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Sound design I: sound, sync, and source > Synchronous, Nonsynchronous, and Post... - Pg. 490

Chapter 22 the Sound Design in Film The general categories of speech, sound effects, and music can obviously be broken down into more detailed categories, which we will do, but first let's look at the question of sync and source that also informs the more specific elements of a sound design. 473 Synchronous, nonsynchronous, and postsynchronous audio The second consideration for sound is whether the audio as it is realized in the sound design is in sync with the picture or not, in which case it is called nonsync audio (or asynchronous sound). Sync audio has a frame-accurate, direct correspondence with the image and appears to be generated from what we are watching, like a character speaking lines of dialogue or the sound that accompanies the image of a car starting up and driving off. Sync sound that is recorded on location and in sync with the image (for example, the car image and the sound of the car) is called direct sound. As we explored in Chapter 15, if we're not happy with the quality of the sync sound (perhaps the cam- era framing didn't allow us to position our mikes for optimum sound), we can always get another, better recording in the field, of a car starting and pulling away without the camera rolling, as wild sound. In the postproduction world, sound effects recorded on location are called pfx, for production sound effects. This sound is recorded nonsync, but it will be aligned to appear in sync later in postproduction. But perhaps in building our sound design we don't like either car sound from the field recordings. Well, we can easily replace it with a "car starting and drive away" sound from a prerecorded sound effects library; such libraries are found on CDs or through online sound effect resources. In this case, the sound will also be aligned with the image in postproduction (i.e., just as the key is turned in the ignition). Both the pfx and prerecorded effects are called postsynchronous sound