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Part: 2 Separation Process Principles (I... > Physical Properties of Foods and Bio...

Appendix A.4. Physical Properties of Foods and Biological Materials

A.4-1. Heat Capacities of Foods (Average cp 273-373 K or 0-100°C)
MaterialH2O (wt %)cp (kJ/kg · K)
Apples75–853.73–4.02
Apple sauce 4.02[*]
Asparagus  
 Fresh933.94[†]
 Frozen932.01[‡]
Bacon, lean513.43
Banana purée 3.66[§]
Beef, lean723.43
Bread, white44–452.72–2.85
Butter152.30[¶]
Cantaloupe92.73.94[†]
Carrot88.23.81–3.94
Cheese, Swiss552.68[†]
Corn, sweet  
 Fresh 3.32[†]
 Frozen 1.77[‡]
Cream, 45–60% fat57–733.06–3.27
Cucumber974.10
Eggs  
 Fresh 3.18[†]
 Frozen 1.68[‡]
Egg yolk4.002.81
Fish, cod  
 Fresh703.18
 Frozen701.72[‡]
Flour12–13.51.80–1.88
Ice1001.958[||]
Ice cream  
 Fresh58–663.27[†]
 Frozen58–661.88[‡]
Lamb703.18[*]
Macaroni12.5–13.51.84–1.88
Milk, cows'  
 Whole87.53.85
 Skim913.98–4.02
Olive oil 2.01[**]
Oranges  
 Fresh87.23.77[†]
 Frozen87.21.93[‡]
Peas, air-dried141.84
Peas, green  
 Fresh74.33.31[†]
 Frozen74.31.76[‡]
Pea soup 4.10
Plums75–783.52
Pork  
 Fresh602.85[†]
 Frozen601.34[‡]
Potatoes753.52
Poultry  
 Fresh743.31[†]
 Frozen741.55[‡]
Sardines57.43.01
Sausage, franks  
 Fresh603.60[†]
 Frozen602.35[‡]
String beans  
 Fresh88.93.81[†]
 Frozen88.91.97[‡]
Tomatoes953.98[†]
Veal 633.22
Water 1004.185[**]
Source: W. O. Ordinanz, Food Ind., 18, 101 (1946); G. A. Reidy, Department of Food Science. Michigan State University, 1968; S. E. Charm, The Fundamentals of Food Engineering, 2nd ed. Westport, Conn.: Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1971; R. L. Earle, Unit Operations in Food Processing. Oxford: Pergamon Press, Inc., 1966; ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals. New York: ASHRAE, 1972, 1967; H. C. Mannheim, M. P. Steinberg, and A. I. Nelson, Food Technol., 9, 556 (1955).


[*] 32.8°C.

[†] Above freezing.

[‡] Below freezing.

[§] 24.4°C.

[¶] 4.4°C.

[||] 20°C.

[**] 20°C.


  

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