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106 Coaching different Types of Teams Project teams Project teams are a team brought together, often drawn from different teams, for a specific, defined and time-limited task. Deborah Ancona and her colleagues at MIT have carried out very useful studies of high-performing project teams (Ancona et al, 2002). Their work showed that these teams shared the following characteristics: high levels of external focus and activity; extensive ties in the organization and wider context; expandable tiers in their internal organization; flexible membership ­ both in the team and between the tiers; coordination within and between tiers. They developed a three-phase model in the life of a project team: exploration, exploitation and exportation (Ancona et al, 2002). I have extended this model into six Es, adding engaging at the beginning, emergence ­ re-engaging in the middle and ending at the end, as in my experience these are distinct phases which are essential for the project team to fully succeed. The six Es are shown in Figure 7.1.