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15 Motivation > Motivation theories - Pg. 182

182 Part 2 People and organizations the meaning of motivation A motive is a reason for doing something. Motiva- tion is concerned with the strength and direction of behaviour and the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. The term `motivation' can refer variously to the goals individuals have, the ways in which individuals chose their goals and the ways in which others try to change their behaviour. Expectancy theory Expectancy theory states that motivation to per- form will be high when people know what they have to do to get a reward, expect that they will be able to get the reward and expect that the reward will be worthwhile. Motivation is only likely when a clearly perceived and usable relationship exists between performance and outcome, and the outcome is seen as a means of satisfying needs. Porter and Lawler (1968) spelt out that the level of effort was affected by the value of rewards and the probability that reward followed effort, but they pointed out that effort was not enough to achieve high perform- ance. Two additional factors affecting performance had to be taken into account: 1) ability ­ individual characteristics such as intelligence, knowledge, skills; and 2) role perceptions ­ what individuals want to do or think they are required to do. A model of their theory is shown in Figure 15.2. types of motivation A distinction is made between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation occurs when things are done to or for people to motivate them, including rewards such as incentives, increased pay, praise, or promotion, and punishments, such as disciplinary action, withholding pay, or criticism. Intrinsic motivation is provided by the work itself and is associated with the concept of engagement, as