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Notes

Notes

Chapter 1

ENDNOTES

[]

[] Brian Mahoney, "Now That's an Odd Bounce: Stern Reverts to Leather Ball," Columbus Dispatch (December 12, 2006).

[]

[] For a general overview. See Jay W. Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987); and, Julian Barling, Cary Li Cooper, Stewart Clegg (Eds.), the Sage Handbook of Organizational Behavior: Volumes l and 2 (San Francisco, CA: sage, 2009).

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, Hard Facts, Dangerous Half-Truths, and Total Nonsense: Profiting from Evidence-Based Management (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006). See also Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, "Management Half-Truths and Nonsense," California Management Review 48.3, (2006), pp. 77–100; and Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, Evidence-Based Management, Harvard Business Review (January, 2006), R0601E.

[]

[] Geert Hofslede. "Cultural Constraints in Management Theories," Academy of Management Executive 7 (1993), pp. 81–94.

[]

[] John Huey, "Managing in the Midst of Chaos," Fortune (April 5, 1993), pp. 38–18. See also Tom Peters, Thriving on Chaos (New York: Knopf, 1991); Jay R. Galbraith, Edward E. Lawler III, and Associates, Organizing for the Future: The New Logic for Managing Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993); William H. Davidow and Michael S. Malone, The Virtual Corporation: Structuring and Revitalizing the Corporation of the 21st Century (New York HarperBusiness, 1993); Charles Handy, The Age of Unreason (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994); Peter Drucker, Managing in a Time of Great Change (New York: Truman Talley, 1995); Peter Drucker, Management Challenges for the 21st Century (New York: Harper, 1999).

[]

[] For historical foundations see Jay A. Conger, Winning 'Em Over: A New Model for Managing in the Age of Persuasion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), pp. 180–181; Stewart D. Friedman, Perry Christensen, and Jessica DeGroot, "Work and Life: The End of the Zero-Sum Game," Harvard Business Review (November/December 1998), pp. 119–129; C. Argyris, "Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes," Harvard Business Review (May/June 1998), pp. 98–105.

[]

[] Robert B. Reich, "The Company of the Future," Fast Company (November 1998), p. 124ff.

[]

[] For more on mission statements see Patricia Jones and Larry Kahaner, "Say It and Live It: The 50 Corporate Mission Statements That Hit the Mark" (New York: Currency/Doubleday, 1995); John Graham and Wendy Havlick, Mission Statements: A Guide to the Corporate and Nonprofit Sectors (New York: Garland, 1995).

[]

[] James C. Collins and Jerry L. Porras, "Building Your Company's Vision," Harvard Business Review (September/October 1996), pp. 65–77.

[]

[] These mission statements and others are found on corporate Web sites.

[]

[] See Michel E. Porter, Competitive Strategy Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (New York: Free Press, 1980); Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (New York: Free Press, 1986); Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, "Strategic Intent," Harvard Business Review (May/June 1989), pp. 63–76; Richard A. D'Aveni, Hyper Competition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Managing (New York: Free Press, 1994).

[]

[] Edgar Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997); Edgar Schein, The Corporate Culture Survival Guide (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999). See also Terrence E. Daeal and Alan A. Kennedy, Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1982).

[]

[] Rajiv Dutta, "eBay's Meg Whitman on Building a Company's Culture." BusinessWeek (March 27, 2009): www.businessweek.com.

[]

[] Roger O. Crockett, "How P&G Finds—And Keeps—A Prized Workforce," BusinessWeek (April 20, 2009), p. 55.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] See the OCI and other resources at www.humansynergistics.com.

[]

[] Robert A. Cooke and J. L Szurnal, "Measuring Normative Beliefs and Shared Behavioral Expectations in Organizations: The Reliability and Validity of the Organizational Culture Inventory," Psychological Reports 72 (1993), pp. 1299–1330.

[]

[] Ibid; Robert A. Cooke and J. L. Szurnal, "Using the Organizational Culture Inventory to Understand the Operating Cultures of Organizations," in N. M. Ashkanasy, C. P. M. Wilerom, and M. F. Peterson (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000), pp. 147–162.

[]

[] A baseline report on diversity in the American workplace is Workforce 2000: Work and Workers in the 21st Century (Indianapolis: Hudson Institute, 1987). For comprehensive discussions see Martin M. Chemers, Stuart Oskamp, and Mark A. Costanzo, Diversity in Organization: New Perspectives for a Changing Workplace (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1995); Robert T. Golembiewski, Managing Diversity in Organizations (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995).

[]

[] See Taylor Cox Jr., "The Multicultural Organization," Academy of Management Executive 5 (1991), pp. 34–47; Cultural Diversity in Organizations: Theory, Research and Practice (San Francisco: Bernett-Koehler, 1993).

[]

[] R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr., Beyond Race and Gender (New York: AMACOM, 1992), p. 10; see also R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr., "From 'Affirmative Action' to 'Affirming Diversity,'" Harvard Business Review (November/December 1990), pp. 107–117; R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr., with Marjorie I. Woodruff, Building a House for Diversity (New York: AMACOM, 1999).

[]

[] "In CEO pay, Another Gender Gap," BusinessWeek (November 24, 2008), p. 22; "The View from the Kitchen Table," Newsweek (January 26, 2009), p. 29; and, Del Jones, "Women Slowly Gain on Men," USA Today (January 2, 2009), p. 6B; Catalyst research reports at www.catalyst.org; "Nicking the Glass Ceiling," BusinessWeek (June 9, 2009), p. 18.

[]

[] We're Getting Old," The Wall Street Journal (March 26, 2009), p. D2; and Les Christie, "Hispanic Population Boom Fuels Rising U.S. Diversity," CnnMoney: www.cnn.com; and Betsy Towner, "The New Face of 50+ America," AARP Bulletin (June, 2009), p. 31. See also U.S. Census Bureau reports at www.factfinder.census.gov.

[]

[] Cox, op. cit.; Thomas, 1990, 1992, op. cit.

[]

[] Thomas and Woodruff (1991).

[]

[] See Thomas and Woodruff, op. cit; Thomas, 1990, 1992, op. cit.

[]

[] "In CEO Pay, another Gender gap, "op. cit.; Jones, op. cit.; Catalyst, op. cit.

[]

[] William M. Bulkeley, "Xerox Names Burns Chief as Mulcahy Retires Early," The Wall Street Journal (May 22, 2009), pp. B1, B2.

[]

[] For more on the management process, see John R. Schermerhorn Jr., Management, 10th ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010).

[]

[] The review is from Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row, 1973). For related and further developments, see Morgan W. McCall Jr., Ann M. Morrison, and Robert L. Hannan, Studies of Managerial Work: Results and Methods, Technical Report No. 9 (Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership, 1978); John P. Kotter, The General Managers (New York: Free Press, 1982); Fred Luthans, Stuart Rosenkrantz, and Harry Hennessey, "What Do Successful Managers Really Do?" Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 21.2 (1985), pp. 255–270; Robert E. Kaplan, The Warp and Woof of the General Manager's Job, Technical Report No. 27 (Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership, 1986); Fred Luthans, Richard M. Hodgetts, and Stuart A. Rosenkrantz, Real Managers (New York: HarperCollins, 1988).

[]

[] Mintzberg (1973). See also Henry Mintzberg, Mintzberg on Management (New York: Free Press, 1989); "Rounding Out the Manager's Job," Sloan Management Review (Fall 1994), pp. 11–26.

[]

[] Kotter (1982), "What Effective General Managers Really Do," Harvard Business Review 60 (November/December 1982), p. 161. See Kaplan (1986).

[]

[] Herminia Ibarra, "Managerial Networks," Teaching Note: 9-495-039, Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA.

[]

[] Robert L. Katz, "Skills of an Effective Administrator, Harvard Business Review 52 (September/October 1974), p. 94. See also Richard E. Royatzis, The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance (New York: Wiley, 1982).

[]

[] Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam, 1995); Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam, 1998). See also Daniel Goleman "What Makes a Leader," Harvard Business Review (November/December 1998), pp. 93–102; and "Leadership That Makes a Difference," Harvard Business Review (March/April 2000), pp. 79–90, quote from p. 80.

[]

[] Archie B. Carroll, "In Search of the Moral Manager," Business Horizons (March/April 2001), pp. 7–15.

[]

[] Mahzarin R. Banagji, Max H. Bazerman, and Dolly Chugh, "How (Un)ethical are You?" Harvard Business Review (December 2003).

[]

[] Terry Thomas, John R. Schermerhorn Jr., and John W. Dinehart, "Strategic Leadership of Ethical Behavior in Business," Academy of Management Executive (2004).

[]

[] See Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline (New York: Harper, 1990); D. A. Garvin, "Building a Learning Organization," Harvard Business Review (November/December 1991), pp. 78–91; Chris Argyris, On Organizational Learning, 2nd ed. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1999).

[]

[] For a discussion of experiential learning, see D. Christopher Kayes, "Experiential Learning and Its Critics: Preserving the Role of Experience in Management Learning and Education," Academy of Management Learning and Education 1.2, (2002), pp. 137–149.

[]

[] Institute for Learning Styles, Perceptual Modality Preferences Survey: www.learningstyles.org.

[]

[] Ibid.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/NBA: Information and quotations from "Stern Willing to Listen to Complaints about Ball," Columbus Dispatch (December 6, 2006); "Spalding NBA Basketball," BusinessWeek (December 18, 2006), p. 94; Roscoe Nance, "Bounced: NBA Scraps New Ball," USA Today (December 12, 2006), pp. 1c, 3c.

Ethics in OB: Rakesh Khuran and Nitin Horia, "It's Time to Make Management a True Profession," Harvard Business Review (October, 2008), pp. 70–77; Daniel Trotta, "Frustrated Americans Cheer Obama's Tough Auto Moves," Reuters (March 30, 2009): www.reuters.com.

Leaders on Leadership: Information and quotes from Stacy Perman, "Scones and Social Responsibility," BusinessWeek (August 21/28, 2006), p. 38; and www.dancingdeer.com.

Mastering Management: Reported in Eric Schmidt and Hal Varian, "Google: Ten Golden Rules," Newsweek (December 2, 2005); reported on msnbc.com (retrieved September 17, 2006).

MARGIN PHOTOS

Global Forum for Responsible Management Education—Information from "Academic Leaders from 43 Countries Renew Commitment to Responsible Management Education," The Levin Institute (December 5, 2008): www.levin.suny.edu/globalforum. Overflowing Brain—Torkel Klingberg, The Overflowing Brain: Information Overload and the Limits of Working Memory (New York: Oxford Univerity Press, 2009); Umsobomvu Youth Fund/Malose Kekana— Information from Sharon Shinn, "The Business of Dreams," BiZEd (November/December, 2008), pp. 18–24.

Chapter 2

ENDNOTES

[]

[] Betsy Morris, "Xerox's Dynamic Duo," Fortune (Nov. 19, 2007), accessed online at http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/10/15/100536857/index.htm.

[]

[] See Dorothy Leonard and Susan Strauss, "Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work," Harvard Business Review 75.4 Jul-Aug 1997, pp. 110–121. Also, Daniel Pink's A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers Will Rule the Future (New York: Riverhead Books, 2005).

[]

[] Viktor Gecas, "The Self-Concept," in Annual Review of Sociology 8, ed. Ralph H. Turner and James F. Short Jr. (Palo Alto, CA: Annual Review, 1982), p.3. Also see Arthur P. Brief and Ramon J. Aldag, "The Self in Work Organizations: A Conceptual Review," Academy of Management Review (January 1981), pp. 75–88; Jerry J. Sullivan, "Self Theories and Employee Motivation," Journal of Management (June 1989), pp. 345–363.

[]

[] Compare Philip Cushman, "Why the Self Is Empty," American Psychologist (May 1990), pp. 599–611.

[]

[] Based in part on a definition in Gecas, 1982, p. 3.

[]

[] Suggested by J. Brockner, Self-Esteem at Work (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988), p. 144; John A. Wagner III and John R. Hollenbeck, Management of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1992), pp. 100–101.

[]

[] See N. Brody, Personality: In Search of Individuality (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1988), pp. 68–101; C. Holden, "The Genetics of Personality," Science (August 7, 1987), pp. 598–601.

[]

[] See Geert Hofstede, 1984.

[]

[] Chris Argyris, Personality and Organization (New York: Harper & Row, 1957); Daniel J. Levinson, The Seasons of a Man's Life (New York: Knopf, 1978); Gail Sheehy, New Passages (New York: Ballantine Books, 1995).

[]

[] R. Jacob, "The Resurrection of Michael Dell," Fortune (August 1995), pp. 117–128.

[]

[] M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount, "The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance: A Meta Analysis," Personnel Psychology 44 (1991), pp. 1–26; M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount, "Autonomy as a Moderator of the Relationships between the Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance," Journal of Applied Psychology (February 1993), pp. 111–118.

[]

[] See Jim C. Nunnally, Psychometric Theory, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978), Chapter 14.

[]

[] See "Computerized Personality Tests Spawn a Culture of Cheating," from The Wall Street Journal, posted on Ethics Newsline on Jan. 12, 2009. http://www.globalethics.org/newsline/2009/01/12/personality-tests-2/print/. "Nearly One-Fourth of Workers Admit to Lying About Lateness," posted on Ethics Newsline, May 19, 2008. http://www.globalethics.org/newsline/2008/05/19/lying-about-lateness/. "One-Third of Workers 'Called in Sick With Fake Excuses in the Last Year': Survey," posted on Ethics Newsline, December 4, 2006. http://www.globalethics.org/newsline/2006/12/04/one-third-of-workers-called-in-sick-with-fake-excuses-in-the-last-year-survey/. Mary Uhl-Bien, "The Demands on Ethics and Leadership," Report of the Gallup Leadership Institute at the College of Business Administration, University of Nebraska, 2007.

[]

[] See David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing Management Skills, 3rd ed. (New York: HarperCollins, 1995), p. 72.

[]

[] Raymond G. Hunt, Frank J. Kryzstofiak, James R. Meindl, and Abdalla M. Yousry, "Cognitive Style and Decision Making," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 44.3 (1989), pp. 436–453. For additional work on problem-solving styles, see Ferdinand A. Gul, "The Joint and Moderating Role of Personality and Cognitive Style on Decision Making," Accounting Review (April 1984), pp. 264–277; Brian H. Kleiner, "The Interrelationship of Jungian Modes of Mental Functioning with Organizational Factors: Implications for Management Development," Human Relations (November 1983), pp. 997–1012; James L. McKenney and Peter G. W. Keen, "How Managers' Minds Work," Harvard Business Review (May–June 1974), pp. 79–90.

[]

[] Some examples of firms using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicators are given in J. M. Kunimerow and L. W. McAllister, "Team Building with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Case Studies," Journal of Psychological Type 15 (1988), pp. 26–32; G. H. Rice Jr. and D. P. Lindecamps, "Personality Types and Business Success of Small Retailers," Journal of Occupational Psychology 62 (1989), pp. 177–182; B. Roach, Strategy Styles and Management Types: A Resource Book for Organizational Management Consultants (Stanford, CA: Balestrand, 1989).

[]

[] J. B. Rotter, "Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement," Psychological Monographs 80 (1966), pp. 1–28.

[]

[] See J. Michael Crant, "Proactive Behavior in Organizations," Journal of Management 26 (2000), pp. 435–462. See also T. S. Bateman, and J. M. Crant, "The proactive component of organizational behavior," Journal of Organizational Behavior 14 (1993), pp. 103–118.

[]

[] Don Hellriegel, John W. Slocum Jr., and Richard W. Woodman, Organizational Behavior, 5th ed. (St. Paul, MN: West, 1989), p. 46; Wagner and Hollenbeck (1992), Chapter 4.

[]

[] Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. George Bull (Middlesex, UK: Penguin, 1961).

[]

[] Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis, Studies in Machiavellianism (New York: Academic Press, 1970).

[]

[] See M. Snyder, Public Appearances/Private Realities: The Psychology of Self-Monitoring (New York: Freeman, 1987).

[]

[] Snyder, 1987.

[]

[] Adapted from R. W. Bonner, "A Short Scale: A Potential Measure of Pattern A Behavior," Journal of Chronic Diseases 22 (1969). Used by permission.

[]

[] See Meyer Friedman and Ray Roseman, Type A Behavior and Your Heart (New York: Knopf, 1974). For another view, see Walter Kiechel III, "Attack of the Obsessive Managers," Fortune (February 16, 1987), pp. 127–128.

[]

[] Arthur P. Brief, Randall S. Schuler, and Mary Van Sell, Managing Job Stress (Boston: Little, Brown, 1981).

[]

[] See Orlando Behling and Arthur L. Darrow, Managing Work-Related Stress (Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1984).

