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Appendix 1 A word from the research team - Pg. 219

219 Appendix 1 A word from the research team T he CRUSH © study was fielded between 29 October 2009 and 3 December 2009. All questionnaires were completed online, and the research was conducted in Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The total sample size was 6,994 respondents, of which 40% (N = 2,820) were male and 60% (N = 4,174) were female. The sample was composed of 2,474 respondents from the Talk to Change community, a market research panel maintained by InSites Consulting. Of the Talk to Change sample, 51% (N = 1,259) were aged 14­29, while 49% (N = 1,215) were aged 30­65. With the participation of MTV Europe, an additional 4,489 respondents were recruited by means of a pop-up that was shown on the MTV websites in the countries listed above. The pop-up directed interested website visitors to the online survey. Of the participants recruited through the MTV websites, 89% (N = 3,987) were aged 14­29, while 11% (N = 502) were 30+. The CRUSH © branding model was tested by means of path ana- lysis. Path analysis is a regression-based technique designed to test hypothesized directional relationships between variables. This is a complicated way of saying that path analysis can be used to evaluate theories about how different kinds of brand attitudes (in this case, the constructs in the CRUSH model) lead to overall evaluations of brand (in this case, Brand Leverage). The model (see Figure A1.1) starts with the foundation of percep- tions of the brand as cool, real, unique, self-brand identification (perceived overlap between one's own personality and the brand's personality) and of positive emotions engendered by thoughts of the brand. These five dimensions are all included as independent variables in two separate regression models, one explaining brand conversa- tions, and one explaining brand image. The results from this first set of analyses indicate that seeing a brand as cool, real, unique and having greater identification with the brand and feeling more positive emotions when thinking about the brand, are associated with having