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GlossaryofTerms·Glossary 393 K-Fold-Cross Validation When a classifier is learning a dataset, the dataset is divided into k subsets. The classifier then is trained on k-1 subsets and tested on one subset. The procedure is repeated k-1 times, where each subset is used exactly once in testing. Kernel The central and most trusted component of an operating system, responsible for managing system resources. L Linux An open source UNIX-like operating system. Logistic Regression (LR) A simple classifier, which is a member of generalized linear models and typically uses the logit function. M Machine Learning To build computer applications that can learn and improve from experience. Mailer A mass mailing tool (a.k.a., bulk mailer) that sends out large quantities of spoofed