[]

[] Behling and Darrow, 1984.

[]

[] M. J. Burke, A. P. Brief, and J. M. George, "The Role of Negative Affectivity in Understanding Relations between Self-Reports of Stressors and Strains: A Comment on the Applied Psychology Literature," Journal of Applied Psychology 78 (1993), pp. 402–412; D. Watson and L. A. Clark, "Negative Affectivity: The Disposition to Experience Aversive Emotional States" Psychological Bulletin 96 (1984), pp. 465–490.

[]

[] A review of research is available in Steve M. Jex, Stress and Job Performance (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998).

[]

[] "Couples Dismayed at Long Workdays, New Study Finds," Columbus Dispatch (January 23, 1999), p. 5A.

[]

[] See H. Selye, The Stress of Life, rev. ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976).

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998). Quotations are from Alan M. Webber, "Danger: Toxic Company," Fast Company (November 1998), p. 152.

[]

[] See John D. Adams, "Health, Stress and the Manager's Life Style," Group and Organization Studies 6 (1981), pp. 291–301.

[]

[] See Susan Folkman "Personal Control and Stress and Coping Processes: A Theoretical Analysis," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1984, Vol. 46, No. 4, p. 844.

[]

[] "Attitude is Everything," adapted by Rachel Fleming '00 from the pamphlet "Your Attitude and You" by Channing L. Bete Co., Inc. copyright Academic Skills Center, Dartmouth College 2001. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/stress.html, accessed May 5, 2009.

[]

[] Information from Mike Pramik, "Wellness Programs Give Businesses Healthy Bottom Line," Columbus Dispatch (January 18, 1999), pp. 10–11.

[]

[] Pramik, 1999.

[]

[] Pfeffer, 1998.

[]

[] See P. E. Jacob, J. J. Flink, and H. L. Schuchman, "Values and Their Function in Decision Making," American Behavioral Scientist 5, suppl. 9 (1962), pp. 6–38.

[]

[] See M. Rokeach and S. J. Ball Rokeach, "Stability and Change in American Value Priorities, 1968–1981," American Psychologist (May 1989), pp. 775–784.

[]

[] Milton Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973).

[]

[] See W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, "The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications," Business Ethics Research Issues and Empirical Studies, ed. W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–144.

[]

[] Gordon Allport, Philip E. Vernon, and Gardner Lindzey, Study of Values (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931).

[]

[] Adapted from R. Tagiuri, "Purchasing Executive: General Manager or Specialist?" Journal of Purchasing (August 1967), pp. 16–21.

[]

[] Bruce M. Meglino and Elizabeth C. Ravlin, "Individual Values in Organizations: Concepts, Controversies and Research," Journal of Management 24 (1998), pp. 351–389.

[]

[] Meglino and Ravlin, 1998.

[]

[] Daniel Yankelovich, New Rules! Searching for Self-Fulfillment in a World Turned Upside Down (New York: Random House, 1981); Daniel Yankelovich, Hans Zetterberg, Burkhard Strumpel, and Michael Shanks, Work and Human Values: An International Report on Jobs in the 1980s and 1990s (Aspen, CO: Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, 1983); William Fox, American Values in Decline: What We Can Do (Gainesville, FL: 1st Books Library, 2001).

[]

[] See D. Jamieson and Julia O'Mara, Managing Workplace 2000 (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991), pp. 28–29.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, 2nd ed. (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 2001); Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden- Turner, Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Global Business, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998). For an excellent discussion of culture, see also "Culture: The Neglected Concept," in Social Psychology Across Cultures, 2nd ed., Peter B. Smith and Michael Harris Bond (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1998). See also Michael H. Hoppe, "An Interview with Geert Hofstede," Academy of Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 75–79; Harry C. Triandis, "The Many Dimensions of Culture," Academy of Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 88–93.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind (London: McGraw-Hill, 1991).

[]

[] Hofstede, 2001; Geert Hofstede and Michael H. Bond, "The Confucius Connection: From Culture Roots to Economic Growth," Organizational Dynamics 16 (1988), pp. 4–21.

[]

[] Hofstede, 2001.

[]

[] Chinese Culture Connection, "Chinese Values and the Search for Culture-Free Dimensions of Culture," Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 18 (1987), pp. 143–164.

[]

[] Hofstede and Bond, 1988; Geert Hofstede, "Cultural Constraints in Management Theories," Academy of Management Executive 7 (1993), pp. 81–94. For a further discussion of Asian and Confucian values, see also Jim Rohwer, Asia Rising: Why America Will Prosper as Asia's Economies Boom (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995).

[]

[] For an example, see John R. Schermerhorn Jr. and Michael H. Bond, "Cross-Cultural Leadership Dynamics in Collectivism + High Power Distance Settings," Leadership and Organization Development Journal 18 (1997), pp. 187–193.

[]

[] Accessed May 5, 2009 from http://www.diversityhotwire.com/business/diversity_statistics.html#fem_workforce.

[]

[] Rob McInnes, "Workforce Diversity: Changing the Way You Do Business," accessed May 3, 2009 from http://www.diversityworld.com/Diversity/workforce_diversity.htm.

[]

[] Adapted from Rob McInnes, Diversity World www.diversityworld.com.

[]

[] Accessed May 4, 2009 from http://www.catalyst.org/publication/207/women-in-management-1950-present. Note: this category excludes farm.

[]

[] See Lois Joy, "Advancing Women Leaders: The Connection between Women Corporate Board Directors and Women Corporate Officers." Catalyst, 2008. email: info@catalyst.org; www.catalyst.org.

[]

[] Joy, 2008.

[]

[] See Catalyst report "The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't," 2007. email: info@catalyst.org; www.catalyst.org.

[]

[] http://www.catalyst.org/publication/132/us-women-in-business, published in March 2009.

[]

[] Joy, 2008.

[]

[] See Lynda Gratton "Inspiring Women: Corporate Best Practice in Europe," The Lehman Brothers Centre for Women in Business, 2007.

[]

[] See Catalyst report "The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't," 2007. email: info@catalyst.org; www.catalyst.org.

[]

[] See Catalyst report "The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't," 2007. email: info@catalyst.org; www.catalyst.org.

[]

[] See Catalyst report "The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't," 2007. email: info@catalyst.org; www.catalyst.org.

[]

[] See Catalyst report "The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't," 2007. email: info@catalyst.org; www.catalyst.org; "The Leaking Pipeline: Where are our Female Leaders?" Pricewaterhouse Coopers report, March 2008. PwC Gender Advisory Council, www.pwc.com/women.

[]

[] Accessed May 5, 2009 from http://www.eeoc.gov/types/race.html.

[]

[] See Katharine Esty, "From Diversity to Inclusion," April 30, 2007, http://www.boston.com/jobs/nehra/043007.shtml, downloaded May 3, 2009.

[]

[] Esty, 2007.

[]

[] See Henri Tajfel and John Turner, (1979), "An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict," in Austin, G. William; Worchel, Stephen. The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole. pp. 94–109.

[]

[] See Carol Mithers, "Workplace Wars," in Ladies' Home Journal, May 2009, pp. 104–109.

[]

[] Mithers, 2009.

[]

[] http://www.accessiblesociety.org/topics/ada/index.htm

[]

[] http://www.accessiblesociety.org/topics/ada/index.htm

[]

[] Fernandez (1991); Patrick Digh, "Finding New Talent in a Tight Market," Mosaics 4.3 (March–April, 1998), pp. 1, 4–6.

[]

[] See Fernandez, 1991, p. 236; "Diversity News: Age Discrimination Unrest in Britain," Mosaics 4.2 (March-April 1998), p. 4.

[]

[] http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/about-stephen/questionsandanswers.

[]

[] http://www.pollingreport.com/civil.htm.//

[]

[] See Lauren Prince, "Marketers: Buying Power of Gays to Exceed $835 Billion." Dec. 8, 2007. Accessed May 4, 2009 from http://www.gfn.com/recordDetails.php?page_id=19&section_id=18&pcontent_id=2,//

[]

[] http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-orientation_parent_marital_political.html.

[]

[] See "The Workplace Improves for Gay Americans," Dec. 17, 2007 GFN News. Accessed May 5, 2009 from http://www.gfn.com/recordDetails.php?page_id=19&section_id=22&pcontent_id=18.

[]

[] See "Where Are The Gay-Friendly Companies?" accessed Jan. 11, 2008 from http://www.gfn.com/recordDetails.php?page_id=19&section_id=22&pcontent_id=152.

[]

[] See "The Workplace Improves for Gay Americans," Dec 17, 2007 GFN News. Accessed May 5, 2009 from http://www.gfn.com/recordDetails.php?page_id=19&section_id=22&pcontent_id=18.

[]

[] See "The Workplace Improves for Gay Americans," Dec 17, 2007 GFN News. Accessed May 5 2009 from http://www.gfn.com/recordDetails.php?page_id=19&section_id=22&pcontent_id=18.

[]

[] See "Where Are The Gay-Friendly Companies?" Jan 11, 2008. Accessed from http://www.gfn.com/recordDetails.php?page_id=19&section_id=22&pcontent_id=152.

[]

[] http://www.catalystwomen.org/press_room/factsheets/factwoc3.htm. Accessed May 4, 2009.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Betsy Morris, "Xerox's Dynamic Duo," Fortune (Nov. 19, 2007), accessed online at http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/10/15/100536857/index.htm.

Research Insight: Arvey, R., Zhang, Z., Avolio, B., and Krueger, R. (2007). Developmental and Genetic Determinants of Leadership Role Occupancy among Women. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 693–706.

Ethics in OB: See "Computerized Personality Tests Spawn a Culture of Cheating," from The Wall Street Journal, posted on Ethics Newsline on Jan. 12, 2009.

http://www.globalethics.org/newsline/2009/01/12/personality-tests-2/print/. "Nearly One-Fourth of Workers Admit to Lying About Lateness," posted on Ethics Newsline, May 19, 2008.

Mastering Management: "Attitude is Everything," adapted by Rachel Fleming '00 from the pamphlet "Your Attitude and You" by Channing L. Bete Co., Inc. copyright Academic Skills Center, Dartmouth College 2001.http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/stress.html, accessed May 5, 2009.

Leaders on Leadership: http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/about-stephen/questionsandanswers.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Whole Brain—See Dorothy Leonard and Susan Strauss, "Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work," Harvard Business Review 75.4 Jul-Aug 1997, pp. 110–121. Also, Daniel Pink's A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers Will Rule the Future (New York: Riverhead Books, 2005).

Chapter 3

ENDNOTES

[]

[] These concept definitions and discussions are based on J. M. George, "Trait and State Affect," p. 45 in Individual Differences in Behavior in Organizations, ed. K. R. Murphy (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996); N. H. Frijda, "Moods, Emotion Episodes and Emotions," pp. 381–403 in Handbook of Emotions, M. Lewis and J. M. Haviland (ed.) (New York: Guilford Press, 1993); H. M. Weiss and R. Cropanzano, "Affective Events Theory: A Theoretical Discussion of the Structure, Causes, and Consequences of Affective Experiences at Work," pp. 17–19 in Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, eds. B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996); P. Ekman and R. J. Davidson, eds., The Nature of Emotions: Fundamental Questions (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1994); Frijda, 1993, p. 381.

[]

[] For an example see Mary Ann Hazen, "Grief and the Workplace," Academy of Management Perspective, Vol. 22 (August 2008), pp. 78–86.

[]

[] J. A. Fuller, J. M. Stanton, G. G. Fisher, C. Spitzmuller, S. S. Russell, and P. C. Smith, "A Lengthy Look at the Daily Grind: Time Series Analysis of Events, Mood, Stress, and Satisfaction," Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (2003), pp. 1019–1033; C. J. Thoreson, S. A. Kaplan, A. P. Barsky, C. R. Warren, and K. de Chermont, "The Affective Underpinnings of Job Perceptions and Attitudes; A Meta-Analytic Review and Integration," Psychological Bulletin 129 (2003), pp. 914–925.

[]

[] Daniel Goleman, "Leadership That Gets Results," Harvard Business Review (March-April 2000), pp. 78–90. See also his books Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1995) and Working with Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1998).

[]

[] See Davies, L. Stankow and R. D. Roberts "Emotion and Intelligence: In Search of an Elusive Construct," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75 (1998), pp. 989–1015; I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Clinton (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001); Goleman, op. cit. (2000).

[]

[] Goleman, op. cit. (1998).

[]

[] J. P. Tangney and K. W. Fischer, eds., "Self-conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment and Price (New York: Guilford Press 1995); J. L. Tracy and R. W. Robbins, "Putting the Self into Self-Conscious Emotions: A Theoretical Model," Psychological Inquiry 15 (2004), pp. 103–125; D. Keltner and C. Anderson, "Saving Face for Darwin: The Functions and Uses of Embarrassment," Current Directions in Psychological Science 9 (2000), pp. 187–192; J. S. Beer, E. A. Heery, D. Keltner, D. Scabini, and R. T. Knight, "The Regulatory Function of Self-Conscious Emotion: Insights from Patients with Orbitofrontal Damage," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (2003), pp. 594–604; R. P. Vecchio, "Explorations of Employee Envy: Feeling Envious and Feeling Envided," Cognition and Emotion 19 (2005), pp. 69–81; C. F. Poulson II, "Shame and Work," pp. 490–541 in Emotions in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice, eds. N. M. Ashkanasy, W. Zerby, and C. E. J. Hartel (Westport, CT: Quorum Books).

[]

[] Diane Brady, "Charm Offensive," BusinessWeek (June 26, 2006), pp. 76–80.

[]

[] Lewis and Haviland, op. cit.

[]

[] Damon Darlin and Matt Richtel, "Chairwoman Leaves Hewlett in Spying Furor," The Wall Street Journal (September 23, 2006), pp. A1, A9.

[]

[] R. E. Lucas, A. E. Clark, Y. Georgellis, and E. Deiner, "Unemployment Alters the Set Points for Life Satisfaction," Psychological Science 15 (2004), pp. 8–13; C. Graham, A. Eggers, and S. Sukhtaner, "Does Happiness Pay?: An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia," Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization Vol. 55 (November 2004), pp. 319–342; C. J. Howell, R. T. Howell, and K. A. Schwabe, "Does Wealth Enhance Life Satisfaction for People Who Are Materially Deprived?: Exploring the Association among the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia," Social Indicators Research (in press, 2006); G. L. Clore, N. Schwartz, and M. Conway, "Affective Causes and Consequences of Social Information Processing," pp. 323–417 in Handbook of Social Cognition, Vol. 1, eds. R. S. Wyer Jr. and T. K. Srull (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994); K. D. Vohs, R. F. Baumeister, and G. Lowenstein, Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? (New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press, in press 2006); H. M. Weiss, J. P. Nicholas, and C. S. Daus, "An Examination of the Joint Effects of Affective Experiences and Job Beliefs on Job Satisfaction and Variations in Affective Experiences over Time," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 78 (1999), pp. 1–24; N. M. Ashkanasy "Emotion and Performance," Human Performance 17 (2004), pp. 137–144.

[]

[] See Robert G. Lord, Richard J. Klimoski, and Ruth Knafer (Eds.), Emotions in the Workplace: Understanding the Structure and Role of Emotions in Organizational Behavior (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002); Roy L. Payne and Cary L. Cooper (Eds.), Emotions at Work: Theory Research and Applications for Management (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2004); Daniel Goleman and Richard Boyatzis, "Social Intelligence and the Biology of Leadership," Harvard Business Review (September, 2008), Reprint R0809E.

[]

[] Caroline Bartel and Richard Saavedra, "The Collective Construction of Work Group Moods," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 45 (June 2000), pp. 197–231.

[]

[] Joyce E. Bono and Remus Ilies, "Charisma, Positive Emotions and Mood Contagion," Leadership Quarterly 17 (2006), pp. 317–334; Goleman and Boyatzis, op. cit.

[]

[] Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKie, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2002); Quote from "Managing the Mood Is Crucial When Times Are Tough," Financial Times (March 24, 2009).

[]

[] Quote from ibid.

[]

[] S. M. Kruml and D. Geddes, "Catching Fire without Burning Out: Is There an Ideal Way to Perform Emotional Labor?" pp. 177–188 in N. M. Ashkanasy, C. E. J. Hartel, and W. J. Zerby (eds.), Emotions in the Workplace (New York: Quorum, 2000).

[]

[] A. Grandey, "Emotional Regulation in the Workplace: A New Way to Conceptualize Emotional Labor," Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 5.1 (2000), pp. 95–110; R. Cropanzano, D. E. Rupp, and Z. S. Byrne, "The Relationship of Emotional Exhaustion to Work Attitudes, Job Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior," Journal of Applied Psychology (2003), pp. 160–169.

