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A Saga of Atom Smashers > The International Linear Collider - Pg. 168

168 Enterprise Project Governance Accelerators (ECFA), which was set up to peer into the future by establishing working groups for related activities, including oversight. Effective governance policies were key to the success of the Large Hadron Collider project, which formally began conducting experiments in Septem- ber 2008 and quickly became the focus of the worldwide physics scientific community. Like Day and Night The SSC project in Texas was flawed from the beginning due to the lack of ap- propriate governance structure and insuffi cient evaluation of risks. Whereas studies indicate that the principal cause was "inadequate project management structure," the deficiency stemmed from poor governance policies and under- estimated challenges peculiar to such a mega project. To further complicate matters, many of the presumed international stakeholders had not bought into the project. On the other hand, CERN was born out of the European culture,