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G­1 Glossary Active Directory Microsoft's directory service, included with Windows servers, that provides a single point of administration and storage for user, group, and computer objects. Active matrix Flat-panel monitor technology that uses TFT to produce sharp images. AGP (Advanced Graphics Port) A video port used with Pentium-based computers. Alternating current (AC) Current that flows repeatedly back and forth through the circuit at a constantly varying voltage level. Amp (ampere) The unit of measure of amperage (the strength of a current of electricity). AppleTalk A suite of OSI upper-layer protocols from Apple Computer, used for connecting Macintosh computers and peripherals. Application layer Top layer of the OSI model. The layer in which applications on a network node (computer) access network services, such as file transfers, e-mail, and database access. Authentication The process by which your identity is validated against a database that contains your account. Typically, you present a set of credentials such as a user name and password. Backbone The main network cable to which other network segments connect. Bandwidth The amount of data that can travel over a communication line or wireless connection in a given amount of time. Bank A group of memory slots. You must fill all of the slots within a bank when installing memory. Typically, you must also use the same type and speed of memory within a bank. Base memory addresses A range of addresses that designate an area of memory in which extensions to the BIOS are stored. Basic partition A standard, or classic, partition. Compare to dynamic partition. Basic Rate Interface (BRI) An ISDN configuration intended for home-office and small-business users. Baud A measure of signal changes per second. The baud rate is analogous to the frequency of an analog wave. Binary The base-2 numbering system. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) The computer's firmware--a set of software instructions that are stored on a chip on the motherboard and that enable basic computer functions, such as getting input from the keyboard and mouse. Bluetooth A standard for short-range wireless communication and data synchronization between devices. Bus A communication pathway within a computer. A typical PC has four buses: the address, data, expansion, and video buses. Cable modem A device that connects a LAN to an ISP via the cable television connection. Card Information Structure (CIS) One of the software layers in the PC Card specification. It provides a method of data organization and data- recording-format compatibility for a variety of PC Cards. Card Services An API that enables the sharing of device drivers and other software by PC Cards and sockets. CardBus A PC Card bus that provides 32-bit bus mastering. Central gateway A connection device between a LAN and the Internet. Chipset One or more chips, packaged into a single unit and sold together, that perform a set of functions in a computer.