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Index > R - Pg. 508

508 PJM energy markets (Cont.) RPM capacity credit market, 427, 428­430, 430­431 settlements in, 438­439 demand response options, 437 load weighted average LMP, 441 statistics on, 424 Policy and governance frameworks, 55­56 Power sector vendors, 22 PowerCentsDC program, 362­363, 385­386 Prices day-ahead, 486, 490 to devices model, 407 incentives to respond to, 435, 435 intra-day, 333 reduction from wind power, 485 spot market, 79­80, 157 supply side simulation, 488­489, 489 Pricing carbon, 170, 171­172 congestion, 73 critical peak, 254 for demand response program, 251, 253­254 duration curves, 245­246 nodal, 322 real time use (RTP), 63, 64, 80, 154 of rooftop PV installations, 109 use-of-system (UoS) charges, 320­321, 324, 332­333 see also Dynamic pricing Primary frequency control, 238 Prins, G., 40 Privacy issues, 381 Production capacity growth, 14 PV (photovoltaic) energy, 103­110, see also Solar energy Index R Ramping, 141, 218 Rate of return (ROR), 79 Real-time energy market, 154, 436, 437 Real time pricing (RTP), 63, 64, 80, 154 see also Dynamic pricing Record implementation, system of, 272­273 Recovery Act. see American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Refrigerators, 34, 475 Regional wind capacities, 211, 212 Regulation demand response, 326 on equity issues, 98 international, 25 United States, 23 see also Government Regulation mechanisms, and load following, 136, 137, 217, 239, 240, 247 Reliability, 19­22 Renewable energy capacity firming, 113­114 cost-benefit analysis, 119­122 generation by energy source, 236 generation mix, 107 in Germany, 327­336, 328­329 growth forecast in, 16, 17, 104 integration demand response for, 221­231 operational challenges of, 132­143, 241­246 variable energy resources (VERs) and, 211­213 for wind power, 219­221 microgrids integration and, 199­202 outlook, 107­110 resource intermittency, 110­111, 164, 176­178 savings from, 179, 180, 181 solar, 16­18, 104­105, 107­110 storage, 113­118 U.S and world mix of, 107 U.S. projected capacity, 17 variability of, 132, 137, 243 voltage regulation problems and, 112­113 see also Hydropower; Intermittent energy; Solar energy; Wind power Reserve margin requirements, 15 Residential energy consumption, 43 Resource intermittency. see Intermittent energy Responsive reserve deployment, 249 Retail markets, current, 51­53 Risk premiums, 79­81 Rooftop PV installations pricing, 109 S Savings from AMI, 357 feedback program, 357 from renewable technologies, 179, 180, 181 from smart grids, 319, 357, 358­360, 361­366 Scenarios, 169­171, 226­227 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 132 Schweppe, Fred, 70 Secondary frequency control, 239