system that was developed by Bell Telephone Laboratories for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP line of minicomputers in the late 1960s and early 1970s [Suggestions for Further Reading 2.2], and before that to the Multics* operating system in the early 1960s [Suggestions for Further Reading 1.7.5 and 3.1.4]. Today there are many flavors of unix systems with complex historical relationships; a few examples include GNU/ Linux, versions of GNU/Linux distributed by different organizations (e.g., Red Hat, Ubuntu), Darwin (a unix operating system that is part of Apple's operating system Mac OS X), and several flavors of BSD operating systems. Some of these are directly derived from the early unix operating system; others provide similar interfaces but have been implemented from scratch. Some are the result of an effort by a small group of pro- grammers, and others are the result of an effort by many. In the latter case, it is even unclear how to exactly name the operating system because substantial parts come from different teams. The collective result of all these efforts is that operating systems of the unix family run on a wide range of computers, including personal computers, server computers, parallel computers, and embedded computers. Most of the unix