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Chapter | 9 Renewables Integration Through Direct Load Control 231 In reality, commercial and industrial loads that are currently signed up for interruptible tariff DR could switch to DLC if it was better suited to provide valuable fast-acting response. In addition, given the limited scope of resources included in FERC's EBAU DLC potential assessment, this represents a lower bound of available DLC potential. CONCLUSIONS DR is a rapidly growing resource in the electricity sectors portfolio that can help facilitate large penetrations of renewables on the grid. Instantaneously dispatch- able DLC offers the greatest value on the regulation and spinning reserves time- scales. Existing capacity and tariff based DR programs are well suited to provide load following and contingency reserves during economic and reliability- constrained wind ramps. Even under relatively conservative assumptions, total incremental DLC potential is of the same order as the incremental ancillary firming capacity required for significant wind penetrations. Moving forward, this resource potential could be further augmented through building automation and software innovations that enable industrial, commercial, and residential loads to be dispatched into DR markets without requisite oversight by a sophisticated energy user.