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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronyms and Abbreviations


2G

Second Generation


3G

Third Generation


4G

Fourth Generation


AA

Aluminium Association


AATA

American Air Transport Association


ABA

American Banking Association


ABC

American Blood Commission


ABS

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrol (see smart cards)


ADC

Automatic Data Capture


ADFA

Australian Defence Force Academy


ADS

* see ADSX


ADSX

Applied Digital Solutions


AfB

Association for Biometrics


AFDC

Aid to Families with Dependent Children


AFIM

Automated Fingerprint Recognition Machine


AFIS

Automated Fingerprint Identification System (see NAFIS also)


AFIRM

Automated Fingerprint Image Reporting and Match


AFMA

American Furniture Manufacturers Association


AFPA

Australian Federal Police Association


AGV

Automated Guided Vehicles


AHMA

American Hardware Manufacturers Association


AI

Application Identifier (bar code standards)


AI

Artificial Intelligence


AIAG

Automotive Industry Action Group


AIDC

Automatic Identification and Data Collection


AIM

Advanced Informatics Medicine (in the Europe)


AIM

Automatic Identification Manufacturers (in auto-ID)


ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


AMD

Aged Macular Degeneration


AMEX

American Express


ANA

Article Numbering Association


ANSI

American National Standards Institute


APA

American Pet Association


APACS

Association of Payment and Clearing Services


API

Application Programming Interface (see standards)


API

Automatic Personal Identification (see auto-ID)


API

American Paper Institute (bar code industry association)


APRIL

Army Personnel Rationalisation Individual Listings (in Britain)


APSCF

Asia Pacific Smart Card Forum


AR

Augmented Reality


ARPA

Advanced Research Projects Agency (see ARPANET also)


ARPANET

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network


ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange


ASK

Amplitude Shift Keying


ASR

Artificial Silicon Retina


ATA

Air Transport Authority (see IATA also)


ATA

American Trucking Association


ATM

Automatic Teller Machine


AVID

American Veterinary Identification Devices


AVIS

Automotive Vehicle Identification System


Auto-ID

Automatic Identification


BACS

Bankers Automated Clearing Services (in U.K.)


BART

Bay Area Rapid Transport (in San Francisco)


BCC

Border Crossing Card (in U.S./Mexico)


BCD

Binary Coded Decimal


BCI

Brain Computer Interaction


BHSUG

Biometrics in Human Service User Group


BIOTEST

Biometric Testing Services


bit

binary digit


bpi

Bits per Inch


BS

Base Station


BSE

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


BSI

British Standards Institute


BT

British Telecom


BWG

Bar Width Growth


C2G

Citizen-to-Government


CAD

Computer-Aided Design


CAFE

Conditional Access for Europe


CANPASS

Canadian Passenger Accelerated Service System


CAO

County Assistance Offices (in U.S.)


CATV

Cable Television


CBA

Canadian Bankers Association


CBD

Central Business District


CBDC

Commercial Biometrics Developer's Consortium


CBEFF

Common Biometric Exchange File Format


CCD

Charge-Coupled Device


CCMIS

Chip Card-based Medical Information System


CCTV

Closed Circuit Television


CD

Cash Dispensers


CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access


CDSA

Common Data Security Architecture


CEC

Chip Electronic Commerce


CEN

Comité Européen de Normalisation


CENELEC

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation


CEPS

Common Electronic Purse Specifications


CEPT

Conférence Européene de Postes et Télécommunications


CFIP

Code of Fair Information Practice


ch.

chapter


CHIPS

Clearinghouse Interbank Payment System


CIBC

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce


CITeR

Centre for Identification Technology Research


CITI

Centre for Information Technology Integration


CJIS

Criminal Justice Information Services


COS

Card Operating System


CPR

Central Population Register


CPU

Central Processing Unit


CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check


CRM

Customer Relationship Management


CRP

Central Register of Persons (Denmark)


CS

Composite Symbology


CTO

Chief Technology Officer


CVM

Centre for Veterinary Medicine


DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency


DCC

Distribution Code Centre


DCS

Digital Communication Services (also Digital Cellular System)


DECT

Digital European Cordless Telephone


DERA

Defence Evaluation Research Agency (in UK)


DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid


DNI

Documento Nacional de Identidad (Argentina)


DOD

Department of Defence


dpi

dots per inch


DPSS

Department of Public Social Services


DSD

Direct Store Delivery


DSS

Department of Social Services (in U.S.)


