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How Botnets are Used > DoS and DDoS ATTACKS - Pg. 136

136 Chapter 4 · Big Bad Botnets "Normal" spam such as that relating to medicines, jewelry and timepieces, mortgage and financial loan offers, educational qualifications, sexual aids, cheap software. Often fraudulent but not necessarily so. Out and out fraud such as the many 419 variations, phishing mails, mule recruitment scams, pump and dump scams, and so on. Distribution of malware, including viruses and e-mail worms,Trojans, spy- ware, adware, keyloggers, backdoors, and (perhaps primarily) dissemination of bots to other systems and bot updates to systems already compromised. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks (usually for purposes of criminal extortion). Also, cloning attacks on IRC networks. Click fraud. Identity theft, including the theft, storage, and distribution of login IDs and pass- words, credit card numbers, and other sensitive data, phishing Web pages, and so on. Key harvesting and cracking and other processor-intensive activities using distributed processing across zombie machines. Traffic sniffing for clear text information such as usernames and passwords and even data relating to competing botnets ("Know your Enemy:Tracking Botnets," by the Honeynet Project and Research Alliance: see www.honeynet.org/papers/bots/).