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Chapter 37: Methodological Consideration... > PROCEDURES FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS OF A... - Pg. 617

Methodological Considerations for Quantitative Content Analysis of Online Interactions exploration, integration and resolution phases. They claimed that their model was not inconsis- tent with that of IAM. Although the general progressions of knowledge construction for both models were parallel, there were some differ- ences in terms of the sub-phases. As the model was only tested on three sets of online messages which amounted to only 95 messages, it was less descriptive than the IAM. In addition, Garrison and his colleagues argue that to improve the qual- ity of cognitive presence, appropriate teaching and social presence have to be in place. While most coding schemes focus on learner- learner interactions, the coding scheme for teach- ing presence includes specific categories for teachers' roles and activities (Anderson et al., 2001). The coding scheme includes three major categories (design and organization, facilitating discourse, and direct instruction), which could reveal teachers' facilitation and interaction pat- In summary, content analysis models devel- oped to date have tried to understand the rich data captured in online forum in different aspects. It is not uncommon to find that in a single study, the researchers may analyze several dimensions of the transcript before they draw inferences about the case they studied (for examples, see Chai & Tan, 2009; Henri, 1992; So, 2009; Weinberger & Fischer, 2006). In fact, researchers in this field generally agree that mixed method multidimen- sional analysis is necessary to provide in-depth understanding (Hmelo-Silver, 2003; Wegerif & Mercer, 1997). PROCEDURES FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS OF ASYNCHRONOUS ONLINE DISCUSSION From a review of generic content analysis methods