[]

[] W. Tasi and Y. Huang, "Mechanisms Linking Employee Affective Delivery and Customer Behavioral Intentions," Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 1001–1008.

[]

[] M. Eid and E. Diener, "Norms for Experiencing Emotions in Different Cultures: Inter- and Intranational Differences," Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 81.5 (2001), pp. 869–885.

[]

[] Ibid. (2001).

[]

[] B. Mesquita, "Emotions in Collectivist and Individualist Contexts," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80.1 (2001), pp. 68–74.

[]

[] D. Rubin, "Grumpy German Shoppers Distrust the Wal-Mart Style," Seattle Times (December 30, 2001), p. a15; A. Rafaeli, "When Cashiers Meet Customers: An Analysis of Supermarket Cashiers," Academy of Management Journal (1989), pp. 245–273.

[]

[] H. M. Weiss and R. Cropanzano, "An Affective Events Approach to Job Satisfaction," pp. 1–74 in Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 18, ed. B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996); N. M. Ashkanasy and C. S. Daus, "Emotion in the Workplace: New Challenges for Managers," Academy of Management Executive 16 (2002), pp. 76–86.

[]

[] A. G. Miner and C. L. Hulin, Affective Experience at Work: A Test of Affective Events Theory. Poster presented at the 15th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2000).

[]

[] See L. Cosmides and J. Tooby (eds.), "Evolutionary Psychology and the Emotions," pp. 91–115; in Handbook of Emotions, 2nd ed., M. Lewis and J. M. Haviland-Jones (eds.), (New York: Guilford Press, 2000).

[]

[] Information and quote from Joann S. Lublin, "How One Black Woman Lands Her Top Jobs: Risks and Networking," The Wall Street Journal (March 4, 2003), p. B1.

[]

[] Compare Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1973).

[]

[] See A. W. Wicker, "Attitude Versus Action: The Relationship of Verbal and Overt Behavioral Responses to Attitude Objects," Journal of Social Issues (Autumn 1969), pp. 41–78.

[]

[] L. Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1957).

[]

[] See "The Things They Do for Love," Harvard Business Review (December, 2004), pp. 19–20.

[]

[] Tony DIRomualdo, "The High Cost of Employee Disengagement" (July 7, 2004), www.wistechnology.com.

[]

[] Information from Sue Shellenbarger, "Employers Are Finding It Doesn't Cost Much to Make a Staff Happy," The Wall Street Journal (November 19, 1997), p. B1; see also "Job Satisfaction on the Decline," The Conference Board (July 2002).

[]

[] See for example Remus Ilies, Kelly Schwind Wilson, and David T. Wagner, "The Spillover of Daily Job Satisfaction onto Employees' Family Lives: The Facilitating Role of Work-Family Integration," Academy of Management Journal 52 (February 2009), pp. 87–102.

[]

[] See W. E. Wymer and J. M. Carsten, "Alternative Ways to Gather Opinions," HR Magazine 37.4 (April 1992), pp. 71–78.

[]

[] The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is available from Dr. Patricia C. Smith, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University; the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) is available from the Industrial Relations Center and Vocational Psychology Research Center, University of Minnesota.

[]

[] Salary.com, "Survey Shows Impact of Downturn on Job Satisfaction," OH&S: Occupational Health and Safety (February 7, 2009), www.ohsonline.com.

[]

[] See ibid.; Timothy A. Judge, "Promote Job Satisfaction Through Mental Challenge," Chapter 6 in Edwin A. Locke (ed.), The Blackwell Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004); "U.S. Employees More Dissatisfied with Their Jobs," Associated Press (February 28, 2005), www.msnbc.com; "U.S. Job Satisfaction Keeps Falling, The Conference Board Reports Today," The Conference Board (February 28, 2005), www.conference-board.org; Salary.com, op. cit. (2009).

[]

[] Information from What Workers Want: A Worldwide Study of Attitudes to Work and Work-Life Balance (London: FDS International Limited, 2007).

[]

[] B. M. Staw, "The Consequences of Turnover," Journal of Occupational Behavior 1 (1980), pp. 253–273; J. P. Wanous, Organizational Entry(Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).

[]

[] C. N. Greene, "The Satisfaction-Performance Controversy," Business Horizons 15 (1972), pp. 31–41; M. T. Iaffaldano and P. M. Muchinsky, "Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis," Psychological Bulletin 97 (1985), pp. 251–273; D. Organ, "A Reappraisal and Reinterpretation of the Satisfaction-Causes-Performance Hypothesis," Academy of Management Review 2 (1977), pp. 46–53; P. Lorenzi, "A Comment on Organ's Reappraisal of the Satisfaction-Causes-Performance Hypothesis," Academy of Management Review 3 (1978), pp. 380–382.

[]

[] Salary.com, op. cit. (2009).

[]

[] Tony DIRomualdo, "The High Cost of Employee Disengagement" (July 7, 2004), www.wistechnology.com.

[]

[] Dennis W. Organ, Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988); Dennis W. Organ, "Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It's Constructive Cleanup Time," Human Performance, 10 (1997), pp. 85–97.

[]

[] See Mark C. Bolino and William H. Turnley, "Going the Extra Mile: Cultivating and Managing Employee Citizenship Behavior," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 17 (August 2003), pp. 60–67.

[]

[] See Venetta I. Coleman and Walter C. Borman, "Investigating the Underlying Structure of the Citizenship Performance Domain," Human Resource Management Review 10 (2000), pp. 115–126.

[]

[] Sandra L. Robinson and Rebecca J. Bennett, "A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study," Academy of Management Journal 38 (1995), pp. 555–572.

[]

[] Reeshad S. Dalal, "A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Among Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counter- productive Work Behavior," Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (2005), pp. 1241–1255.

[]

[] Timothy A. Judge and Remus Ilies, "Affect and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Their Relationship at Work and at Home," Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004), pp. 661–673.

[]

[] Ilies et al., op. cit. (2009).

[]

[] See Benjamin Schneider, Paul J. Hanges, D. Brent Smith, and Amy Salvaggio, "Which Comes First: Employee Attitudes or Organizational, Financial, and Market Performance?" Journal of Applied Psychology 88.5 (2003), pp. 836–851.

[]

[] See Satoris S. Culbertson, "Do Satisfied Employees Mean Satisfied Customers?" The Academy of Management Perspectives 23 (February 2009), pp. 76–77.

[]

[] L. W. Porter and E. E. Lawler III, Managerial Attitudes and Work Performance (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1968).

[]

[] Schneider, Hanges, Smith, and Salvaggio, op. cit.

[]

[] Ibid.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Don Thompson: Information from Julie Bennett, "McGolden Opportunity," Franchise Times (February, 2008), www.franchisetimes.com.

Ethics in OB: Information and quotes from "Daniel Yee, "Chick-fill-A Recipe Winning Customers," The Columbus Dispatch (September 9, 2006), p. D1; Tom Murphy, "Chick-fil-A Plans Aggressive Product Rollout Initiatives," Rocky Mount Telegram (May 28, 2008), www.rockymount-telegram.com/ "Chick-fil-A Reaches 20,000th Scholarship Milestone," (July 28, 2005), Chick-fil-A press release, www.csrwire.com/.

Leaders on Leadership: Information and quotes from Anya Kamenetz, "Will NPR Save the News?" Fast Company (March 18, 2009), www.Fastcompany.com/.

Mastering Management: Information from "Managing The Mood Is Crucial When Times Are Tough," Financial Times (March 24, 2009).

MARGIN PHOTOS

Life Is Good—Information from Leigh Buchanan, "Life Lessons, Inc. (June 6, 2006), www.inc.com/magazine/; "A Fortune Coined from Cheerfulness Entrepreneurship," Financial Times (May 20, 2009); www.lifeisgood.com/about/.

Employee morale—Information from What Workers Want: A Worldwide Study of Attitudes to Work and Work-Life Balance (London: FDS International Limited, 2007); Millennials—Information and quotes from "The 'Millennials' Are Coming," CBS 60 Minutes (November 11.2007); Brittany Hite, "Employers Rethink How they Give Feedback," The Wall Street Journal (October 13, 2008), p. B5; Shelly Banjo, "A Perfect Match?" The Wall Street Journal (October 13, 2009), p. R9; Olga Kharif, "Raised on the Web and Ready for Business," BusinessWeek (December 8, 2008), pp. 77–78; Emma Jacobs, "Reality Check for Gen Y and Its Managers," Financial Times (May 14, 2009). See also Ron Alsop, The Trophy Kids Grow Up (New York: Dow Jones, 2008).

Chapter 4

ENDNOTES

[]

[] H. R. Schiffmann, Sensation and Perception: An Integrated Approach, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1990).

[]

[] Example from John A. Wagner III and John R. Hollenbeck, Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998), p. 59.

[]

[] See Georgia T. Chao and Steve W. J. Kozlowski, "Employee Perceptions on the Implementation of Robotic Manufacturing Technology," Journal of Applied Psychology 71 (1986), pp. 70–76; Steven F. Cronshaw and Robert G. Lord, "Effects of Categorization, Attribution, and Encoding Processes in Leadership Perceptions," Journal of Applied Psychology 72 (1987), pp. 97–106.

[]

[] See Robert G. Lord, "An Information Processing Approach to Social Perceptions, Leadership, and Behavioral Measurement in Organizations," pp. 87–128 in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior 7 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985); T. K. Srull and R. S. Wyer, Advances in Social Cognition (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988); U. Neisser, Cognitive and Reality (San Francisco: Freeman, 1976), p. 112.

[]

[] See J. G. Hunt, Leadership: A New Synthesis (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991), ch. 7; R. G. Lord and R. J. Foti, "Schema Theories, Information Processing, and Organizational Behavior," pp. 20–48 in H. P. Simms Jr. and D. A. Gioia (eds.), Thinking Organization (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986); S. T. Fiske and S. E. Taylor, Social Cognition (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984).

[]

[] Quotation from Sheila O'Flanagan, "Underestimate Casual Dressers at Your Peril," Irish Times (July 22, 2005).

[]

[] See William L. Gardner and Mark J. Martinko, "Impression Management in Organizations," Journal of Management (June 1988), p. 332.

[]

[] See B. R. Schlenker, Impression Management: The Self-Concept, Social Identity, and Interpersonal Relations (Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1980); W. L. Gardner and M. J. Martinko, "Impression Management in Organizations," Journal of Management (June 1988), p. 332; R. B. Cialdini, "Indirect Tactics of Image Management: Beyond Banking" in Impression Management in the Organization, R. A. Giacolini and P. Rosenfeld (eds.) (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1989), pp. 45–71; and Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden, "Effects of Impression Management on Performance Ratings," Academy of Management Journal (February 2005), pp. 232–252.

[]

[] See, for example, Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom, America in Black and White (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997); David A. Thomas and Suzy Wetlaufer, "A Question of Color: A Debate on Race in the U. S. Workspace, "Harvard Business Review Vol. 2 (September-October 1997), pp. 118–132.

[]

[] Information from "Misconceptions about Women in the Global Arena Keep Their Number Low," www.catalyst-women.org/home.html.

[]

[] These examples are from Natasha Josefowitz, Paths to Power (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980), p. 60. For more on gender issues, see Gray N. Powell (ed.), Handbook of Gender and Work (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999).

[]

[] For a recent report on age discrimination, see Joseph C. Santora and William J. Seaton, "Age Discrimination: Alive and Well in the Workplace?" The Academy of Management Perspectives 22 (May 2008), pp. 103–104.

[]

[] Survey reported in Kelly Greene, "Age Is Still More Than a Number," The Wall Street Journal (April 10, 2003), p. D2.

[]

[] "Facebook Gets Down to Business, "BusinessWeek (April 20, 2009), p. 30.

[]

[] Dewitt C. Dearborn and Herbert A. Simon, "Selective Perception: A Note on the Departmental Identification of Executives," Sociometry 21 (1958), pp. 140–144.

[]

[] J. Sterling Livingston, "Pygmalion in Management," Harvard Business Review (July–August 1969), pp. 81–89.

[]

[] D. Eden and A. B. Shani, "Pygmalion Goes to Boot Camp," Journal of Applied Psychology 67 (1982), pp. 194–199.

[]

[] See H. H. Kelley, "Attribution in Social Interaction," in E. Jones et al. (eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior (Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press, 1972).

[]

[] See Terence R. Mitchell, S. G. Green, and R. E. Wood, "An Attribution Model of Leadership and the Poor Performing Subordinate," Barry Staw and Larry L. Cummings (eds.), pp. 197–234, in Research in Organizational Behavior (New York: JAI Press, 1981); John H. Harvey and Gifford Weary, "Current Issues in Attribution Theory and Research," Annual Review of Psychology 35 (1984), pp. 427–459.

[]

[] See F. Fosterling, "Attributional Retraining: A Review," Psychological Bulletin (November 1985), pp. 496–512.

[]

[] See J. M. Crant and T. S. Bateman, "Assignment of Credit and Blame for Performance Outcomes," Academy of Management Journal (February 1993), pp. 7–27; E. C. Pence, W. E. Pendelton, G. H. Dobbins, and J. A. Sgro, "Effects of Causal Explanations and Sex Variables on Recommendations for Corrective Actions Following Employee Failure," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance (April 1982), pp. 227–240.

[]

[] R. M. Steers, S. J. Bischoff, and L. H. Higgins, "Cross Cultural Management Research," Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 1 (December 1992), pp. 325–326; J. G. Miller, "Culture and the Development of Everyday Causal Explanation," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46 (1984), pp. 961–978.

[]

[] Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977); and Albert Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1997).

[]

[] See, for example, A. M. Morrison, R. P. White, and E. Van Velsor, Breaking the Glass Ceiling (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1987); J. D. Zalesny and J. K. Ford, "Extending the Social Information Processing Perspective: New Links to Attitudes, Behaviors and Perceptions," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 47 (1990), pp. 205–246; M. E. Gist, C. Schwoerer, and B. Rosen, "Effects of Alternative Training Methods of Self-Efficacy and Performance in Computer Software Training," Journal of Applied Psychology 74 (1989), pp. 884–891; D. D. Sutton and R. W. Woodman, "Pygmalion Goes to Work: The Effects of Supervisor Expectations in a Retail Setting," Journal of Applied Psychology 74 (1989), pp. 943–950; M. E. Gist, "The Influence of Training Method on Self-Efficacy and Idea Generation among Managers," Personnel Psychology 42 (1989), pp. 787–805.

[]

[] Bandura, op. cit., 1977 and 1997.

[]

[] See M. E. Gist, "Self Efficacy: Implications in Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management," Academy of Management Review 12 (1987), pp. 472–485; A. Bandura, "Self-Efficacy Mechanisms in Human Agency," American Psychologist 37 (1987), pp. 122–147.

[]

[] For good overviews of reinforcement-based views, see W. E. Scott Jr. and P. M. Podsakoff, Behavioral Principles in the Practice of Management (New York: Wiley, 1985); Fred Luthans and Robert Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1985).

[]

[] For some of B. F. Skinner's work, see Walden Two (New York: Macmillan, 1948); Science and Human Behavior (New York: Macmillan, 1953); Contingencies of Reinforcement (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969).

[]

[] Fred Luthans and Robert Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1975); Fred Luthans and Robert Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1985); and Fred Luthans and Alexander D. Stajkovic, "Reinforce for Performance: The Need to Go Beyond Pay and Even Rewards," Academy of Management Executive 13 (1999), pp. 49–57.

[]

[] E. L. Thorndike, Animal Intelligence (New York: Macmillan, 1911), p. 244.

[]

[] Example adapted from Luthans and Kreitner (1985), op. cit., 1985.

[]

[] Luthans and Kreitner, op. cit., 1985.

[]

[] Both laws are stated in Keith L. Miller, Principles of Everyday Behavior Analysis (Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1975), p. 122.

[]

[] This example is based on a study by Barbara Price and Richard Osborn, "Shaping the Training of Skilled Workers," working paper (Detroit: Department of Management, Wayne State University, 1999).

[]

[] A. R. Korukonda and James G. Hunt, "Pat on the Back Versus Kick in the Pants: An Application of Cognitive Inference to the Study of Leader Reward and Punishment Behavior," Group and Organization Studies 14 (1989), pp. 299–234.

[]

[] Edwin A. Locke, "The Myths of Behavior Mod in Organizations," Academy of Management Review 2 (October 1977), pp. 543–553. For a counterpoint, see Jerry L. Gray, "The Myths of the Myths about Behavior Mod in Organizations: A Reply to Locke's Criticisms of Behavior Modification," Academy of Management Review 4 (January 1979), pp. 121–129.

