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Smart Grid Applications > Net Metering - Pg. 283

Chapter | 11 Software Infrastructure and the Smart Grid 283 conditions, and is called on a day-ahead basis. The number of events per year is either specified or can be within a range, usually up to 15 days, four hours per event. Chapter 12 includes a description of the specific experience in California with CPP pricing. Software to Support Dynamic Pricing Rates The IT systems needed to support dynamic pricing vary by specific application. All of the options require bill calculation, of course. All but TOU require some means of notifying customers of prices or events. Such notification systems typically must support automated phone calls, text messaging, and email. PTR requires continuous calculation and tracking of customer baselines for use in bill calculation. RTP requires a link to the wholesale market system to obtain market prices, plus a means of sending prices to customers. This usually involves the internet to display the hourly prices on the utility's website, plus sometimes text messaging and email. The billing involves very different calculations from those in historical uti- lity billing systems. In some cases, utilities implement software applications outside of their billing systems to perform part of these new calculations. The key such function is framing of interval data into billing determinants. This involves adding up individual interval data values into pre-determined bill-