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Part V. Controllers, Actuators, and Fina... > Chapter 34. Advanced Control for the... - Pg. 619

Chapter 34 Advanced Control for the Plant Floor Dr. James R. Ford, P. E. 34.1 IntroductIon Advanced process control (APC) is a fairly mature body of engineering technology. its evolution closely mirrors that of the digital computer and its close cousin, the modern micro- processor. APC was born in the 1960s, evolved slowly and somewhat painfully through its adolescence in the 1970s, flourished in the 1980s (with the remarkable advances in computers and digital control systems, or dCSs), and reached maturity in the 1990s, when model predictive control (MPC) ascended to the throne of supremacy as the preferred approach for implementing APC solutions. 1 and recovering the main distillable products, primarily kero- sene, heating oil, and lubricants. These processes were ini- tially batch in nature. A pot of oil was heated to boiling, and the resulting vapor was condensed and recovered in smaller batches. The first batch in the process was extremely light (virgin naphtha), and the last batch was heavy (fuel oil or lubricating oil). Eventually, this process was transformed from batch to continuous, providing a means of continuously feeding fresh oil and recovering all distillate products simultaneously. The heart of this process was a unit operation referred to as countercurrent, multicomponent, two-phase fractionation.