[]

[] Robert Kreitner, "Controversy in OBM: History, Misconceptions, and Ethics," in Lee Frederiksen (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior Management (New York: Wiley, 1982), pp. 71–91.

[]

[] W. E. Scott Jr. and P. M. Podsakoff, Behavioral Principles in the Practice of Management (New York: Wiley, 1985); also see W. Clay Hamner, "Reinforcement Theory and Contingency Management in Organizational Settings," in Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porters (eds.), Motivation and Work Behavior (4th ed.) (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987), pp. 139–165; Luthans and Kreitner, op. cit. (1985); Charles C. Manz and Henry P. Sims Jr., Superleadership (New York: Berkeley, 1990).

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Zainab Salbi: Information and quotes from Aina Hunter, "Making the Men of Iraq Listen," The Village Voice (March 9, 2005), www.villagevoice.com; Women for Women International Annual Report (Washington: Women for Women International, 2007); "Zainab Salbi, Founder and CEO, Women for Women International," www.womenforwomen.org (retrieved March 25, 2009). See also Zainab Salbi and Laurie Becklund, Between Two Worlds: Escape from Tyranny: Growing Up in the Shadow of Saddam (New York: Gotham, 2006).

Ethics in OB: Information from Deloitte LLP, "Leadership Counts: 2007 Deloitte & Touce USA Ethics & Workplace Survey Results," Kiplinger Business Resource Center (June 2007), www.kiplinger.com.

Leaders on Leadership: Information and quotes from the corporate Web sites and from The Entrepreneur's Hall of Fame, www.1tbn.com/halloffame.html; Knowledge@Wharton, "The Importance of Being Richard Branson," Wharton School Publishing (June 3, 2005), www.whartonsp.com.

Mastering Management: Developed from William C. Byham, "Start Networking Right Away (Even If You Hate It)," Harvard Business Review (January 2009), p. 22.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Donna Byrd—Information from Temple Hemphill, "Bull Market: Now is the Time to Take Advantage of Web 2.0," BlackMBA (Winter 2008/2009), pp. 63–66; Elsewhere class—Information from Dalton Conley, "Welcome to Elsewhere," Newsweek (January 26, 2009), pp. 25–26; Google/Procter & Gamble—Information from Ellen Byron, "A New Odd Couple: Google, P&G Swap Workers to Spur Innovation," The Wall Street Journal (November 19, 2008), pp. A1, A18.

Chapter 5

ENDNOTES

[]

[] See John P. Campbell, Marvin D. Dunnette, Edward E. Lawler III, and Karl E. Weick Jr., Managerial Behavior Performance and Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970), ch. 15.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, "Cultural Constraints in Management Theories," Academy of Management Executive 7 (February 1993), pp. 81–94.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, abridged ed. (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1984); Geert Hofstede, Cultures Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions across Nations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001).

[]

[] Abraham Maslow, Eupsychian Management (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1965); Abraham Maslow, Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1970).

[]

[] Lyman W. Porter, "Job Attitudes in Management: Perceived Importance of Needs as a Function of Job Level," Journal of Applied Psychology 47 (April 1963), pp. 141–148.

[]

[] Douglas T. Hall and Khalil E. Nougaim, "An Examination of Maslow's Need Hierarchy in an Organizational Setting," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3 (1968), pp. 12–35; John M. Ivancevich, "Perceived Need Satisfactions of Domestic versus Overseas Managers," Journal of Applied Psychology 54 (August 1969), pp. 274–278.

[]

[] Mahmoud A. Wahba and Lawrence G. Bridwell, "Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory," Academy of Management Proceedings (1974), pp. 514–520; Edward E. Lawler III and J. Lloyd Shuttle, "A Causal Correlation Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 7 (1973), pp. 265–287.

[]

[] Nancy J. Adler (2nd ed.), International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (Boston: PWS-Kent, 1991), p. 153; Richard M. Hodgetts and Fred Luthans, International Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), ch. 11.

[]

[] Clayton P. Alderfer, "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 4 (1969), pp. 142–175; Clayton P. Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (New York: Free Press, 1972); Benjamin Schneider and Clayton P. Alderfer, "Three Studies of Need Satisfaction in Organization," Administrative Science Quarterly 18 (1973), pp. 489–505.

[]

[] Lane Tracy, "A Dynamic Living Systems Model of Work Motivation," Systems Research 1 (1984), pp. 191–203; John Rauschenberger, Neal Schmidt, and John E. Hunter, "A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength," Administrative Science Quarterly 25 (1980), pp. 654–670.

[]

[] Sources pertinent to this discussion are David C. McClelland, The Achieving Society (New York: Van Nostrand, 1961); David C. McClelland, "Business, Drive and National Achievement," Harvard Business Review 40 (July/August 1962), pp. 99–112; David C. McClelland, "That Urge to Achieve," Think (November/December 1966), pp. 19–32; G. H. Litwin and R. A. Stringer, Motivation and Organizational Climate (Boston: Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1966), pp. 18–25.

[]

[] George Harris, "To Know Why Men Do What They Do: A Conversation with David C. McClelland," Psychology Today 4 (January 1971), pp. 35–39.

[]

[] David C. McClelland and David H. Burnham, "Power Is the Great Motivator," Harvard Business Review 54 (March/April 1976), pp. 100–110; David C. McClelland and Richard E. Boyatzis, "Leadership Motive Pattern and Long-Term Success in Management," Journal of Applied Psychology 67 (1982), pp. 737–743.

[]

[] P. Miron and D. C. McClelland, "The Impact of Achievement Motivation Training in Small Businesses," California Management Review (Summer 1979), pp. 13–28.

[]

[] The complete two-factor theory is well explained by Herzberg and his associates in Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Bloch Synderman, The Motivation to Work, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1967); Frederick Herzberg, "One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?" Harvard Business Review 46 (January/February 1968), pp. 53–62.

[]

[] From Herzberg, (1968), op. cit.

[]

[] See Robert J. House and Lawrence A. Wigdor, "Herzberg's Dual-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction and Motivation: A Review of the Evidence and a Criticism," Personnel Psychology 20 (Winter 1967), pp. 369–389.

[]

[] Adler, op. cit.; Nancy J. Adler and J. T. Graham, "Cross Cultural Interaction: The International Comparison Fallacy," Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1989), pp. 515–537; Frederick Herzberg, "Workers' Needs: The Same Around the World," Industry Week (September 27, 1987), pp. 29–32.

[]

[] See, for example, J. Stacy Adams, "Toward an Understanding of Inequality," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67 (1963), pp. 422–436; J. Stacy Adams, "Inequity in Social Exchange," in L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 2 (New York: Academic Press, 1965), pp. 267–300.

[]

[] Adams, op. cit. (1965).

[]

[] These issues are discussed in C. Kagitcibasi and J. W. Berry, "Cross-Cultural Psychology: Current Research and Trends," Annual Review of Psychology 40 (1989), pp. 493–531.

[]

[] See Blair Sheppard, Roy J. Lewicki, and John Minton, Organizational Justice: The Search for Fairness in the Workplace (New York: Lexington Books, 1992); Jerald Greenberg, The Quest for Justice on the Job: Essays and Experiments (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995); Robert Folger and Russell Cropanzano, Organizational Justice and Human Resource Management (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998); and Mary A. Konovsky, "Understanding Procedural Justice and Its Impact on Business Organizations," Journal of Management 26 (2000), pp. 489–511.

[]

[] Interactional justice is described by Robert J. Bies, "The Predicament of Injustice: The Management of Moral Outrage," in L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior 9 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987), pp. 289–319. The example is from Carol T. Kulik and Robert L. Holbrook, "Demographics in Service Encounters: Effects of Racial and Gender Congruence on Perceived Fairness," Social Justice Research 13 (2000), pp. 375–402.

[]

[] Victor H. Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: Wiley, 1964).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] See Terence R. Mitchell, "Expectancy Models of Job Satisfaction, Occupational Preference and Effort: A Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Appraisal," Psychological Bulletin 81 (1974), pp. 1053–1077; Mahmoud A. Wahba and Robert J. House, "Expectancy Theory in Work and Motivation: Some Logical and Methodological Issues," Human Relations 27 (January 1974), pp. 121–147; Terry Connolly, "Some Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Expectancy Models of Work Performance Motivation," Academy of Management Review 1 (October 1976), pp. 37–47; and Terrence Mitchell, "Expectancy-Value Models in Organizational Psychology," in N. Feather (ed.), Expectancy, Incentive and Action (New York: Erlbaum & Associates, 1980).

[]

[] See Adler, op. cit.

[]

[] Edwin A. Locke, Karyll N. Shaw, Lise M. Saari, and Gary P. Latham, "Goal Setting and Task Performance: 1969–1980," Psychological Bulletin 90 (July/November 1981), pp. 125–152; Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham, "Work Motivation and Satisfaction: Light at the End of the Tunnel," Psychological Science 1.4 (July 1990), pp. 240–246; Edwin A. Locke and Gary Latham, A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990).

[]

[] Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham, "Has Goal Setting Gone Wild, or Have Its Attackers Abandoned Good Scholarship?" The Academy of Management Perspective 23 (February 2009), pp. 17–23.

[]

[] Gary P. Latham and Edwin A. Locke, "Goal Setting—A Motivational Technique That Works," Organizational Dynamics 8 (Autumn 1979), pp. 68–80; Gary P. Latham and Timothy P. Steele, "The Motivational Effects of Participation versus Goal-Setting on Performance," Academy of Management Journal 26 (1983), pp. 406–417; Miriam Erez and Frederick H. Kanfer, "The Role of Goal Acceptance in Goal Setting and Task Performance," Academy of Management Review 8 (1983), pp. 454–463; R. E. Wood and E. A. Locke, "Goal Setting and Strategy Effects on Complex Tasks," in B. Staw and L. L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990).

[]

[] See E. A. Locke and G. P. Latham, "Work Motivation and Satisfaction," Psychological Science 1.4 (July 1990), p. 241.

[]

[] For recent debate on goal setting, see Lisa D. Ordónez, Maurice E. Schwitzer, Adam D. Galinsky, and Max H. Bazerman, "Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Overprescribing Goal Setting," The Academy of Management Perspective 23 (February 2009), pp. 6–16; Locke and Latham, op. cit. (2009).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] For a good review of MBO, see Anthony P. Raia, Managing by Objectives (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1974).

[]

[] Ibid. Steven Kerr summarizes the criticisms well in "Overcoming the Dysfunctions of MBO," Management by Objectives 5.1, 1976.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Executive Women: Information from Carol Hymowitz, "Women Tell Women: Life in the Top Jobs Is Worth the Effort," The Wall Street Journal (November 20, 2006), p. B1; Miguel Helft, "Yahoo's New Chief Makes Decisive Appearance," The New York Times (January 16, 2009), www.nytimes.com/; Jessica E. Vascellaro, "Yahoo CEO Set to Install Top-Down Management," The Wall Street Journal (February 23, 2009), p. B1.

Ethics in OB: John Woods, Leaving Microsoft to Change the World (New York: HarperCollins, 2006).

Leaders on Leadership: Information and quotes from Lorraine Monroe, "Leadership Is about Making Vision Happen—What I Call" 'Vision Acts,' "Fast Company (March 2001), p. 98; Lorraine Monroe Leadership Institute Web site, www.lorrainemonroe.com/. See also Lorraine Monroe, Nothing's Impossible: Leadership Lessons from Inside and Outside the Classroom (New York: PublicAffairs Books, 1999); and The Monroe Doctrine: An ABC Guide To What Great Bosses Do (New York: PublicAffairs Books, 2003). Mastering Management: Developed from Boris Groys-berg, Andrew N. McLean, and Nitin Nohria, "Are Leaders Portable?" Harvard Business Review (May, 2006); and, "Psychological Capital (PsyCap) Measurement, Development, and Performance Impact," Briefings Report 200601 (Gallup Leadership Institute); Fred Luthans, James B. Avey, Bruce J. Avoilio, Steven M. Norman, and Gwendolyn M. Combs, "Psychological Capital Development: Toward a Micro-Intervention," Journal of Organizational Behavior 27 (2006), pp. 387–393.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Working Mother Media—Quote from Information from workingmother.com (retrieved September 29, 2006); AJ's Music Café—Information from Micheline Maynard, "Nation's Scorn Wounds Detroit's Pride," The Columbus Dispatch (March 30, 2009), p. C8; American Red Cross/ Theresa Bischoff—Information from Rika Nazem, "First Responder," STERNbusiness (Fall/Winter, 2008), p. 7.

Chapter 6

ENDNOTES

[]

[] For complete reviews of theory, research, and practice see Edward E. Lawler III, Pay and Organizational Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971); Edward E. Lawler III, Pay and Organizational Development (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981); Edward E. Lawler III, "The Design of Effective Reward Systems," in Jay W. Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987), pp. 255–271.

[]

[] Reasons for Pay Raises," BusinessWeek (May 29, 2006), p. 11.

[]

[] As an example, see D. B. Balkin and L. R. Gómez-Mejia (eds.), New Perspectives on Compensation (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987).

[]

[] Jone L. Pearce, "Why Merit Pay Doesn't Work: Implications from Organization Theory," in Balkin and Gómez-Mejia op. cit. (1987), pp. 169–178; Jerry M. Newman, "Selecting Incentive Plans to Complement Organizational Strategy," in Balkin and Gómez-Mejia op. cit. (1987), pp. 214–224; Edward E. Lawler III, "Pay for Performance: Making It Work," Compensation and Benefits Review 21 (1989), pp. 55–60.

[]

[] See Daniel C. Boyle, "Employee Motivation That Works," HR Magazine (October 1992), pp. 83–89; Kathleen A. McNally, "Compensation as a Strategic Tool," HR Magazine (July 1992), pp. 59–66.

[]

[] Erin White, "How to Reduce Turnover," The Wall Street Journal (November 21, 2005), p. B5.

[]

[] See Brian Graham-Moore, "Review of the Literature," in Brian Graham-Moore and Timothy L. Ross (eds.), Gainsharing (Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, 1990), p. 20.

[]

[] S. E. Markham, K. D. Scott, and B. L. Little, "National Gainsharing Study: The Importance of Industry Differences," Compensation and Benefits Review (January/February 1992), pp. 34–45.

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer and John F. Veiga, "Putting People First for Organizational Success," Academy of Management Executive 13 (May 1999), pp. 37–48.

[]

[] L. R. Gómez-Mejia, D. B. Balkin, and R. L. Cardy, Managing Human Resources (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995), pp. 410–411.

[]

[] N. Gupta, G. E. Ledford, G. D. Jenkins, and D. H. Doty, "Survey Based Prescriptions for Skill-Based Pay," American Compensation Association Journal 1.1 (1992), pp. 48–59; L. W. Ledford, "The Effectiveness of Skill-Based Pay," Perspectives in Total Compensation 1.1 (1991), pp. 1–4.

[]

[] Mina Kines, "P&G's Leadership Machine," Fortune (April 14, 2009).

[]

[] For more details, see G. P. Latham and K. N. Wexley, Increasing Productivity through Performance Appraisal (2nd ed.); Stephen J. Carroll and Craig E. Schneier, Performance Appraisal and Review Systems (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1982).

[]

[] See George T. Milkovich and John W. Boudreau, Personnel/Human Resource Management: A Diagnostic Approach, 5th ed. (Plano, TX: Business Publications, 1988).

[]

[] Mark R. Edwards and Ann J. Ewen, 360-Degree Feed back: The Powerful New Tool for Employee Feedback and Performance Improvement (New York: Amacom, 1996).

[]

[] For discussion of many of these errors, see David L. Devries, Ann M. Morrison, Sandra L. Shullman, and Michael P. Gerlach, Performance Appraisal on the Line (Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership, 1986), ch. 3.

[]

[] Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Norton, 1967).

[]

[] Frederick Herzberg, "One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?" Harvard Business Review 46 (January/February 1968), pp. 53–62.

[]

[] For a complete description, see J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).

[]

[] See J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, "Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey," Journal of Applied Psychology 60 (1975), pp. 159–170.

[]

[] For forerunner research, see Charles L. Hulin and Milton R. Blood, "Job Enlargement, Individual Differences, and Worker Responses," Psychological Bulletin 69 (1968), pp. 41–55: Milton R. Blood and Charles L. Hulin. "Alienation, Environmental Characteristics and Worker Responses," Journal of Applied Psychology 51 (1967), pp. 284–290.

[]

[] Gerald Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer, "An Examination of Need-Satisfaction Models of Job Attitudes," Administrative Science Quarterly 22 (1977), pp. 427–456; Gerald Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer, "A Social Information Processing Approach to Job Attitude and Task Design." Administrative Science Quarterly 23 (1978), pp. 224–253.

