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Chapter 8. Oscillators > Voltage-Controlled Oscillators

8.5. Voltage-Controlled Oscillators

Most oscillators must be tuned over a certain frequency range. We therefore wish to construct oscillators whose frequency can be varied electronically. “Voltage-controlled oscillators” (VCOs) are an example of such circuits.

Figure 8.24 conceptually shows the desired behavior of a VCO. The output frequency varies from ω1 to ω2 (the required tuning range) as the control voltage, Vcont, goes from V1 to V2. The slope of the characteristic, KVCO, is called the “gain” or “sensitivity” of the VCO and expressed in rad/Hz/V. We formulate this characteristic as


  

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