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13. Voluntary Motor Control > 13-3. Multijoint Arm Movements for Reaching

13-3. Multijoint Arm Movements for Reaching

The well-known finger-to-nose test of cerebellar dysmetria was reproduced when a monkey wearing wedge prisms was trained to try to reach a target by hand. Adaptation in the reaching depended critically on visual information about errors consequent to the movement at its end point. The effect of this visual information on consequence errors was largest at 0–10 milliseconds, and it decayed significantly in 50–100 milliseconds (Kitazawa and Yin, 2002). Thus, this paradigm represents typical consequence error-based learning. In another study by Kitazawa and his colleagues, a monkey was trained to perform short-lasting reaching (~200 milliseconds in duration) to touch a visual target, which appeared at random locations on a screen. The monkey saw its hand and fingers and the target before and after completion of the movement, but the movement itself was performed without visual feedback. In this case, Purkinje cells in cerebellar lobules HIV–HVI exhibited multiply timed climbing fiber responses at three different stages of the movement (first, second, and third responses). The third response occurred at the end point of the movement, apparently representing visually perceived deviations....Kitazawa et al., 1998). They apparently arose within the neuronal circuit controlling the hand-reaching movement (see Chapter 15, “Internal Models for Voluntary Motor Control,” for further details).


  

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