[]

[] For overviews, see Allan R. Cohen and Herman Gadon, Alternative Work Schedules: Integrating Individual and Organizational Needs (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978); and Jon L. Pearce, John W. Newstrom, Randall B. Dunham, and Alison E. Barber, Alternative Work Schedules (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1989). See also Sharon Parker and Toby Wall, Job and Work Design (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998).

[]

[] C. Latack and L. W. Foster, "Implementation of Compressed Work Schedules: Participation and Job Redesign as Critical Factors for Employee Acceptance," Personnel Psychology 38 (1985), pp. 75–92.

[]

[] Olga Kharif, "Chopping Hours, Not Heads," Business Week (January 5, 2009), p. 85.

[]

[] Sue Shellenbarger, "Does Avoiding a 9-to-5 Grind Make You a Target for Layoffs?" The Wall Street Journal (April 22, 2009), p. D1.

[]

[] Mararet Harding, "Uncommon Co-Workers," The Columbus Dispatch (March 22, 2009), p. D1.

[]

[] "Hurting, But Often Uncounted," BusinessWeek (April 20, 2009), p. 20.

FEATURE NOTES

Patagonia/Yvon Chouinard: Information from Steve Hamm, "A Passion for the Plan," BusinessWeek (August 21, 2B 2006), pp. 92–94; Values quote from www.patagonia.com/. See also Yvon Chouinard, Let My People Go Surfing: The Education of a Reluctant Businessman (New York: Penguin, 2006).

Leaders on Leadership: Information from Andrew Ward, "Spanx Queen Firms up the Bottom Line," Financial Times (November 30, 2006), p. 7; and Simona Covel, "A Dated Industry Gets a Modern Makeover," The Wall Street Journal (August 7, 2008), p. B9.

Mastering Management: Information from Sue Shellen-barger, "The Mommy Drain: Employers Beef Up Perks to Lure New Mothers Back to Work," The Wall Street Journal (September 28, 2006), p. D1.

Ethics in OB: Information from Reuters, "Coming to Work Sick Afflicts Biz," Economic Times Bangalore (January 28, 2007), p. 14; www.webmd.com/.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Amazon.com–Information from Erin White, "How to Reduce Turnover," The Wall Street Journal (November 21, 2005), p. B5.

Phoenix Bats—Information from Scott Priestle, "Hitting It Off," The Columbus Dispatch (March 31, 2009).

In-N-Out Burger—Stacy Perman, "In-N-Out Burger: Professionalizing Fast Food," BusinessWeek (April 9, 2009); Stacy Perman, "Fast Food, Family Feuds," The Wall Street Journal (April 15, 2009), p. A. 13.

Jelly Columbus—Information from Mararet Harding, "Uncommon Co-Workers," The Columbus Dispatch (March 22, 2009), p. D1.

Chapter 7

ENDNOTES

[]

[] See, for example, Jon R, Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, "The Discipline of Teams," Harvard Business Review (March/April 1993a), pp. 111–120; Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-Performance Organization (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1993b).

[]

[] Katzenbach and Smith (1993a), op. cit., p. 112.

[]

[] Information from Scott Thurm, "Teamwork Raises Everyone's Game," The Wall Street Journal (November 7, 2005), p. B7.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Katzenbach and Smith (1993a, 1993b), op. cit.

[]

[] For a good overview, see Greg L. Stewart, Charles C. Manz, and Henry P. Sims, Team Work and Group Dynamics (New York: Wiley, 1999).

[]

[] Katzenbach and Smith (1993a, 1993b), op. cit.

[]

[] See Jon R. Katzenbach, "The Myth of the Top Management Team," Harvard Business Review 75 (November/December 1997), pp. 83–91.

[]

[] Information from Stratford Shermin, "Secrets of HP's 'Muddled' Team," Fortune (March 18, 1996), pp. 116–120.

[]

[] See Stewart, Manz, and Sims (1999), pp. 43–44.

[]

[] Rensis Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961).

[]

[] Jay A. Conger, Winning 'Em Over: A New Model for Managing in the Age of Persuasion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).

[]

[] Ibid., p. 191.

[]

[] See Jay R. Galbraith, Designing Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998).

[]

[] Robert P. Steel, Anthony J. Mento, Benjamin L. Dilla, Nestor Ovalle, and Russell F. Lloyd, "Factors Influencing the Success and Failure of Two Quality Circles Programs," Journal of Management 11.1 (1985), pp. 99–119; Edward E. Lawler III and Susan A. Mohrman, "Quality Circles: After the Honeymoon," Organizational Dynamics 15.4 (1987), pp. 42–54.

[]

[] See D. Duarte and N. Snyder, Mastering Virtual Teams: Strategies, Tools, and Techniques That Succeed (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999); Jessica Lipnack and Jeffrey Stamps, Virtual Teams: Reaching across Space, Time, and Organizations with Technology (New York: Wiley, 1997).

[]

[] For reviews see Wayne F. Cascio, "Managing a Virtual Workplace," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 14 (2000), pp. 81–90; Sheila Simsarian Webber, "Virtual Teams: A Meta-Analysis," www.shrm.org/foundation/findings.asp.

[]

[] Stacie A. Furst, Martha Reeves, Benson Rosen, and Richard S. Blackburn, "Managing the Life Cycle of Virtual Teams," Academy of Management Executive 18.2 (2004), pp. 6–11; ibid.; Duarte and Schneider, op. cit.; Lipnack and Stamps, op. cit.; and J. Richard Hackman by Diane Coutu, "Why Teams Don't Work," Harvard Business Review (May 2009), pp. 99–105.

[]

[] See, for example, Paul S. Goodman, Rukmini Devadas, and Terri L. Griffith Hughson, "Groups and Productivity: Analyzing the Effectiveness of Self-Managing Teams," Chapter 11 in John R. Campbell and Richard J. Campbell, Productivity in Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988); Jack Orsbrun, Linda Moran, Ed Musslewhite, and John H. Zenger, with Craig Perrin, Self-Directed Work Teams: The New American Challenge (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1990); Dale E. Yeatts and Cloyd Hyten, High Performing Self-Managed Work Teams (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997).

[]

[] Marvin E. Shaw, Group Dynamics: The Psychology of Small Group Behavior, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976).

[]

[] Bib Latané, Kipling Williams, and Stephen Harkins, "Many Hands Make Light the Work: The Causes and Consequences of Social Loafing," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 (1978), pp. 822–832; E. Weklon and G. M. Gargano, "Cognitive Effort in Additive Task Groups: The Effects of Shared Responsibility on the Quality of Multi-Attribute Judgments," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 36 (1985), pp. 348–361; John M. George, "Extrinsic and Intrinsic Origins of Perceived Social Loafing in Organizations," Academy of Management Journal (March 1992), pp. 191–202; W. Jack Duncan, "Why Some People Loaf in Groups While Others Loaf Alone," Academy of Management Executive 8 (1994), pp. 79–80.

[]

[] D. A. Kravitz and B. Martin, "Ringelmann Rediscovered," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (1986), pp. 936–941.

[]

[] John M. George, "Extrinsic and Intrinsic Origins of Perceived Social Loafing in Organizations," Academy of Management Journal (March 1992), pp. 191–202; and W. Jack Duncan, "Why Some People Loaf in Groups While Others Loaf Alone," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 8 (1994), pp. 79–80.

[]

[] A classic article by Richard B. Zajonc, "Social Facilitation," Science 149 (1965), pp. 269–274.

[]

[] See, for example, Leland P. Bradford, Group Development, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997).

[]

[] J. Steven Heinen and Eugene Jacobson, "A Model of Task Group Development in Complex Organization and a Strategy of Implementation," Academy of Management Review 1 (October 1976), pp. 98–111; Bruce W. Tuckman, "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups," Psychological Bulletin 63 (1965), pp. 384–399; Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, "Stages of Small Group Development Revisited," Group & Organization Studies 2 (1977), pp. 419–427.

[]

[] Quote from Alex Markels, "Money & Business," U.S. News online (October 22, 2006).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Example from "Designed for Interaction," Fortune (January 8, 2001), p. 150.

[]

[] David M. Herold, "The Effectiveness of Work Groups," in Steven Kerr (ed.), Organizational Behavior (New York: Wiley, 1979), p. 95; see also the discussion of group tasks in Stewart, Manz, and Sims, op. cit. (1999), pp. 142–143.

[]

[] F. J. Thomas and C. F. Fink, "Effects of Group Size," in Larry L. Cummings and William E. Scott (eds.), Readings in Organizational and Human Performance (Home-wood, IL: Irwin, 1969), pp. 394–408.

[]

[] Robert D. Hof, "Amazon's Risky Bet," BusinessWeek (November 13, 2006), p. 52.

[]

[] Thomas and Fink, op. cit.

[]

[] Shaw, op. cit.

[]

[] William C. Schultz, FIRO: A Three-Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior (New York: Rinehart, 1958).

[]

[] William C. Schultz, "The Interpersonal Underworld," Harvard Business Review 36 (July/August 1958), p. 130.

[]

[] Matt Golosinski, "Teamwork Takes Center Stage," Northwestern (Winter 2005), p. 39.

[]

[] Daniel R. Ilgen, Jeffrey A. LePine, and John R. Hollen-beck, "Effective Decision Making in Multinational Teams," in P. Christopher Earley and Miriam Erez (eds.), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology (San Francisco: New Lexington Press, 1997); Warren Watson, "Cultural Diversity's Impact on Interaction Process and Performance," Academy of Management Journal 16 (1993).

[]

[] Stewart, Manz, and Sims, op. cit.

[]

[] See Daniel, R Ilgen, Jeffrey A. LePiner, and John R. Hollenbeck, "Effective Decision Making in Multinational Teams," in P. Christopher Earley and Miriam Erez (eds.), New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology (San Francisco: New Lexington Press, 1997), pp. 377–409.

[]

[] L. Argote and J. E. McGrath, "Group Processes in Organizations: Continuity and Change," in C. L. Cooper and I. T. Robertson (eds.), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (New York: Wiley, 1993), pp. 333–389.

[]

[] See Ilgen, LePiner, and Hollenbeck, op. cit.

[]

[] Golosinski, op. cit., p. 39.

[]

[] "Dream Teams," Northwestern (Winter 2005), p. 10; and, Matt Golosinski, "Teamwork Takes Center Stage," North-western (Winter 2005), p. 39.

[]

[] George C. Homans, The Human Group (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1950).

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/U. Maryland Soccer: Information from Jena McGregor, "Game Plan: First Find the Leaders," BusinessWeek (August 21, 28, 2006), pp. 102–103.

Leaders on Leadership: Information from Kate Klonick, "Pepsi's CEO a Refreshing Change" (August 15, 2006), www.abcnews.go.com; Diane Brady, "Indra Nooyi: Keeping Cool in Hot Water," BusinessWeek (June 11, 2007); special report; Indra Nooyi, "The Best Advice I Ever Got," CNNMoney (April 30, 2008), www.cnnnmoney.com; and, "Indra Nooyi," The Wall Street Journal (November 10, 2008), p. R3.

Mastering Management: Developed from Wayne F. Cascio, "Managing a Virtual Workplace," Academy of Management Executive 14 (2000), pp. 81–90; and, Stacie A. Furst, Martha Reeves, Benson Rosen, and Richard S. Blackburn, "Managing the Life Cycle of Virtual Teams," Academy of Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 6–20.

Ethics in OB: Information from "MBAs 'Cheat Most,'" Financial Times (September 21, 2006), p. 1; "The Devil Made Me Do It," BusinessWeek (July 24, 2006), p. 10; Karen Richardson, "Buffett Advises on Scandals: Avoid Temptations," The Wall Street Journal (October 10, 2006), p. A9; Alma Acevedo, "Of Fallacies and Curricula: A Case of Business Ethics," Teaching Business Ethics 5 (2001), pp. 157–170.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Microsoft—Information from "Two Wasted Days at Work," CNNMoney.com (March 16, 2005), www.cnnmoney.com. Cleveland Clinic—Information from "Getting to No. 1," Continental.com Magazine (March 2009), pp. 48–49.

Chapter 8

ENDNOTES

[]

[] See Owen Linzmeyer and Owen W. Linzmeyer, Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World's Most Colorful Company (San Francisco: No Starch Press, 2004); and Jeffrey L. Cruikshank, The Apple Way (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).

[]

[] Diane Coutu, "Why Teams Don't Work," Harvard Business Review (May 2009), pp. 99–105.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Steven Levy, "Insanely Great," Wired (February 1994), www.wired.com.

[]

[] For an interesting discussion of sports teams, see Ellen Fagenson-Eland, "The National Football League"s Bill Parcells on Winning, Leading, and Turning Around Teams," Academy of Management Executive 15 (August 2001), pp. 48–57; and Nancy Katz, "Sport Teams as a Model for Workplace Teams: Lessons and Liabilities," Academy of Management Executive 15 (August 2002), pp. 56–69.

[]

[] See William D. Dyer, Team Building, 3rd ed. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995).

[]

[] Dennis Berman, "Zap! Pow! Splat!" BusinessWeek, Enterprise Issue (February 9, 1998), p. ENT22.

[]

[] Developed from a discussion by Edgar H. Schein, Process Consultation (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1969), pp. 32–37; Edgar H. Schein, Process Consultation, Vol. 1 (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1988), pp. 40–49.

[]

[] The classic work is Robert F. Bales, "Task Roles and Social Roles in Problem-Solving Groups," in Eleanor E. Maccoby, Theodore M. Newcomb, and E. L. Hartley (eds.), Readings in Social Psychology (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1958).

[]

[] For a good description of task and maintenance functions, see John J. Gabarro and Anne Harlan, "Note on Process Observation," Note 9-477-029 (Harvard Business School, 1976).

[]

[] Christine Porath and Christine Pearson, "How Toxic Colleagues Corrode Performance," Harvard Business Review (April 2009), p. 24.

[]

[] See Daniel C. Feldman, "The Development and Enforcement of Group Norms," Academy of Management Review 9 (1984), pp. 47–53.

[]

[] See Robert F. Allen and Saul Pilnick, "Confronting the Shadow Organization: How to Select and Defeat Negative Norms," Organizational Dynamics (Spring 1973), pp. 13–17; and Alvin Zander, Making Groups Effective (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982), ch. 4; Feldman (1984).

[]

[] For a summary of research on group cohesiveness, see Marvin E. Shaw, Group Dynamics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971), pp. 110–112, 192.

[]

[] See Jay R. Galbraith, Designing Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998).

[]

[] Jerry Yoram Wind and Jeremy Main, Driving Change: How the Best Companies Are Preparing for the 21st Century (New York: Free Press, 1998), p. 135.

[]

[] The concept of interacting, coacting, and counteracting groups is presented in Fred E. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Productivity (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).

[]

[] Research on communication networks is found in Alex Bavelas, "Communication Patterns in Task-Oriented Groups," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 22 (1950), pp. 725–730. See also "Research on Communication Networks," as summarized in Shaw (1976), pp. 137–153.

[]

[] A classic work on proxemics is Edward T. Hall's book, The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1986).

[]

[] Mirand Wewll, "Alternative Spaces Spawning Desk-Free Zones," Columbus Dispatch (May 18, 1998), pp. 10–11.

[]

[] "Tread: Rethinking the Workplace," BusinessWeek (September 25, 2006), p. IN.

[]

[] Amy Saunders, "A Creative Approach to Work," The Columbus Dispatch (May 2, 2008), pp. C1, C9.

[]

[] Michelle Conlin and Douglas MacMillan, "Managing the Tweets," BusinessWeek (June 1, 2009), pp. 20–21.

[]

[] See Wayne F. Cascio, "Managing a Virtual Workplace," Academy of Management Executive 14 (2000), pp. 81–90; Sheila Simsarian Webber, "Virtual Teams: A Meta-Analysis," http://www.shrm.org/foundation/findings.asp; and Stacie A. Furst, Martha Reeves, Benson Rosen, and Richard S. Blackburn, "Managing the Life Cycle of Virtual Teams," Academy of Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 6–20.

[]

[] Adam Bryant, "He Wants Subjects, Verbs and Objects," The New York Times (April 26, 2009), www.nytimes.com.

[]

[] The discussion is developed from Schein (1988), pp. 69–75.

[]

[] Developed from guidelines presented in the classic article by Jay Hall, "Decisions, Decisions, Decisions," Psychology Today (November 1971): 55–56.

[]

[] Norman R. F. Maier, "Assets and Liabilities in Group Problem Solving," Psychological Review 74 (1967): 239–249.

