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8 Part 1 the Practice of Human resource Management different approaches' (Armstrong, 2000: 577). HRM is simplistic ­ as Fowler (1987: 3) wrote: `The HRM message to top management tends to be beguilingly simple. Don't bother too much about the content or techniques of personnel management, it says. Just manage the context. Get out from behind your desk, bypass the hierarchy, and go and talk to people. That way you will unlock an enormous potential for improved performance.' The unitarist approach to employee relations implicit in HRM (the belief that management and employees share the same concerns and it is therefore in both their interests to work together) prompted Fowler (1987: 3) to write: `At the heart of the concept is the complete identification of employees with the aims and values of the business ­ employee involvement but on the company's terms. Power in the HRM system remains very integration, the desirability of gaining commitment, the virtues of partnership and participation and the key role of line managers are now generally accepted. However, the increasing emphasis on the business partnership role of HR at the expense of its function as an employee champion has been rightly criticized (Keegan and Francis, 2010). But the under- pinning theories are as relevant today as they ever were. As a description of people management activities in organizations, the term `HRM' is here to stay even if it is applied diversely or only used as a label to describe traditional personnel management prac- tices. Emphasis is now placed on the need for HR to be strategic and business-like and to add value, ie to generate extra value (benefit to the business) by the expenditure of effort, time or money on HRM activities. There have been plenty of new interests and developments including human capital manage- ment, engagement, talent management, competency- based HRM, e-HRM, high-performance work systems, and performance and reward management. But these have not been introduced under the