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Absolute object code file:

A file with all code and data at the fixed non-relocatable addresses.

Absolute segment:

A program or data segment with fixed not relocatable memory addresses.


Codes for the targeted project for an application.


A tool to develop and editing source file in assembly language and create list file and object file. The file has executable codes after linking/locating.


A point where a running program can be stopped for test purposes. Pressing any key or some action will restart the execution of remaining codes up to next breakpoint.


See Code burning.

Code bank:

A 64 kB code bank in 8051, when code size exceeds 64 kB. There can be 32 code banks.

Codes burning:

Actual action of programming each bit at successive addresses in a PROM or other device.

Code coverage:

The code that has been executed when debugging by single stepping or breakpoints. It can be displayed with a specific color in code coverage window.

Code optimization:

Means using suitable methods to reduce the code size or code execution speed or both.


A tool to develop and editing source file in high level language and create assembled source file, list file and object file. The object file is executable after linking/location


See IP Core.


An assembler assembling code, running on the host for assembling the machine codes for the target CPU.


A compiler running on the host compiling machine codes for the target CPU. Data type. Type of data, for examples, Boolean, SFR, char, int, short and float. Compiler does data type checking during compiling and assembling the assignments and expressions in a program corrected.


Finding a bug in the code. A bug means an error-causing code at the source file. The bug initially could be cared. The bug(s) is discovered after the testing and simulating the actions of the codes.

Development cycle:

A write-edit-test forms a development cycle in software development phase.


A microcontroller or peripheral IO or memory or memory system for a particular purpose or part of the application or application and the actions. Actions of device are controlled by the program codes sent or put into it or associated with it.


A database to select appropriate device for an application or project.

Device programmer:

A laboratory tool to burn in codes into the select device as per the hex-codes in the input.


Converter of object file machine codes to assembly mnemonics or high-level language statements.


When writing the source file codes, the editor facilitates easy cut, paste, copy, selection, moving, modifications and replacements of text with or without a help (by pointing errors)


A circuit to emulate IO, timer, serial port and other device functions of the target CPU and devices.


Part of code using arithmetic, logic and relational operators on the variables or functions and resulting in some value or true or false.


A formatted file, which saves the locator output for the bytes at each address in a device. The device is programmed according to the developed software by burning in the codes and data in the hex-file.


A circuit to emulate IO, timer, serial port and other device functions after connecting to serial port of the PC and to the adapter with the target CPU. The adapter brings out the internal signals to the serial port and computer. The computer hosts a source- level debugger.


An integrated software development tool, which is a powerful tool for selecting device(s) for an application, project management, make facility for developing codes using compiler and assembler, linking, locating and debugging. It uses menus, tools, Windows and dialog boxes during development.

In-circuit emulator:

See ICE.

Integrated development environment:

See IDE.

Interrupt Function:

An ISR in C.

IP Core:

Means a file in VHDL or Verilog format in place of IC, which is used for system development as single application specific VLSI system. The core is copyrighted for intellectual property protection. Most chips are available in IP Core form for application- specific integrated circuits (ASICs).


IEEE 1149.1 standard test access port and boundary-scan architecture, used initially suggested for the testing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) through the scan of test points at the PCB and nowadays is used for testing systems, circuit cards, ICs, MCUs and processors through the standard test access port.


A file of routines or macros having large number of the object code files, and that gives an object code file(s). The library is used to borrow the ready object codes during linking process for the source object files.


A tool to link object files into an absolute object code file. The file is executable after linking.


A tool to develop file. The file then has the machine codes, which are located at the addresses after they are burned in by the device programmer into the device(s).

Logic analyser:

An analyser to show and store after a trigger from a referenced signal. It can show as many as 256 transactions on the address and data buses.

Macro assembler:

An assembler which permits definition and invocation of macros. A macro forms a software building block, which inserts at the program segments before the object file is prepared.

Memory model:

A way of putting the variables in the registers, memory (internal, external).

Memory overlaying:

Reusing the memory after a particular code segment finishes the execution. This optimizes the code size.

Macro processor:

A processor the directives to which inserts the macro (s) and can also result in conditional assembling so that multiple applications can be developed.


A PROM resident program. It monitors the application system. Monitor includes all basic IO subsystem programs and ISRs. Monitor has codes for enabling application loading and code corrections, controlled execution of the program—full speed, single stepping and breakpoints interrupted and display of status of registers, internal RAM and memory addresses during the controlled running.

Object code:

Machine codes for the different absolute or relocatable addresses.


Execution time record for the functions and for the code between two addresses (or segments).


A device like interrupt, IO ports, timer, Serial IO, watchdog timer, ADC, DAC, CAN (controller area network) controller, I2C controller.

Reentrant function:

A function, which after return from the interrupt or diversion reenters into the same state of CPU, registers and variables as before leaving.

Relocatable object file:

An object file that can be allocated different addresses during linking or locating.


A program or data segment having a base address and defined size.


Seeing the effect on a computer using a tool without actually using a device(s).


An ASCII text file in assembly or C, which can be edited and which will be the source for creating object, list and map files.

Source-level debugging:

Displaying the complete line- number, symbol and type information from source (A51 or C51) for the program variables debugged during testing.

Target board:

A circuit with a monitor in memory and microcontroller and devices, which are close to the targeted devices and which are used in software and hardware debugging.


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