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Summary 57 to authenticate and possibly gain access to administrative functions. Logical access controls can help bridge this security gap. For example, administrators can implement logical access controls that only allow connection to administrative interfaces from IP addresses or management subnets that are predefined by the administrators. This allows legitimate admin- istrators to connect to the management interfaces and conduct their business but denies access to those connections that are not defined as part of the logical access control rules. Of course, there is always a caveat to what we think is a great plan. If one of the systems we defined as valid system to conduct administrative tasks with is compro- mised, an attacker will be able to circumvent the logical access controls altogether. This is why it is important to consider implementing controls in addition to logical access controls, such as the use of certificates for authentication. SuMMARy As discussed in the introduction, the use of penetration testing tools is a vital part of