[]

[] Irving L. Janis, "Groupthink," Psychology Today (November 1971): 33–36; Irving L. Janis. Groupthink, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982). See also J. Longley and D. G. Pruitt, "Groupthink: A Critique of Janis' Theory," in L. Wheeler (ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980); Carrie R. Leana, "A Partial Test of Janis's Groupthink Model: The Effects of Group Cohesiveness and Leader Behavior on Decision Processes," Journal of Management 1.1 (1985): pp. 5–18. See also Jerry Harvey, "Managing Agreement in Organizations: The Abilene Paradox," Organizational Dynamics (Summer 1974): 63–80.

[]

[] See Janis, op. cit. (1971, 1982).

[]

[] Gayle W. Hill, "Group Versus Individual Performance: Are Two Leads Better Than One?" Psychological Bulletin 91 (1982): 517–539.

[]

[] Bryant, op, cit.

[]

[] These techniques are well described in George P. Huber. Managerial Decision Making (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1980); Andre L. Delbecq, Andrew L. Van de Ven, and David H. Gustafson, Group Techniques for Program Planning: A Guide to Nominal Groups and Delpbi Techniques (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. 1975); William M. Fox, "Anonymity and Other Keys to Successful Problem-Solving Meeting," National Productivity Review 8 (Spring 1989): 145–156.

[]

[] Delbecq, Van de Ven, and Gustafson, op. cit. (1975): Fox, op. cit. (1989).

[]

[] Information from Jessi Hempel, "Big Blue Brainstorm," BusinessWeek (August 7, 2006), p. 70.

[]

[] Delbecq et al., op. cit.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Reality Team Building: Information from Reena Jana, "Real Life Imitates Real World," BusinessWeek (March 23 & 30, 2009), p. 42.

Ethics in OB: Information from Ken Gordon, "Tressel's Way Transforms OSU into 'Model Program,'" Columbus Dispatch (January 5, 2007), pp. A1, A4.

Leaders on Leadership: Information from Jeffrey D. Sachs, The End of Poverty (New York: Penguin, 2005); Muhammad Yunus, Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism (New York Public Affairs, 2008); "Executive MBA Students Learn about Micro-Lending from Its Founder, Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus," Stern Business (Spring/Summer 2008), p. 41; Steve Hamm, "When the Bottom Line Is Ending Poverty," BusinessWeek (March 10, 2008), p. 85; Yunus, op. cit.; Daniel Pimlott, "Bangladeshi's Aid for US Poor," Financial Times (February 16/17, 2008), p. 4; and Simon Hobbs, "Big Payback," CNBC European Business (January/February 2009), pp. 36–38.

Mastering Management: Developed from guidelines presented in the classic article by Jay Hall, "Decisions, Decisions, Decisions," Psychology Today (November 1971), pp. 55–56.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Deadly Meetings—Developed from Eric Matson, "The Seven Sins of Deadly Meetings," Fast Company (April/May 1996), p. 122.

Seagate Technologies—Sarah Max, "Seagate's Moraleathon," BusinessWeek (April 3, 2006), pp. 110–111. American Psychological Association—"Stress Survey: Stress a Major Health Problem in the U.S.," APA Health Center, www.apahelpcenter.org.

Chapter 9

ENDNOTES

[]

[] "Skills Stakeholders Want," BiZEd (May/June 2009), p. 11.

[]

[] For concise overviews, see Susan J. Miller, David J. Hickson, and David C. Wilson, "Decision-Making in Organizations" in Steward R. Clegg, Cynthia Hardy, and Walter Nord, Handbook of Organizational Studies (London: Sage, 1996); George P. Huber, Managerial Decision Making (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1980), pp. 293–312.

[]

[] This figure and the related discussion are developed from conversations with Dr. Alma Acevedo of the University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras and from her articles "Of Fallacies and Curricula: A Case of Business Ethics," Teaching Business Ethics 5 (2001), pp. 157–170; and "Business Ethics: An Introduction," working paper (2009).

[]

[] Acevedo, op. cit. (2009).

[]

[] Based on Gerald F. Cavanagh, American Business Values, 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998).

[]

[] www.josephsoninstitute.org.

[]

[] Stephen Fineman, "Emotion and Organizing," in Clegg, Hardy, and Nord (eds.), op. cit., pp. 542–580.

[]

[] For discussion of ethical frameworks for decision making, see Joseph R. Desjardins, Business, Ethics and the Environment (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2007); Linda A. Trevino and Katherine A. Nelson, Managing Business Ethics (New York: Wiley, 1995); Saul W. Gellerman, "Why 'Good' Managers Make Bad Ethical Choices," Harvard Business Review 64 (July/August 1986), pp. 85–90; and Barbara Ley Toffler, Tough Choices: Managers Talk Ethics (New York: Wiley, 1986).

[]

[] For scholarly reviews, see Dean Tjosvold, "Effects of Crisis Orientation on Managers" Approach to Controversy in Decision Making," Academy of Management Journal 27 (1984), pp. 130–138; and Ian I. Mitroff, Paul Shrivastava, and Firdaus E. Udwadia, "Effective Crisis Management," Academy of Management Executive 1 (1987), pp. 283–292.

[]

[] Quote from Chesley Sullenberger III in photo feature from Robert I. Sutton, "In Praise of Simple Competence," BusinessWeek (April 13, 2009), p. 67.

[]

[] This section stems from the classic work on decision making found in Michael D. Cohen, James G. March, and Johan P Olsen, "The Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice," Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (1972), pp. 1–25; and James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, Organizations (New York: John Wiley, 1958), pp. 137–142.

[]

[] See, for example, Jonathan Rosenoer and William Scherlis, "Risk Gone Wild," Harvard Business Review (May 2009), p. 26.

[]

[] See KPMG, Enterprise Risk Management Services, www.kpmg.com.

[]

[] This traditional distinction is often attributed to Herbert Simon, Administrative Behavior (New York: Free Press, 1945); see also Herbert Simon, The New Science of Management Decision (New York: Harper and Row, 1960).

[]

[] For a historical review, see Leight Buchanan and Andrew O'Connell, "Thinking Machines," Harvard Business Review 84.1 (2006), pp. 38–49. For recent applications, see Jiju Antony, Raj Anand, Maneesh Kumar, and M. K. Tiwari, "Multiple Response Optimization Using Taguchi Methodology and Nero-Fuzzy Based Model," Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 17.7 (2006), pp. 908–112; and Craig Boutilier, "The Influence of Influence Diagrams on Artificial Intelligence," Decision Analysis 2.4 (2005), pp. 229–232.

[]

[] Also see Mary Zey (ed.), Decision Making: Alternatives to Rational Choice Models (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1992).

[]

[] Simon, Organizations (1958).

[]

[] For discussions, see Cohen, March, and Olsen (1972); Miller, Hickson, and Wilson (1996); and Michael Masuch and Perry LaPontin; "Beyond Garbage Cans: An AI Model of Organizational Choice," Administrative Science Quarterly 34 (1989), pp. 38–67.

[]

[] For a good discussion, see Watson H. Agor, Intuition in Organizations: Leading and Managing Productively (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1989); Herbert A. Simon, "Making Management Decisions: The Role of Intuition and Emotion," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 57–64; Orlando Behling and Norman L. Eckel, "Making Sense Out of Intuition," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 57–64; Orlando Behling and Norman L. Eckel, "Making Sense Out of Intuition," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 5 (1991), pp. 46–54.

[]

[] Agor, op cit. (1989).

[]

[] Alan Deutschman, "Inside the Mind of Jeff Bezos," Fast Company 85 (August 2004), www.fastcompany.com.

[]

[] The classic work in this area is found in a series of articles by D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, "Subjective Probability: A Judgment of Representativeness," Cognitive Psychology 3 (1972), pp. 430–454; "On the Psychology of Prediction," Psychological Review 80 (1973), pp. 237–251; "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica 47 (1979), pp. 263–291; "Psychology of Preferences," Scientific American (1982), pp. 161–173; and "Choices, Values, Frames," American Psychologist 39 (1984), pp. 341–350.

[]

[] See Max H. Bazerman, Judgement in Managerial Decision Making, 6th ed. (New York: John Wiley, 2005).

[]

[] See discussion by James A. F. Stoner, Management, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1982), pp. 167–168.

[]

[] Quote from Susan Carey, "Pilot 'in Shock' as He landed Jet in River," The Wall Street Journal (February 9, 2009), p. A6.

[]

[] They may also try and include too many others as shown by Phillip G. Clampitt and M. Lee Williams, "Decision Downsizing," MIT Sloan Management Review 48.2 (2007), pp. 77–89.

[]

[] Victor H. Vroom and Arthur G. Jago, The New Leadership: Managing Participation in Organizations (Engle-wood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988). This is based on earlier work by Victor H. Vroom, "A New Look in Managerial Decision-Making," Organizational Dynamics (Spring 1973), pp. 66–80; and Victor H. Vroom and Phillip Yetton, Leadership and Decision-Making (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973).

[]

[] Vroom and Yetton, op. cit. (1973); and Vroom and Jago, op. cit. (1988).

[]

[] See the discussion by Victor H. Vroom, "Leadership and the Decision Making Process," Organizational Dynamics 28 (2000), pp. 82–94.

[]

[] Barry M. Staw, "The Escalation of Commitment to a Course of Action," Academy of Management Review 6 (1981), pp. 577–587; Barry M. Staw and Jerry Ross, "Knowing When to Pull the Plug," Harvard Business Review 65 (March/April 1987), pp. 68–74. See also Glen Whyte, "Escalating Commitment to a Course of Action: A Reinterpretation," Academy of Management Review 11 (1986), pp. 311–321.

[]

[] Joel Brockner, "The Escalation of Commitment to a Failing Course of Action: Toward Theoretical Progress," Academy of Management Review 17 (1992), pp. 39–61; and J. Ross and B. M. Staw, "Organizational Escalation and Exit: Lessons from the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant," Academy of Management Journal 36 (1993), pp. 701–732.

[]

[] See, for example, Roger von Oech's books, A Whack on the Side of the Head (New York: Warner Books, 1983); and A Kick in the Seat of the Pants (New York: Harper & Row, 1986).

[]

[] See Cameron M. Ford and Dennis A. Gioia, Creative Action in Organizations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995).

[]

[] G. Wallas, The Art of Thought (New York: Harcourt, 1926), cited in Bazerman (1994).

[]

[] E. Glassman, "Creative Problem Solving," Supervisory Management (January 1989), pp. 21–26; and B. Kabanoff and J. R. Rossiter, "Recent Developments in Applied Creativity," International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 9 (1994), pp. 283–324.

[]

[] Teresa M. Amabile, "Motivating Creativity in Organizations," California Management Review 40 (Fall 1997), pp. 39–58.

[]

[] Developed from discussions by Edward DeBono, Lateral Thinking: Creativity Step-by-Step (New York: Harper-Collins, 1970); John S. Dacey and Kathleen H. Lennon, Understanding Creativity (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998); and Bettina von Stamm, Managing Innovation, Design & Creativity (Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

[]

[] R. Drazen, M. Glenn, and R. Kazanijan, "Multilevel The orizing about Creativity in Organizations: A Sensemaking Perspective," Academy of Management Review 21 (1999), pp. 286–307.

[]

[] Developed from discussions by DeBono, Lateral Thinking; Dacey and Lennon, Understanding Creativity; and Von Stamm, Managing Innovation.

[]

[] See "Mosh Pits for Creativity," BusinessWeek (November 7, 2005), pp. 98–99.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/TerraCycle: Information and quotes from David A. Price, "From Dorm Room to Wal-Mart," The Wall Street Journal (March 11, 2009), p. A13; "Huddler.com Interview with CEO and Founder Tom Szaky," www.greenhome. huddler.com/wiki/terracycle; "A Quote by Tom Szaky on Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship, Business, and Decisions," www.gaia.com; Jonathan Birchall, "Adventures of an Eco-Entrepreneur," Financial Times (April 23, 2009); and Tom Szaky, Revolution in a Bottle (Knoxville, TN: Portfolio Trade, 2009).

Ethics in OB: Information from Ciaran Byrne and Niall Lynch, "Racism Rife As Irish Twice As Likely to Be Given Job," Irish Independent (May 7, 2009), p. 8.

Leaders on Leadership: Information from Erica Noonan, Boston Globe (January 4, 2009), www.boston.com/ bostonglobe; "Six Million Users: Nothing to Twitter At," BusinessWeek (March 16, 2009), pp. 51–52; and, Michael S. Malone, "The Twitter Revolution," The Wall Street Journal (April 18–19, 2009), p. A11.

Mastering Management: Reported in Eric Schmidt and Hal Varian, "Google: Ten Golden Rules," Newsweek (December 2, 2005), msnbc.com (retrieved September 17, 2006).

MARGIN PHOTOS

Ford—Information from Matthew Dolan, "Ford Takes Online Gamble with New Fiesta," The Wall Sreet Journal (April 8, 2009), p. B8. Google—Quotes from Dan Fost, "Keeping it all in the Family," The New York Times (November 13, 2008), p. 6. McDonald's—Janet Adamy, "McDonald's Coffee Strategy is Tough Sell," The Wall Street Journal (October 27, 2009), p. B3

Chapter 10

ENDNOTES

[]

[] See, for example, Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row, 1973); and John R. P. Kotter, The General Managers (New York: Free Press, 1982).

[]

[] One of the classic discussions is by Richard E. Walton, Interpersonal Peacemaking: Confrontations and Third-Party Consultation (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1969).

[]

[] Kenneth W. Thomas and Warren H. Schmidt, "A Survey of Managerial Interests with Respect to Conflict," Academy of Management Journal 19 (1976), pp. 315–318.

[]

[] For a good overview, see Richard E. Walton, Managing Conflict: Interpersonal Dialogue and Third Party Roles, 2nd ed. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1987); and Dean Tjosvold, The Conflict-Positive Organization: Stimulate Diversity and Create Unity (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991).

[]

[] Walton (1969).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Information from Hal Lancaster, "Performance Reviews: Some Bosses Try a Fresh Approach," The Wall Street Journal (December 1, 1998), p. B1.

[]

[] Richard E. Walton and John M. Dutton, "The Management of Interdepartmental Conflict: A Model and Review," Administrative Science Quarterly 14 (1969), pp. 73–84.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1980); and Geert Hofstede, "Cultural Constraints in Management Theories," Academy of Management Executive 7 (1993), pp. 81–94.

[]

[] Information from "Capitalizing on Diversity: Navigating the Seas of the Multicultural Workforce and Workplace," BusinessWeek, Special Advertising Section (December 4, 1998).

[]

[] These stages are consistent with the conflict models described by Alan C. Filley, Interpersonal Conflict Resolution (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1975); and Louis R. Pondy, "Organizational Conflict: Concepts and Models," Administrative Science Quarterly (September 1967), pp. 269–320.

[]

[] Information from Ken Brown and Gee L. Lee. "Lucent Fires Top China Executives," The Wall Street Journal (April 7, 2004), p. A8.

[]

[] Walton and Dutton (1969).

[]

[] Rensis Likert and Jane B. Likert, New Ways of Managing Conflict (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976).

[]

[] See Jay Galbraith, Designing Complex Organizations (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1973); and David Nadler and Michael Tushman, Strategic Organizational Design (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1988).

[]

[] E. M. Eisenberg and M. G. Witten, "Reconsidering Openness in Organizational Communication," Academy of Management Review 12 (1987), pp. 418–426.

[]

[] R. G. Lord and M. C. Kernan, "Scripts as Determinants of Purposeful Behavior in Organizations," Academy of Management Review 12 (1987), pp. 265–277.

[]

[] See Filley (1975); and L. David Brown, Managing Conflict at Organizational Interfaces (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1983).

[]

[] Ibid., pp. 27, 29.

[]

[] For discussions, see Robert R. Blake and Jane Strygley Mouton, "The Fifth Achievement," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 6 (1970), pp. 413–427; Kenneth Thomas, "Conflict and Conflict Management," in M. D. Dunnett (ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Behavior (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), pp. 889–935; and Kenneth W. Thomas, "Toward Multi-Dimensional Values in Teaching: The Examples of Conflict Behaviors," Academy of Management Review 2 (1977), pp. 484–490.

[]

[] See Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In (New York: Penguin, 1983). See also James A. Wall Jr., Negotiation: Theory and Practice (Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1985).

[]

[] Roy J. Lewicki and Joseph A. Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1985), pp. 315–319.

[]

[] Ibid., pp. 328–329.

[]

[] For a good discussion, see Michael H. Bond, Behind the Chinese Face (London: Oxford University Press, 1991); and Richard D. Lewis, When Cultures Collide (London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1996), ch. 23.

[]

[] The following discussion is based on Fisher and Ury (1983); and Lewicki and Litterer (1985).

[]

[] This example is developed from Max H. Bazerman, Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1991), pp. 106–108.

