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110 Maria Grahn et al. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Mats Williander (Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers, Sweden); Christian Azar, Kristian Lindgren, Fredrik Hedenus, and Julia Hansson (Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers, Sweden); Sherry Mueller (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, USA); Ichiro Sugioka (Volvo Monitoring and Concept Center, California); Roland Clift (University of Surrey, UK); and Patrik Klintbom (Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden) for helpful discussions. Financial support from Swedish Energy Agency is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA. 2007. 2. UNFCCC (2008), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The UNFCCC's objective was retrieved 01.12.2008 from ground/items/1353.php (accessed 06.09). 3. P. Tans, NOAA/ESRL., 2009. 4. T.J. Wallington, J.L. Sullivan, M.D. Hurley, Meteorol. Z. 17 (2008) 109. 5. C. Azar, K. Lindgren, B.A. Andersson, Hydrogen or Methanol in the Transportation Sector? KFB-Report 2000:35, ISBN: 91-88371-90-5. 6. C. Azar, K. Lindgren, B.A. Andersson, Energy Policy 31 (2003) 961. 7. C. Azar, K. Lindgren, E. Larson, K. Mollersten, Climatic Change 74 (2006) 47. 8. M. Grahn, C. Azar, K. Lindgren, Biomass Bioenergy 33 (2009) 360. 9. E. Endo, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 32 (2007) 1347. 10. H. Turton, L. Barreto, Int. J. Alternative Propulsion 1 (2007) 397. 11. T. Gül, S. Kypreos, L. Barreto, Hydrogen and Biofuels ­ A Modeling Analysis of Competing Energy Carriers for Western Europe. Proceedings of the World Energy Congress, Rome, Italy, November 2007. Available at 12. T. Takeshita, K. Yamaji, Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2791. 13. T.M.L. Wigley, Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-Gas Induced Climate Change. http://www. (accessed 06.09) 14. IIASA/WEC, Global Energy Perspectives to 2050 and Beyond, World Energy Council, London, 1995. (accessed 06.09). 15. T.B. Johansson, H. Kelly, A.K.N. Reddy, R.H. Williams, Renewable Energy ­ Sources for Fuels and Electricity, L. Burnham (Ed.), Island Press, California, USA, 1993. 16. OECD, Biofuels: Is the Cure Worse Than the Disease? Report SG/SD/RT(2007)3, Paris, 2007. pdf (accessed 06.09). 17. M. Hoogwijk, On the Global and Regional Potential of Renewable Energy Sources, Ph.D. Thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 2004. 18. P. British, Statistical Guide of World Energy (Values for 2000). (accessed 06.09). 19. World Energy Assessment, Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability. J. Goldemberg (Ed.), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNESA) and World Energy Council (WEC). ISBN: 92-1-126126-0, USA, 2000. 20. H.H. Rogner, Annu. Rev. Energ. Env. 22 (1997) 248 21. E.P.A. Swedish. dioxid.pdf, 2008 (accessed 06.09). 22. IPCC, Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, B.M. Ogunlade Davidson, H. de Coninck, M. Loos, L. Meyer (Eds.), 2005. lereport.pdf (accessed 06.09). 23. EC Alternative Fuels (EUCAR), Market Development of Alternative Fuels, Report of the European Commission, Alternative Fuels Contact Group, December 2003.