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Chapter 14. VPNs and Cryptology > Cryptographic Processes in VPNs - Pg. 200

200 Cryptographic Processes in VPNs Chosen-ciphertext attack Attacker chooses the ciphertext and observes the cleartext output. This attack might not be very practical because it is often difficult or impossible to capture both the ciphertext and plaintext. Man-in-the-middle attack Attacker knows a portion of the plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext. The plaintext is encrypted with every possible key, and the results are stored. The ciphertext is then decrypted by using every key until one of the results matches one of the stored values. Cryptographic Processes in VPNs Cryptography provides key services to VPN technologies and solutions: Confidentiality The assurance that no one can read a particular piece of data except the receivers explicitly intended