[]

[] For a detailed discussion, see Fisher and Ury (1983); and Lewicki and Litterer (1985).

[]

[] Developed from Bazerman (1991), pp. 127–141.

[]

[] Fisher and Ury (1983), p. 33.

[]

[] Lewicki and Litterer (1985), pp. 177–181.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Alan Mulally: Information and quotes from David Kiley, "Ford's Savior?" BusinessWeek (March 16, 2009), pp. 31–34; and Alex Taylor III, "Fixing Up Ford," Fortune (May 14, 2009).

Ethics in OB: Information and quotes from Dana Mattioli, "With Jobs Scarce, Age Becomes an Issue," The Wall Street Journal (May 19, 2009), p. D4.

Leaders on Leadership: Information and quotes from "Secretary General—My Priorities for a Better World," www.un.org/sg/priority.

Mastering Management: Information from Robert Moskowitz, "How to Negotiate Increase," www.worktree.com (retrieved March 8, 2007); Mark Gordon, "Negotiating What You're Worth," Harvard Management Communication Letter 2.1 (Winter 2005); and Dona DeZube, "Salary Negotiation Know-How," www.monster.com (retrieved March 8, 2007).

MARGIN PHOTOS

Twitter—Douglas MacMillan, "A Twitter Code of Conduct," BusinessWeek (May 8, 2009), www.businessweek.com. Workplace Bullying Institute-Mickey Meece, "Backlash: Women Bullying Women at Work," The New York Times (May 10, 2009), www.nytimes.com. Caterpillar in France— David Gauthier-Villars and Leila Abboud, "In France, CEOs Can Become Hostages," The Wall Street Journal (April 3, 2009), pp. B1, B4; "Bossnapping of Executives Wins 45% Backing in Poll," The Wall Street Journal (April 8, 2009), p. A8.

Chapter 11

ENDNOTES

[]

[] See Richard L. Birdwhistell, Kinesics and Context (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970).

[]

[] Edward T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966).

[]

[] See D. E. Campbell, "Interior Office Design and Visitor Response," Journal of Applied Psychology 64 (1979), pp. 648–653; P. C. Morrow and J. C. McElroy, "Interior Office Design and Visitor Response: A Constructive Replication," Journal of Applied Psychology 66 (1981), pp. 646–650.

[]

[] Variation on quote by Ralph Waldo Emerson, http://www.quotationspage.com/quotes/Ralph_Waldo_Emerson/. Feb 15, 2009.

[]

[] Information from "Chapter 2.2," Kellogg (Winter 2004), p. 6; "Room to Read," Northwestern (Spring 2007), pp. 32–33.

[]

[] The statements are from BusinessWeek (July 6, 1981), p. 107.

[]

[] Epictetus quote found at http://thinkexist.com/quotation/we_have_two_ears_and_one_mouth_so_that_we_can/7650.html. Feb 15, 2009.

[]

[] M. P. Rowe and M. Baker, "Are You Hearing Enough Employee Concerns?" Harvard Business Review 62 (May/June 1984), pp. 127–135.

[]

[] This discussion is based on Carl R. Rogers and Richard E. Farson, "Active Listening" (Chicago: Relations Center of the University of Chicago).

[]

[] Modified from an example in ibid.

[]

[] N. Shivapriya, "Accenture All Set to Venture into Corporate Training," Economic Times (February 17, 2007), p. 5.

[]

[] See C. Bamum and N. Woliansky, "Taking Cues from Body Language," Management Review 78 (1989), p. 59; S. Bochner (ed.), Cultures in Contact: Studies in Cross-Cultural Interaction (London: Pergamon, 1982); A. Furnham and S. Bochner, Culture Shock: Psychological Reactions to Unfamiliar Environments (London: Methuen, 1986); "How Not to Do International Business," BusinessWeek (April 12, 1999); Yon Kagegama, "Tokyo Auto Show Highlights," Associated Press (October 24, 2001).

[]

[] Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture (New York: Double- day, 1976).

[]

[] Quotes from "Lost in Translation," The Wall Street Journal (May 18, 2004), pp. B1, B6.

[]

[] See Gary P. Ferraro. "The Need for Linguistic Proficiency in Global Business," Business Horizons 39 (May/June 1966), pp. 39–46.

[]

[] Networking is considered an essential managerial activity by Kotter (1982).

[]

[] Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr., In Search of Excellence (New York: Harper & Row, 1983).

[]

[] Patricia Kitchen, "Businesses Beginning to See Benefits of Employee Wikis," The Columbus Dispatch (March 26, 2007), pp. C1, C2.

[]

[] Diane Brady, "*#!@the E-Mail. Can We Talk?" Business- Week (December 4, 2006), pp. 109–110.

[]

[] See Daniel Goleman, Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships (New York: Bantam Books, 2006).

[]

[] Katherine Reynolds Lewis, "Digital Debris," Columbus Dispatch (February 26, 2007), p. B1.

[]

[] "Four presence potholes to avoid," Network World 24 (1) (January 8, 2007), p. 28.

[]

[] This research is reviewed by John C. Athanassiades, "The Distortion of Upward Communication in Hierarchical Organizations," Academy of Management Journal 16 (June 1973), pp. 207–226.

[]

[] F. Lee, "Being Polite and Keeping Mum. How Bad News Is Communicated in Organizational Hierarchies," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 23 (1993), pp. 1124–1149.

[]

[] The Wiki Workplace, by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, BusinessWeek Online, 00077135, accessed March 26, 2007.

[]

[] Andre Martin, The President's Challenge: Creating the Space for Transformation, internal company document, copyright Mars Inc., 2008.

[]

[] C. Crossley and G. Vogelsang, "Measuring interactional transparency and testing its impact on trust and psychological capital," working paper, University of Nebraska, 2009.

[]

[] D. A. Whetten and K. S. Cameron, Developing Management Skills (New York: Prentice Hall, 2006).

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/IDEO: Description of design thinking found on IDEO Web page at www.ideo.com. Feb 22, 2009.

Information taken from Web site at http://www.ideo.com/culture/careers/. Feb 22, 2009.

Harvard Business School case 9-600-143 titled "IDEO Product Development," April 26, 2007, written by Stefan Thomke and Ashok Nimgade, p. 5.

See www.ideo.com.

All quotes in this paragraph can be found in Harvard Business School case 9-600-143 titled "IDEO Product Development," April 26, 2007, written by Stefan Thomke and Ashok Nimgade, pp. 5–6. See also T. Peters, "The Peters Principles," Forbes ASAP, September 13, 1993, p. 180.

Leaders on Leadership: Information came from http://www.answers.com/topic/bard-anderson, http://www.leadership-turn.com/leaders-that-do-brad-anderson-and-culture/, and http://www.businessweek.com/print/magazine/content/06_50/b4013001.htm?chan=gl, all accessed on March 16, 2009.

Ethics in OB: Randall Stross, "How to Lose Your Job on Your Own Time," The New York Times, December 30, 2007 (late ed., sec. 3, col. 0, Money and Business/Financial Desk; Digital Domain, p. 3).

MARGIN PHOTOS

The Wiki Workplace—Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, BusinessWeek Online, 00077135, accessed March 26, 2007.

Chapter 12

ENDNOTES

[]

[] Several scholars emphasize interdependence, such as W. Richard Scott and Gereal F. Davis, Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural and Open Systems Perspectives (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall, 2007).

[]

[] The most extensive early work was done by Jeffrey Pfeffer, Organizations and Organization Theory (Boston: Pitman, 1983); Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, The External Control of Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1978).

[]

[] Rosabeth Moss Kanter, "Power Failure in Management Circuit," Harvard Business Review (July-August 1979), pp. 65–75.

[]

[] John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, "The Bases of Social Power," in Dorwin Cartwright, ed., Group Dynamics: Research and Theory (Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson, 1962), pp. 607–623.

[]

[] Pfeffer (1983); Pfeffer and Salancik (1978).

[]

[] Stanley Milgram, "Behavioral Study of Obedience," in Dennis W. Organ, ed., The Applied Psychology of Work Behavior (Dallas: Business Publications, Inc., 1978), pp. 384–398. Also see Stanley Milgram, "Behavioral Study of Obedience," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67 (1963), pp. 371–378; Stanley Milgram, "Group Pressure and Action Against a Person," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 69 (1964), pp. 137–143; "Some Conditions of Obedience and Disobedience to Authority," Human Relations 1 (1965), pp. 57–76; Obedience to Authority (New York: Harper and Row, 1974).

[]

[] Randal Morck, "Behavioral Finance in Corporate Governance: Economics and the Ethics of the Devil's Advocate," Journal of Management & Governance 12.2 (2008), pp. 179–191; N. Craig Smith, Sally S. Simpson, and Chun-Yao Huang, "Why Managers Fail to do the Right Thing: A Empirical Study of Ethical and Illegal Conduct," Business Ethics Quarterly 17.4 (2007), pp. 633–649.

[]

[] Chester Barnard, The Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1938).

[]

[] For recent studies, see Karin A. Orvis, Nicole M. Dudley, and Jose M Corlina, "Conscientiousness and Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach: A Longitudinal Field Study," Journal of Applied Psychology 93.5 (2008), pp. 1183–1195; Prashant Bordia, Simion Lyod D. Restubog, and Robert L. Tang, "When Employees Strike Back: Investigating Mediating Mechanisms between Psychological Contract Breach and Work Place Deviance, "Journal of Applied Psychology 93.5 (2008), pp. 1004–1010. For a review, see Neil Conway and Rob B. Briner, Understanding Psychological Contracts at Work: Critical Evaluation of Theory and Research (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005).

[]

[] Barnard (1938).

[]

[] See Joseph R. DesJardins, Business Ethics and the Environment: Imagining a Sustainable Future (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall, 2007); Steven N. Brenner and Earl A. Mollander, "Is the Ethics of Business Changing?" Harvard Business Review 55 (February 1977), pp. 57–71; Barry Z. Posner and Warren H. Schmidt, "Values and the American Manager: An Update," California Management Review XXVI (Spring 1984), pp. 202–216.

[]

[] French and Raven, 1962.

[]

[] We have added process, information, and representative power to the French and Raven list.

[]

[] We have added coalition power to the French and Raven list.

[]

[] See Jean-Jacques Herings, Gerald Van Der Lean and Doif Tallman, "Social Structured Games," Theory and Decision 62.1 (2007), pp. 1–30; and William Matthew Bowler, "Organizational Goals Versus the Dominant Coalition: A Critical View of the Value of Organizational Citizenship Behavior," Journal of Behavior and Applied Management 7.3 (2006), pp. 258–277.

[]

[] For an interesting but different take on power, networks, and visibility, see Calvin Morrill, Mayer N. Zold, and H. Roa, "Covert Political Conflict in Organizations: Challenges from Below," American Sociological Review 29 (2003), pp. 391–416.

[]

[] David Kipinis, Stuart M. Schmidt, Chris Swaffin-Smith, and Ian Wilkinson, "Patterns of Managerial Influence: Shotgun Managers, Tacticians, and Bystanders," Organizational Dynamics 12 (1984), pp. 60–69.

[]

[] Ibid. David Kipinis, Stuart M. Schmidt, and Ian Wilkin- son, "Intraorganizational Influence Tactics: Explorations in Getting One's Way," Journal of Applied Psychology 65 (1980), pp. 440–452.

[]

[] See Conway and Briner (2005).

[]

[] Warren Schilit and Edwin A. Locke, "A Study of Upward Influence in Organizations," Administrative Science Quarterly 27 (1982), pp. 301–316.

[]

[] Ibid. and see Amil Somech and Anat Drach-Zahavy, "Relative Power and Influence Strategy: The Effect of Agent-target Organizational Power on Superiors' Choices of Influence Strategies," Journal of Organizational Behavior 23.2 (2002), pp. 167–194.

[]

[] For discussion of empowerment, see Scott E. Seibert, Seth R. Silver, and W. Allan Randolph, "Taking Empowerment to the Next Level: A Multiple-level Model of Empowerment, Performance and Satisfaction," Academy of Management Journal 47.3 (2004), pp. 37–53; John E. Mathieu, Lucky L. Gibson, and Thomas M. Ruddy, "Empowerment and Team Effectiveness: An Empirical Test of an Integrated Model," Journal of Applied Psychology 91.1 (2006), pp. 1–10; Jean M Bartunek and Gretchen M. Spreitzer, "The Interdisciplinary Career of a Popular Construct Used in Management: Empowerment in the Late 20th Century," Journal of Management Inquiry 15.3 (2006), pp. 255–274.

[]

[] M. Anita, M. Liu, W. M. Chiu, and R. Fellows, "Enhancing Commitment Through Work Empowerment," Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 14.6 (2007), pp. 568–574.

[]

[] M. S. Logan and D. Ganster, "The Effects of Empowerment on Attitudes and Performance: The Role of Social Support and Empowerment Beliefs," Journal of Management Studies 44 (2007), pp. 1523–1531.

[]

[] J. Pfeffer, "Producing Sustainable Competitive Advantage Through the Effective Management of People," Academy of Management Executive 19.4 (2005), pp. 85–115.

[]

[] Useful reviews include a chapter in Robert H. Miles, Macro Organizational Behavior (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1980); Bronston T. Mayes and Robert W. Allen, "Toward a Definition of Organizational Politics," Academy of Management Review 2 (1977), pp. 672–677; Dan Farrell and James C. Petersen, "Patterns of Political Behavior in Organizations," Academy of Management Review 7 (1982), pp. 403–412; D. L. Madison, R. W. Allen, L. W. Porter, and B. T. Mayes, "Organizational Politics: An Exploration of Managers' Perceptions," Human Relations 33 (1980), pp. 92–107.

[]

[] Pheffer (1981).

[]

[] For a discussion, see Christopher Gresov and Carroll Stephen, "Context of Interunit Influence Attempts, "Administrative Science Quarterly 38.2 (1993), pp. 252–304.

[]

[] Warren K. Schilit and Edwin A. Locke, "A Study of Upward Influence in Organizations," Administrative Science Quarterly 27 (1982), pp. 304–316.

[]

[] Mayes and Allen (1977), p. 675; James L. Hall and Joel L. Leldecker, "A Review of Vertical and Lateral Relations: A New Perspective for Managers," pp. 138–146 in Patrick Connor, ed., Dimensions in Modern Management, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982); John P. Kotter, "Power, Success, and Organizational Effectiveness," Organizational Dynamics 6 (1978), pp. 27–43.

[]

[] See Susan William and Rick Wilson, "Group Support Systems, Power, and Influence in an Organization: A Field Study," Decision Sciences 28.4 (1997), pp. 911–938.

[]

[] B. Ashforth and R. T. Lee, "Defensive Behavior in Organizations: A Preliminary Model," Human Relations (July 1990), pp. 621–648; personal communication with Blake Ashforth, March 2006; Pfeffer (1983).

[]

[] For discussion of attribution theory, see Simon Tagger and Michell Neubert, "The Impact of Poor Performers on Team Outcomes: An Empirical Examination of Attribution Theory," Personnel Psychology 57.4 (2004), pp. 935–979; Robert G. Lord and Karen Maher, "Alternative Information-Processing Models and Their Implications," Academy of Management Review 15.1 (1990), pp. 9–29.

[]

[] For more extensive discussions, see Richard Ritte and Steven Levy, The Ropes to Skip and the Ropes to Know: Studies in Organizational Behavior, 7th Ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2006); Gerry Griffin and Ciaran Parker, Games Companies Play: An Insider's Guide to Surviving Politics (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2004).

[]

[] See J. M. Ivancevich, T. N. Deuning, J. A. Gilbert, and R. Konopaske, "Deterring White-Collar Crime," Academy of Management Executive 17.2 (2003), pp. 114–128.

[]

[] See J. P. O'Connor Jr., R. Priem, and K. M. Gilly, "Do CEO Stock Options Prevent or Promote Fraudulent Financial Reporting," Academy of Management Journal 49.3 (2006), pp. 483–500; D. Dalton, C. Daily, A. E. Ellstrand, and J. L. Johnson, "Meta-Analysis of Financial Performance and Quality: Fusion or Confusion, "Academy of Management Journal 46.1 (1998), pp. 13–26.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Gerard Sanders and Donald Hambrick, "Swinging for the Fences: The Effects of CEO Stock Options on Company Risk Taking and Performance," Academy of Management Journal 50.5 (2007), pp. 1055–1078; Xiaomeng Zhang, Kathryn Bartol, Ken Smith, Michael Pfarrer, and Dmitry Khanin, "CEOS on the Edge: Earnings Manipulation and Stock-Based Incentive Misalignment," Academy of Management Journal 51.2 (2008), pp. 241–258.