DTE

Data Terminal Equipment


DTR

Data Transfer Rate


E-cash

Electronic Cash


E-commerce

Electronic Commerce


EAN

European Article Number


EAS

Electronic Article Surveillance


EBT

Electronic Benefits Transfer


EC

Electronic Commerce


ECA

Electronic Commerce Association


EDI

Electronic Data Interchange


EDP

Electronic Data Processing


EEG

Electroencephalogram


EEPROM

Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory


EER

Equal Error Rate


EFT

Electronic Funds Transfer (see EFTPOS also)


EFTS

Electronic Funds Transfer Systems


EFTPOS

Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point of Sale


EIA

Electronics Industry Association


EIN

Event Identification Number (Peru)


ELP

Evaluated List of Products


EMI

Electromagnetic Interference


EMV

Europay, MasterCard, and Visa


ENIAC

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer


EPC

Electronic Product Code


EPS

Electronic Payment System


ERMS

Electronic Management System (in Britain)


ERP

Enterprise Resource Planning (in manufacturing)


ERP

Electronic Road Pricing (in Singapore)


ESP

Extra Sensory Perception


ETSI

European Telecommunications Standards Institute


ETTS

European Transport & Telematics Systems


EU

European Union


FACT

Federation of Automated Coding Technologies


FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions


FAR

False Accept Error Rate


FBI

Federal Bureau of Investigation


FCC

Federal Communications Commission (in U.S.)


FDA

Food and Drug Administration (in U.S.)


FedWire

Federal Reserve System


FIN

French Identification Number


FNMT

Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre


FPA

Flexible Packaging Association


FRAM

Ferroelectric Random Access Memory


FREFLEX

Force Reflecting Exoskeleton


FRR

False Reject Error Rate


FSK

Frequency Shift Keying


FSU

Florida State University


ft

footnote


FTC

Financial Transaction Card


FTC

Federal Trade Commission (see bar codes)


FTTC

Fibre to the Curb


FTTN

Fibre to the Neighbourhood


GA

General Assistance


GAO

General Accounting Office (in U.S.)


GCA

Graphic Communications Association


GHz

Gigahertz


GIN

German Insurance Number


GIS

Geographic Information Systems


GMA

Grocery Manufacturers of America


GMS

Generalised Matching Service (in U.K.)


GP

General Practitioner


GPRS

General Packet Radio Service


GPS

Global Positioning System


GR

General Relief


GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications


HA-API

Human Authentication Application Programming Interface


HCI

Human-Computer Interaction Hex Hexadecimal


HIBCC

Health Industry Business Communication Council


HIC

Health Insurance Commission (in Australia)


hico

High Coercivity


high-tech

High Technology


HP

Hewlett-Packard


HRS

Human Recognition Services (in biometrics)


HRV

Heart Rate Variability


HTML

Hypertext Markup Language


IACT

Information and Communication Technology


IAFIS

Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System


IAI

International Association for Identification


IATA

International Air Transport Association


IBIA

International Biometric Association


IBG

International Biometric Group


IC

Integrated Circuit


ICC

Integrated Circuit Card (see IC also)


ICMA

International Card Manufacturers Association


ICSA

International Computer Security Association (in U.S.)


