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2. RFID Challenges > Counterfeiting - Pg. 340

340 Chapter 13 Counterfeiting As described earlier in the chapter, RFID tags can be classified into three categories based on the equipped computation power: basic tags, symmetric-key tags, and public-key tags. Symmetric-key and public-key tags can implement cryptography protocols for authentication with private key, and public keys, respectively. Basic tags are not capable of performing cryptography computation. Although they lack the capability to perform cryptography computation, they are most widely used for applications such as supply chain management and travel systems. With the widespread application of fully writable or even reprogrammable basic tags, counterfeiters can easily forge basic tags in real-world applications, and these counterfeit tags can be used in multiple places at the same time, which can cause confusion. The counterfeiting of tags can be categorized into two areas based on the technique used for tampering with tag data: modifying tag data and adding data to a blank tag. In real-world applications, we face counterfeit threats such as the following [17]: · · · · The attacker can modify valid tags to make them invalid or modify invalid tags to make them valid. The attacker can modify a high-priced object's tag as a low-priced object or modify a low-priced object's tag as a high-priced object. The attacker can modify an object's tag to be the same as the tags attached to other objects. The attacker can create an additional tag for personal reasons by reading the data from an authorized tag and adding this data to a blank tag in real-world applications, such as in a passport or a shipment of goods. Sniffing Another main issue of concern in deploying RFID systems is the sniffing problem. It occurs when third parties use a malicious and unauthorized RFID reader to read the information on RFID tags within their transmission range. Unfortunately, most RFID tags are indiscriminate in their responses to reading requests transmitted by RFID readers and do not have access control functions to provide any protection against an unauthorized reader. Once an RFID tag enters a sufficiently powered reader's field, it receives the reader's requests via radio frequency. As long as the request is well formed, the tag will reply to the request with the corresponding information on the tag. Then the holder of the unauthenticated reader may use this information for other purposes. Tracking With multiple RFID readers integrated into one system, the movements of objects can be tracked by fixed RFID readers [18]. For example, once a specific tag can be associated with a www.syngress.com