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Chapter 10. On the Road Performance Simu... > 2. Simulation of efficient internal ... - Pg. 249

On the Road Performance Simulation of Battery, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Cars 249 prolonging the lifetime of a vehicle, for several reasons, including the consideration of environmental impacts, which of course include those associated with energy used in manufacture and in the treatment associated with recycling and reuse of materials. Today, many passenger cars are built to have an average lifetime of about 20 years. Since the goal lifetime of both batteries and fuel cells are set at 5 years, this means replacing these components 3 times during the operational life of the vehicle. Furthermore, even a 5-year lifetime is high for an electrochemical device. It took a long time for lead-acid batteries to reach this level. The cost of these replacements, involving garage-level work that is typically much more expensive than production-line operation, could pose a limitation hard to overcome. The future of battery and fuel cell vehicles is therefore still highly uncertain, but acceptance may be helped when resource depletion and environmental concern over pollution and greenhouse warming make energy prices generally go up. 2. SIMULATION OF EFFICIENT INTERNAL COMBUSTION VEHICLE As a reference, the performance of conventional vehicles with IC engines will be looked at, using the same model tools as will be used for the subsequent simulations of battery, hydrogen, and hybrid vehicles. The modeling is based on a superstructure of application routines added on top of the mathematical modeling software [2]. The