ID

Identity; Identification


IDEA

Identification Electronique des Animaux (in Europe)


iDTV

Interactive Digital Television


IEC

International Electronic Commission


IGSANS

Integrated Global Surveillance And Navigation System


IMI

Information Management Institute


IN

Identification Number; Insurance Number


INCITS

InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards


INS

Immigration & Naturalisation Service (see INSPASS also)


INSPASS

Immigration, Naturalisation Service Passenger Accelerated Service System


I/O

Input/Output


IP

Intellectual Property (in patents)


IP

Internet Protocol


IPN

Insured Persons Number (Switzerland)


IPRP

Information Policy Research Program


IR

Infrared


IRR

Internal Rate of Return


IRS

Internal Revenue Service


IS

International Standard


IS

Information System


ISBN

International Standard Book Number


ISO

International Standards Organisation


ISP

Internet Service Provider


ISV

Independent Software Vendor


IT

Information Technology


ITL

Information Technology Laboratory


IT&T

Information Technology and Telecommunications


IVHS

Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems


IVR

Interactive Voice Response


JIT

Just-in-Time


JTC

Joint Technical Committee


kHz

Kilohertz


LAN

Local Area Network


LDC

Lesser Developed Countries


LED

Light Emitting Diode


LERTS

Leicester Environmental Road Tolling Scheme


LIS

Local Innovation Systems


loco

Low Coercivity


LOGMARS

Logistic Applications of Automated Marking and Reading Symbols


LoS

line-of-sight


LT

London Transit


m

metres


MAPS

Multimodal Access and Payment System (in transport)


MARC

Multi-technology Automated Reader Card


MDC

More Developed Countries


MEL

MULTOS Executable Language


MEMA

Motor & Equipment Manufacturing Association


MEMS

Microelectromechanical Systems


MFC

MultiFunction Card (IBM")


mHz

Megahertz


MICR

Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition


MIQR

Minimum Image Quality Requirements


MISC

Magnetics and Information Science Centre


MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


MLI

Multiple Laser Image


mm

Millimetres


MMS

Multimedia Messaging Service


MPEG-3

Moving Picture Experts Group-3


MRT

Mass Rapid Transport (in H.K.)


ms

milliseconds


N-Geners

Net Generation


NAB

National Australia Bank


NAFIS

National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (in U.K., see AFIS also)


NAO

National Audit Office (in U.K.)


NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation


NC

Numerically Controlled


NCP

National ChipCard Platform (NCP)


NCS

National Cash Service (in Japan)


NCSA

National Computer Security Association


NEMA

National Electrical Manufacturer's Association


NETS

Network for Electronic Transfer


NGN

Next Generation Networks


NIC

Newly Industrialised Countries


NIH

National Institute of Health (in the U.S.)


NIN

National Identification Number (in U.K.)


NIS

National Innovation Systems


NOPA

National Office Products Association


NPV

Net Present Value


NRI

National Registry Incorporated


NSA

National Security Agency


OCR

Optical Character Recognition


ODETTE

Organisation for Data Exchange by Tele Transmission in Europe


Oe

Oersted


OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturers


OPCC

Optical Product Code Council


OS

Operating System


OTP

One-Time Programmable


PAM

Pulse Amplitude Modulation


PAN

Personal Area Network


PAN

Primary Account Number (in magnetic-stripe cards)


PARIS

Pennsylvania Automated Recipient Identification System


PBS

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (in Australia)


PC

Personal Computer


PC

Polycarbonate (see smart cards)


PCM

Pulse Coded Modulation


PCMCIA

PC Memory Card Industry Association


PCN

Personal Communications Network


PCR

Polymarase Chain Reaction (in silicon)


PCS

Personal Communications Services


PDA

Personal Digital Assistant


PDF

Portable Data File


PERS

Personal Emergency Response System


PET

Polyethylene Terephthalate (see smart cards)


PIC

Personal Identification Code (Finland)


PID/SS

Personal ID for Social Services


PIN

Personal Identification Number


PIT

Passive Integrated Transponder (see Biomark)


PITO

Police Information Technology Organisation (in U.K.)


PKI

Public-key Infrastructure


PLC

Programmable Controllers


PLD

Personal Location Device (for microchip implants)


PN

Person Number (Norway, Sweden)


PNN

Police National Network (in U.K.)


