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10 Riding the Wave: Using Demand Respons... > Overview of System Operation Flexibi... - Pg. 238

238 PART | II Smart Supply: Integrating Renewable & Distributed Generation Fewer attempts have been made, however, to study in greater detail the various roles that load can play in providing ancillary services and thus actively assist in the integration of renewable generation. This chapter provides an overview of the nature of sub-hourly flexible operating reserves given their growing importance in balancing intermittent generation on the system grid. This chapter is organized as follows: "Overview of System Operation Flexibil- ity Issues" discusses flexible operating reserves in the context of increasing penetration of renewable generation; "Wind Integration Studies and Ancillary Service Requirements" reviews essential methodologies and tools deployed by wind integration studies; "Additional System Challenges" and Load as a Flexible Resource ­ System Programs and Experience" point to some additional system challenges in accommodating large penetration levels of renewable gen- eration; "Structuring Load Control Products for Intermittent Resources" reviews recent experience in deploying load as a flexible operation reserve; and "Conclusion: Benefits of Substituting Load for Generation" discusses the use of optimal inventory control to design direct load control programs for providing ancillary services such as regulation and load-following, as well as the potential benefits from such an approach in integrating intermittent resources. OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM OPERATION FLEXIBILITY ISSUES