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44 CHEMICAL SENSORS. VOLUME 6: CHEMICAL SENSORS APPLICATIONS Figure 1.21. Prototype of EC sensor module for the Lennartz electronic MOSES II EN system. Beside it is an EC (amperometric) gas sensor made by TSI, St. Paul, Minnesota. (Reprinted with permission from Stetter et al. 2000. Copyright 2000 Elsevier.) 9. APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONIC NOSES Odor is very important in food, beverage, pharmaceuticals, and personal care industries, so one can expect maximal application of electronic nose in these fields. The expectations of consumers regarding the quality of products in these fields are continually increasing as a result of a greater range of choices in the marketplace together with targeted advertising, which emphasizes product quality. Competition for market share and the added emphasis on quality have increased pressure on product development and rigorous quality control to meet consumer expectations. Due to their simplicity, rapidity, and objectiv- ity, electronic noses can be incorporated into instruments aimed for quality control, product matching, origin identification, spoilage detection, and flavor quantification. A particularly potent example is cof- fee, where the simplest electronic noses can make fine distinctions between blends (Gardner et al. 1992). Vintners have been able to identify wines by provenance as well as vintage (Guadarrama et al. 2000; Marti et al. 2005; Berna et al. 2008). Just like a human taster and odor controller, e-noses can be used for both quantitative and quali- tative applications. Quantitative applications include sensory score correlation and the measurement of the concentration of flavors or fragrances within a food or cosmetic product. Qualitative sensory applications include the determination of the origin and quality of raw materials and consistency of finished products (Tan et al. 2001). Electronic noses can be applied by food manufacturers to such tasks as freshness testing, quality control, and screening of incoming raw materials, not to mention feedback control to optimize bioreactors and minimize batch variation, and monitoring for accidental or