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Chapter 4: Aluminum- and Copper-Based Co... > 4.5 Reliability Concerns - Pg. 114

Figure 4.11 High-resolution SEM of a hillock formed in an aluminum 2% silicon metal line due to post metal deposition heat cycling. Deposition was at room temperature by planar magentron. (as is PECVD-deposited silicon nitride), then hillocks may form. The encapsulat- ing film can also lead to void formation. A study done by Yost et al. 12 indicates that