PORTPASS

Port Passenger Accelerated Service System


POS

Point of Sale (see EFTPOS also)


PR

Public Relations


PSAM

Purchase Secure Application Modules


PSK

Phase Shift Keying


PTT

Post Telephone and Telegraph


PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride


PVV

PIN Verification Value


PWM

Pulse Width Modulation


QR

Quick Response


R&D

Research and Development


RAM

Random Access Memory


RAS

Remote Access Server


RF

Radio Frequency


RF/DC

Radio Frequency Data Communication


RFI

Request for Information (in tender process, see also RFP)


RFI

Radio Frequency Interference


RF/ID

Radio Frequency Identification (also known as RFID)


RFP

Request for Proposal


ROI

Return on Investment


ROM

Read Only Memory


RP

Retinitis Pigmentosa


RSI

Repetitive Strain Injury


RSS

Reduced Space Symbology


RTA

Roads and Traffic Authority (in Australia)


RTLS

Real-Time Locating System (see WhereNet)


RUN

Rol Unico Nacional (in Chile)


SAN

Social Account Number (in Austria)


SARS

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome


SC

Smart Card


SC

Sub-committee


SCF

Smart Card Forum


SCIA

Smart Card Industry Association


sci-fi

Science Fiction


SCM

Supply Chain Management


SDK

Software Development Kit


SEIS

Secured Electronic Information in Society


SEMP

Sociedad Espanola de Medios de Pago


SER

Substitution Error Rate


SET

Secure Electronic Transaction


SIBS

Sociedade Interbancaria de Servicos


SI

Systems of Innovation


SIA

Security Industry Association (in U.S.)


SIB

Sociedade Interbancaria de Servicos


SIM

Subscriber Identity Module (see UIM also)


SIN

Single Identifying Number


SIP

Session Initiation Protocol


SIS

Sectoral Innovation Systems


SMS

Short Message Service


SP

Service Provider


SRD

Short Range Devices (in RF/ID)


SSA

Social Security Administration (in U.S.)


SSCC

Serialised Shipping Container Code


SSN

Social Security Number (in U.S.)


SST

Social Shaping of Technology


STAC

Symbol Technical Advisory Committee


SUI

Standard Universal Identifier


SVAPI

Speaker Verification Application Programming Interface


SVC

Stored Value Card


SWIFT

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications


TA

Technology Assessment


TAB

Tape Automated Bonding (see smart cards)


TAFE

Tertiary And Further Education


TAPA

Terminal Architecture for PSAM Applications (see PSAM also)


TASS

Tarjeta de la Seguridad Social Espanola (in Spain)


TC

Technical Committee


TDI

Teledensity Index


TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access


TFN

Tax File Number (in Australia)


TIN

Taxpayer Identification Number (in U.S.)


TIRIS

Texas Instruments' Registration & Identification System


TS

Technological Systems


U-M

University of Michigan Card


UCC

Uniform Code Council (see also UPCC)


UCC

Uniform Commercial Code (in U.S. legal)


UEPS

Universal Electronic Payment System


UGPCC

Uniform Grocery Product Code Council


UID

Universal Identifiers


UIM

User Identity Module (see SIM also)


UIN

Universal Identification Number


UIS

Unique Identification System


ULI

Unique Lifetime Identifier; Universal Lifetime Identifier


UMI

Universal Multipurpose Identifier


UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


UPC

Universal Personal Communications (see UPT)


UPC

Universal Product Code


UPCC

Universal Product Code Council


UPI

Unique Personal Identifier


UPIM

Uniform Personal Identification Mark


UPN

Universal Personal Number


UPT

Universal Personal Telecommunications (known as UPC also)


V

Volts


VAR

Value-added Reseller


VAS

Value-added Services


VGA

Video Graphics Adaptor


VICS

Voluntary Inter-Industry Communications Standards


VOD

Video-on-Demand


VPN

Virtual Private Network


VR

Virtual Reality


VWPP

Visa Waiver Pilot Program (in biometrics)


WISE

Wireless and Internet Infrastructure Software Environment (see Xmarc)


WMATA

Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority


WPAN

Wireless Personal Area Network


WWII

World War Two


WWW

World Wide Web

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