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The Sense of e-Learning Community Index (SeLCI) INTRODUCTION This chapter introduces the sense of community in Computer Supported Collaborative e-Learning (CSCeL). In this chapter, a community is a group of people who consciously share a sense of belong- ing anchored in common interests and enhanced by social interactions facilitated by information and communication technologies. E-Learning describes learning via the Internet, intranet, and extranet (WR Hambrecht and Co, 2000:8). In order to facilitate research and analysis, Teasley and Roschelle proposed a distinction between cooperation and collaboration clearly suggesting the importance of roles as division of labour in such distinction (1993): Collaboration is a coordinated, synchronous activity that is the result of a continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of education has been severely criticized on the grounds of both quantity and quality (Thomp- son & Schmidt, 2007). To support this life-long learning context, Learning Management Systems (LMS) have been used for online teachers' train- ing. A number of projects have addressed it using LMS successfully, for example, the international project `Tapped In' on a voluntary basis (Schlager & Fusco, 2004), the Australian National Quality Schooling Framework (NQSF) (Hartnell-Young, et al, 2006), or the European projects `Implement- ing Standards for European e-Tutor Training' (2006-2007) and `E-Learning Fundamentals' (started in May 2007). However, not all projects are successful; an example that failed to engage teachers in an e-learning community is the Eu- ropean Minerva Project `Star Science' aimed at collaboration between science teachers from Ire- land, UK, and Bulgaria (Harvey, 2003). In short, e-learning outcomes seem to be unpredictable.