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26.3 ECU Reprogramming Security Issues > 26.3.3 Hardware Security - Pg. 664

664 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ CHAPTER 26 Cyber-Physical Security of Automotive Information Technology Input ­ Master Input Slave Output) interface in their chips for communication. Dual-MCU Architecture: Mirrored System To build more robust systems, multiple MCUs can be used for a mirrored system, having identical functionalities. A pair of identical MCUs (or different MCUs with identical algorithms) runs for the same purpose and should provide the same results any time. There are two ways to maintain robustness. First, if the main MCU detects an inter- nal fault, backup MCU processes all data and controls all I/O. Second, if MCU's self- diagnostics do not detect any fault but dif- ferent results, they either cease activity or initiate an emergency mode via the main system. Multiple MCU Architecture: Modular System Systems that are too large may be separated by several different modules. There is no main CRC error detection. Enabler for hierarchical networks. OSI layered network model. Differential voltage for communication. External connectivity provided by OBD-II. ­ 26.3.3. Hardware Security ECU hardware designs vary by purpose, produc- tion cost, size, and power consumption. We cat- egorize ECU models by hardware configurations and analyze how this affects the software vulner- ability to attack. Microcontroller Models. Microcontroller unit (MCU) is a microprocessor with peripheral I/O drivers. MCUs use inputs from sensors to con- trol devices such as motors, or actuators. Many MCUs also have input peripherals such as A/D converters for analog inputs, PWM driver and ­