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14.2 Cases of the GLM 383 product of values equals the sum of the logarithms of the values. In other words, log(freq(U&D)) = log(freq(U)) + log(freq(D)) + log(1/N) The notation "log(freq(value))" gets cumbersome, so we'll substitute the notation v . Thus, log(freq(U&D)) = U + D + 0 where 0 stands in for the constant log(1/N). Finally, it's unintuitive to talk about the logarithms of frequencies, so we'll exponentiate to get rid of the leading logarithm, yielding: freq(U&D) = exp ( U + D + 0 ) To summarize, if independence is true, then the expression above should be true, for every combination of attribute values.