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Chapter 2: The Influence of National and... > RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - Pg. 29

The Influence of National and Organizational Cultures on Technology Use A three-item task equivocality scale, developed by Goodhue (1995), was adopted to measure the corresponding communication task equivocality. The Cronbach's alpha reliability for the three-item equivocality mean scale was generally satisfactory, ranging from .71 to .86. The cultural I/C variable was measured at the individual level using a nine-item scale derived from Earley's (1993) work. Two items were elimi- nated from subsequent analysis since they loaded highly on two factors. The reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of the resulting scale was 0.71. dimension of interest, rather than assuming that our subjects were representative of their own society based on Hofstede's dimensions. The results of such examination will be introduced in the next section. Furthermore, in order to rule out plausible rival hypotheses that may account for the observed differences, all factors that may have potential impact on technology use were included in our statistical analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Manipulation Checking of Group Differences on Cultural Dimension A t-test analysis revealed a significant difference in cultural I/C dimension between respondents in the headquarters and those in the subsidiaries, t (119) =-5.36, <0.001. The Asian respondents were more collectivistic (M=4.92) than those in the Australian headquarters (M=4.31). An ANOVA test also indicated that Australian respondents were significantly different from all three Asian countries (F (3,117) =11.65, p<0.001). Follow-up analysis has shown that there were no differences among the three Asian countries. Therefore, the planned comparison could be made. Homogeneity of Each Cultural Group To make a valid comparison between two cultural groups, it is necessary to establish the homogeneity of each cultural group of respondents in terms of their perceptions of and preferences for the tech- nologies. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure that samples from two different cultures are matched so that the samples are similar in all respects except culture (Adler, 1984). Majority participants from the Australian sample were ethnic Australians, New Zealand- ers, English, and American, with only four of them being of Chinese origin and one from India. However these five of non-Western ethnicity have resided in Australia for more than 20 years. Thus it is reasonable to treat them as a homogonous group. The Korean and Thai samples were all ethnic Korean and Thai. Although two-thirds of the Malaysian respondents were not ethically Malay- sians, they have resided in Malaysia for more than 20 years. Thus, it is reasonable to treat them as a homogonous group of Malays. Although Korea, Malaysia, and Thailand are different in terms of other factors, the explainable variable considered in this study, cultural I/C dimension, was similar, at least from Hofstede's perspective. However, in line with Myers and Tan (2002) and Gallivan and Srite (2005), we explicitly determined the culture values of our samples by measuring the Media Preference Patterns Between Headquarters and Subsidiaries In order to answer research question one, we first compared perceived media richness in each culture and across cultures. The results are pro- vided in Table 4. Four media were found to be significantly different from each other, except in Australia where face-to-face and telephone were perceived to be similar in terms of media richness. As found in prior studies, face-to-face was rated as having the highest media richness, followed by telephone, e-mail, and written document. The t-test results demonstrated that there were significant 29