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VIRTUAL REALITY LEARNING ENVIRONMENT > VIRTUAL REALITY LEARNING ENVIRONMENT - Pg. 193

Visualization Skills in Engineering Education Table 4. Score of visualization skills test across gender Gender MPFBT Male Female 80.0 80.2 DAT:SR 78.8 77.7 Visualization Skills Test (%) TRANS 77.1 77.1 PSVT:R 73.4 71.3 64.1 62.4 MCT PSVT:D 68.2 66.3 Besides that, Vandenberg and Kuse (1978) found that male showed greater ability than females in spatial mental rotation task. Two studies were published in memory and cognition to determine the gender gap through Mental Rotation Test achievement (MRT). Based on this test, students asked to look at an object of 3-dimension. Then, they are given four answers (two rotation is the original object) to identify two appropriate alternative with the original ob- ject. These studies use the ratio of performance to conclude that gender differences for mental rotation skills are significantly reduced when the or orientation strategy while females prefer to use sign and route directions (Lawton, 1994; Geary, 1998). This study is consistent with the findings of Koenig (1999) which reveals that women's advantage is in relation to absolute space (location of the object) while the male advantage is in the space coordinating relations (distance and direc- tion). The holistic strategy has found to be most effective (i.e. less time consuming) in timed tests. Linn & Peterson (1985) therefore, concluded that "spatial strategy selection" is a factor in gender differences in mental rotation tasks. However, Hsi et. al. (1997) determined that spatial strategies can