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56 CHAPTER 4 Federal Effort to Secure Smart Grids The smart meter technology vendors are an easy target because they are the ones who developed the insecure devices. However, the utility companies should also take responsibility for not requiring a higher level of security from their partners. Chapter 9, "Third-Party Services," discusses in more detail the security implications and recommendations for dealing with technology vendors and third parties. Wireless Network Security Numerous wireless technologies will be used in smart grid deployments to facilitate the constant communication between the different smart grid entities. Wireless tech- nologies have been plagued by security vulnerabilities in the past and this will most likely continue with wireless technologies used in smart grids. As a result, the INL document recommends that more research needs to be performed on the particular wireless networks that will be used in smart grids. 8 Chapter 7, "Attacking the Utility Companies," and Chapter 12, "Attacking Smart Meters," contain more information on the wireless security issues of smart grids. NASPI Security Smart grids will utilize phasor measurement units (PMU) to monitor the power grid