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236 CHAPTER 8 Standardized Usability Questionnaires regression equation for estimating likelihood to recommend from SUS is LTR = SUS/10, so the predicted likelihood to recommend responses for these five participants are, respectively, 8, 7, 8, 7, and 10. Given these LTR scores, there are 0% detractors and 20% (1/5) promoters, for an estimated NPS of 20% (% promoters minus % detractors). References Aladwani, A.M., Palvia, P.C., 2002. Developing and validating an instrument for measuring user perceived web quality. Inf. Manag. 39, 467­476. Albert, W., Dixon, E., 2003. Is this what you expected? The use of expectation measures in usability testing. Paper presented at the Usability Professionals Association Annual Conference. UPA, Scottsdale, AZ. Anastasi, A., 1976. Psychological Testing. Macmillan, New York. ANSI, 2001. Common Industry Format for Usability Test Reports (ANSI-NCITS 354-2001). Author, Washington, DC. Azzara, C.V., 2010. Questionnaire Design for Business Research. Tate Publishing, Mustang, OK. Bangor, A., Kortum, P.T., Miller, J.T., 2008. An empirical evaluation of the system usability scale. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 24, 574­594. Bangor, A., Kortum, P.T., Miller, J.T., 2009. Determining what individual SUS scores mean: Adding an adjec- tive rating scale. J. Usability Studies. 4 (3), 114­123. Bargas-Avila, J.A., Lötscher, J., Orsini, S., Opwis, K., 2009. Intranet satisfaction questionnaire: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure user satisfaction with the intranet. Comput. Hum. Behav. 25, 1241­1250. Barnette, J.J., 2000. Effects of stem and Likert response option reversals on survey internal consistency: If you feel the need, there is a better alternative to using those negatively worded stems. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 60, 361­370. Benedek, J., Miner, T., 2002. Measuring desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a usability lab setting. Paper presented at the Usability Professionals Association Annual Conference. UPA, Orlando, FL. Borsci, S., Federici, S., Lauriola, M., 2009. On the dimensionality of the system usability scale: A test of alter- native measurement models. Cogn. Process. 10, 193­197. Brace, I., 2008. Questionnaire Design: How to Plan, Structure, and Write Survey Material for Effective Market Research, 2nd ed. Kogan Page Limited, London. Brooke, J., 1996. SUS: A "quick and dirty" usability scale. In: Jordan, P., Thomas, B., Weerdmeester, B. (Eds.), Usability Evaluation in Industry. Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 189­194. Cavallin, H., Martin, W.M., Heylighen, A., 2007. How relative absolute can be: SUMI and the impact of the nature of the task in measuring perceived software usability. Artif. Intell. Soc. 22, 227­235. Cheung, G.W., Rensvold, R.B., 2000. Assessing extreme and acquiescence response sets in cross-cultural research using structural equations modeling. J. Cross-Cult. Psychol. 31, 187­212. Chin, J.P., Diehl, V.A., Norman, K.L., 1988. Development of an instrument measuring user satisfaction of the human­computer interface. In: Proceedings of CHI 1988. ACM, Washington, DC, pp. 213­218. Cordes, R.E., 1984a. Software ease of use evaluation using magnitude estimation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society. HFS, Santa Monica, CA, pp. 157­160. Cordes, R.E., 1984b. Use of Magnitude Estimation for Evaluating Product Ease of Use (Tech. Report 82.0135). IBM, Tucson, AZ. Cortina, J.M., 1993. What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. J. Exp. Psychol. 78 (1), 98­104.