[]

[] See David Henry, "Worker vs. CEO Pay: Room to Run," BusinessWeek (October 30, 2006), pp. 13–14; Takao Kato and Katsuyuii Kubo, "CEO Compensation and Firm Performance in Japan, Evidence from New Panel Data on Individual CEO Pay," Journal of the Japanese and International Economics 20.1 (2006), pp. 1–31; Jeffery Moriarty, "Do CEOs Get Paid Too Much," Business Ethics Quarterly 15.15 (2005), pp. 257–266; O'Connor, Priem, and Gilly (2006); C. Daily, D. Dalton, and A. A. Cannella, Jr., "Corporate Governance: Decades of Dialog and Data," Academy of Management Review 28 (2003), pp. 114–128.

[]

[] See Pfeffer (1983).

[]

[] Richard N. Osborn, "Strategic Leadership and Alliances in a Global Economy," Working Paper, Department of Business, Wayne State University (2007).

[]

[] The notion of a dominant coalition was a key concept in James D. Thompson, Organizations in Action (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967). Also see Rony Simons and Randall S. Peterson, "When to Let Them Duke It Out," Harvard Business Review 84.6 (2006), pp. 23–49; M. Firth, P. M. Y. Fund, and O. M. Rui, "Firm Performance, Governance Structure, and Top Management Turnover in a Transition Economy," Journal of Management Studies 43.6 (2006), pp. 1289–1299; John A. Pearce, "A Structural Analysis of Dominant Coalitions in Small Banks," Journal of Management 21.6 (1995), pp. 1075–1096.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Wikipedia: Jimmy Wales/Vivan Schiller: CBC News, "Errors are Human, Says Wikipedia Found," CBC News Comments. January 15, 2009 www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2009/01/15/jimmy-wales. Katherine Mangu-Ward, "Wikipedia and Beyond," Reasononline, (2007) June.

WWW.reason.com/news/show/1989, 1–21 Chriirs Anderson, "Jimmy Wales," Time. April 30, 2006. Farhad Manjoo, "Where Wikipedia Ends" Time. September 28, 2009, pp. 50–51.

Research Insight: Amy J. Hillman, Christine Shropshire, and Albert Cannella, "Organizational Predictors of Women on Corporate Boards," Academy of Management Journal 5 (2007), pp. 941–968; http://www.catalyst.org/file/241/08_Census_COTE_JAN.pdf.

Ethics in OB: Based on Ruth W. Grant, "Ethics and Incentives: A Political Approach," The American Political Science Review 100.1 (2006), pp. 29–40.

Mastering Management: Gerald Ferris, Sherry Davidson, and Pamela Perrewe, Political Skill at Work (Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 2005).

MARGIN PHOTOS

Mellody Hobson—Information from "New Xerox Leader Marks a Milestone for Diversity," The Irish Times (June 26, 2009), p. 12.

A.D. Marble—A. D. Marble & Company.com

Empowermentwww.jcempowerment.org

Cisco Systemswww.cisco.com

Chapter 13

ENDNOTES

[]

[] For more information on Andrea Jung see www.avon.com.

[]

[] Arthur G. Bedeian and James G. Hunt, "Academic Amnesia and Vestigial Assumptions of Our Forefathers," The Leadership Quarterly 17 (2006), pp. 190–205.

[]

[] See J. P. Kotter, A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management (New York: Free Press, 1990).

[]

[] Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 6th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006), p. 8.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] See Bernard M. Bass, Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1990).

[]

[] See Alan Bryman, Charisma and Leadership in Organizations (London: Sage, 1992), ch. 5; Ralph M. Stogdill, Handbook of Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1974).

[]

[] Based on information from Robert J. House and Ram Aditya, "The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo-Vadis?" Journal of Management 23 (1997), pp. 409–474; Shelley A. Kirkpatrick and Edwin A. Locke, "Leadership: Do Traits Matter?" The Executive 5.2 (1991), pp. 48–60; Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998), ch. 10.

[]

[] Rensis Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961).

[]

[] Bass (1990), ch. 24.

[]

[] Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, The Managerial Grid (Houston: Gulf Publishing Co., 1991), p. 29.

[]

[] See M. F. Peterson, "PM Theory in Japan and China: What's in It for the United States?" Organizational Dynamic, 16 (Spring 1988), pp. 22–39; J. Misumi and M. F. Peterson, "The Performance-Maintenance Theory of Leadership: Review of a Japanese Research Program," Administrative Science Quarterly 30 (1985), pp. 198–223; P. B. Smith, J. Misumi, M. Tayeb, M. F. Peterson, and M. Bond, "On the Generality of Leadership Style Measures Across Cultures," paper presented at the International Congress of Applied Psychology, Jerusalem, July 1986.

[]

[] Gretchen Spreitzer, "Giving Peace a Chance: Organizational Leadership, Empowerment, and Peace," Journal of Organizational Behavior 28 (2007), pp. 1077–1095.

[]

[] House and Aditya (1997).

[]

[] Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991); Yukl (1998), ch. 10; J. G. Hunt and G. E. Dodge, "Management in Organizations," Handbook of Psychology (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000).

[]

[] This section is based on Fred E. Fiedler and Martin M. Chemers, Leadership (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1974).

[]

[] This discussion of cognitive resource theory is based on Fred E. Fiedler and Joseph E. Garcia, New Approaches in Effective Leadership (New York: Wiley, 1987).

[]

[] See L. H. Peters, D. D. Harke, and J. T. Pohlmann, "Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership: An Application of the Meta-Analysis Procedures of Schmidt and Hunter," Psychological Bulletin 97 (1985), pp. 274–285.

[]

[] Yukl (2006).

[]

[] F. E. Fiedler, Martin Chemers, and Linda Mahar, Improving Leadership Effectiveness: The Leader Match Concept, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1985).

[]

[] For documentation, see Fred E. Fiedler and Linda Mahar, "The Effectiveness of Contingency Model Training: A Review of the Validation of Leader Match," Personnel Psychology 32 (Spring 1979); 45–62; Fred E. Garcia, Cecil H. Bell, Martin M. Chemers, and Dennis Patrick, "Increasing Mine Productivity and Safety Through Management Training and Organization Development: A Comparative Study," Basic and Applied Social Psychology 5.1 (March 1984), pp. 1–18; Arthur G. Jago and James W. Ragan, "The Trouble with Leader Match Is That It Doesn't Match Fiedler's Contingency Model," Journal of Applied Psychology 71 (November 1986), pp. 555–559; Yukl (1998); R. Ayman, M. M. Chemers, and F. E. Fiedler, "The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: Its Levels of Analysis," The Leadership Quarterly 6.2 (Summer 1995), pp. 147–168.

[]

[] See Yukl (1998); R. Ayman, M. M. Chemers, and F. E. Fiedler, "The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: Its Levels of Analysis," The Leadership Quarterly 6.2 (Summer 1995), pp. 141–188.

[]

[] This section is based on Robert J. House and Terence R. Mitchell, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership," Journal of Contemporary Business 3 (Autumn 1977), pp. 81–97.

[]

[] House and Mitchell (1977).

[]

[] C. A. Schriesheim and L. L. Neider, "Path-Goal Theory: The Long and Winding Road," The Leadership Quarterly 7 (1996), pp. 317–321; M. G. Evans, "Commentary on R. J. House's Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness," The Leadership Quarterly 7 (1996), pp. 305–309.

[]

[] R. J. House, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory," The Leadership Quarterly 7 (1996), pp. 323–352.

[]

[] See the discussion of this approach in Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988); Paul Hersey, Kenneth Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior, 8th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001).

[]

[] R. P. Vecchio and C. Fernandez, "Situational Leadership Theory Revisited," in M. Schnake (ed.), 1995 Southern Management Association Proceedings (Valdosta, GA: Georgia Southern University, 1995), pp. 137–139; Claude L. Graeff, "Evolution of Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical Review," The Leadership Quarterly 8 (1997), pp. 153–170.

[]

[] Yukl (1998); George Graen, "Leader-Member Exchange Theory Development: Discussant's Comments," paper presented at the Academy of Management meeting, San Diego, August 1998; Peter G. Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997), ch. 7.

[]

[] Based on Gary Yukl, "Leader-Member Exchange Theory," Leadership in Organizations (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006), pp. 117–120.

[]

[] G. B. Graen and M. Uhl-Bien, "Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership: Development of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi-Domain Perspective," The Leadership Quarterly 6 (1995), pp. 219–247.

[]

[] The discussion in this section is based on Steven Kerr and John Jermier, "Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22 (1978), pp. 375–403; Jon P. Howell, David E. Bowen, Peter W. Dorfman, Steven Kerr, and Phillip M. Podsakoff, "Substitutes for Leadership: Effective Alternatives to Ineffective Leadership," Organizational Dynamics 19.1 (Summer 1990), pp. 21–38.

[]

[] Phillip M. Podsakoff, Peter W. Dorfman, Jon P. Howell, and William D. Todor, "Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviors: A Preliminary Test of a Culture-Free Style of Leadership Effectiveness," Advances in Comparative Management 2 (1989), pp. 95–138; T. K. Peng, "Substitutes for Leadership in an International Setting," unpublished manuscript, College of Business Administration, Texas Tech University (1990); P. M. Podsakoff and S. B. MacKenzie, "Kerr and Jermier's Substitutes for Leadership Model: Background, Empirical Assessment, and Suggestions for Future Research," The Leadership Quarterly 8.2 (1997), pp. 117–132.

[]

[] See J. Pfeffer, "Management as Symbolic Action: The Creation and Maintenance of Organizational Paradigms," in Cummings and Staw, Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 3 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1981), pp. 1–52.

[]

[] James R. Meindl, "On Leadership: An Alternative to the Conventional Wisdom," in Staw and Cummings, Researching Organizational Behavior, vol. 3 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1981), pp. 159–203; compare with Bryman (1992); also see James G. Hunt and Jay A. Conger (eds.), The Leadership Quarterly 10.2 (1999), special issue.

[]

[] D. Eden and U. Leviatan. "Implicit Leadership Theory as a Determinant of the Factor Structure Underlying Supervisory Behavior Scales," Journal of Applied Psychology 60 (1975), pp. 736–741.

[]

[] See T. R. Mitchell, S. G. Green, and R. E. Wood, "An Attribution Model of Leadership and the Poor Performing Subordinate: Development and Validation," in L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 3 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1981), pp. 197–234.

[]

[] Robert Lord and Karen Maher, Leadership and Information Processing (Boston: Unwin Hyman); Jun Yan and James G. Hunt, "A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Perceived Leadership Effectiveness," International Journal of Cross Cultural Management (in press, 2006).

[]

[] Yan and Hunt (in press, 2006).

[]

[] V. R. Carter, "Lincoln's Legacy," Associations Now (January 2008), pp. 60–66.

[]

[] James G. Hunt, Kimberly B. Boal, and Ritch L. Sorenson, "Top Management Leadership: Inside the Black Box," The Leadership Quarterly 1 (1990), pp. 41–65.

[]

[] C. R. Gerstner and D. B. Day, "Cross-Cultural Comparison of Leadership Prototypes," The Leadership Quarterly 5 (1994), pp. 122–134.

[]

[] Jun Yan and James G. Hunt (in press, 2006).

[]

[] Olga Epitropaki and Robin Martin, "Implicit Leadership Theories in Applied Settings: Factor Structure, Generalizability, and Stability Over Time," Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004), pp. 293–310.

[]

[] See R. J. House, "A 1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership," in J. G. Hunt and L. L. Larson (eds.), Leadership: The Cutting Edge (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977), pp. 189–207.

[]

[] R. J. House, W. D. Spangler, and J. Woycke, "Personality and Charisma in the U.S. Presidency," Administrative Science Quarterly 36 (1991), pp. 364–396.

[]

[] Pillai and E. A. Williams, "Does Leadership Matter in the Political Arena? Voter Perceptions of Candidates' Transformational and Charismatic Leadership and the 1996 U.S. Presidential Vote," The Leadership Quarterly 9 (1998), pp. 397–416.

[]

[] Adapted from Jeffery S. Mio, Ronald E. Riggio, Shana Levin, and Renford Reese, "Presidential Leadership Charisma: The Effects of Metaphor," The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005), pp. 287–294.

[]

[] See Jane M. Howell and Bruce J. Avolio, "The Ethics of Charismatic Leadership: Submission or Liberation," Academy of Management Executive 6 (May 1992), pp. 43–54.

[]

[] T. L. Stanley, "Ethical Decision Making in Tough Times," Supervision 70.3 (2009), pp. 3–5.

[]

[] Jay Conger and Rabindra N. Kanungo, Charismatic Leadership in Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998).

[]

[] Conger and Kanungo (1998).

[]

[] J. Conger and R. Kanungo, "Training Charismatic Leadership, A Risky and Critical Task," in J. Conger and R. Kanungo (eds.), Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988), ch. 11.

[]

[] Boas Shamir, "Social Distance and Charisma: Theoretical Notes and an Exploratory Study," The Leadership Quarterly 6 (Spring 1995), pp. 19–48.

[]

[] See B. M. Bass, Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations (New York: Free Press, 1985); Bryman (1992), pp. 98–99.

[]

[] B. M. Bass, A New Paradigm of Leadership (Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1996).

[]

[] Bryman (1992), ch. 6; B. M. Bass and B. J. Avolio, "Transformational Leadership: A Response to Critics," in M. M. Chemers and R. Ayman (eds.), Leadership Theory and Practice: Perspectives and Directions (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1993), pp. 49–80; Kevin B. Lowe, K. Galen Kroeck, and Nagaraj Sivasubramanium, "Effectiveness Correlates of Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Review of the MLQ Literature," Leadership Quarterly 7 (1996), pp. 385–426.

[]

[] Bass (1996); Bass and Avolio (1993).

[]

[] See J. R. Kouzas and B. F. Posner, The Leadership Challenge: How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991).

[]

[] Marshall Sashkin and Molly G. Sashkin, Leadership That Matters (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2003), ch. 10.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Andrea Jung: www.avon.com.

Fiedler model based on F. E. Fiedler and M. M. Chemers, Leadership and Effective Management (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1974).

Path-goal information adapted from Richard N. Osborn, James G. Hunt, and Lawrence R. Jauch, Organizational Theory: An Integrated Approach (New York: Wiley, 1980), p. 464.

From Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988), p. 171. Used by permission.

Mastering Management: Based on Steven Kerr and John Jermier, "Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22 (1978), pp. 387; Fred Luthans, Organizational Behavior, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992), ch. 10.

Close and distant based on Boas Shamir, "Social Distance and Charisma: Theoretical Notes and an Exploratory Study," The Leadership Quarterly 6 (1995), pp. 19–48.

Leaders on Leadership: M. Brannigan, "Miami banker gives $60 million of his own to employees," www.MiamiHerald.com (February 14, 2009); www.thestreet.com; A. James Memmott, "Leonard Abess—a banker who gave away rnillions," Muckety News (February 26, 2009).

Ethics in OB: Adapted from T. L. Stanley, "Ethical Decision Making in Tough Times," Supervision 70.3 (2009), pp. 3–5.

OB Savvy: J. Conger and R. Kanungo, "Training Charismatic Leadership, A Risky and Critical Task," in J. Conger and R. Kanungo (eds.), Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988), ch. 11.

OB Savvy: V.R. Carter, "Lincolin's Legacy," Associations Now (January 2008), pp. 60–66.

Based on Gary Yukl, "Leader-Member Exchange Theory,"

Leadership in Organizations Upper Saddle River, N. 5.

Prentice-Hall 2006) pp. 117–120.

www.avon.com.

goldsea.com/ww/jungandrea

Bill George, "Andrea Jung Corporate Executive: A new Makeover for an old retail face." U.S. News and World Report November 12, 2007 p. 37.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Tiger Woods—Information from "Accenture: High Performance Delivered," BusinessWeek (June 22, 2009), p. 58. Janet Napolitano—R. G. Edmonson, "DHSS New Boss," Journal of Commerce (March 9, 2009).

Lynn Willenbring—Anonymous, "CIO Profiles," InformationWeek (March 23, 2009), p. 12.

Chapter 14

ENDNOTES

[]

[] For more on John C. Lechleiter, see www.lilly.com.

[]

[] Based on Bruce J. Avolio and William L. Gardner, "Authentic Leadership Development: Getting to the Root of Positive Forms of Leadership," The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005), pp. 315–338; William L. Gardner, Bruce J. Avolio, Fred Luthans, Douglas R. May, and Fred O. Walumba, "'Can You See the Real Me?' A Self-Based Model of Authentic Leader and Follower Development," The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005), pp. 343–372; Bill George, Peter Sims, Andrew N. McLean, and Diana Mayer, "Discovering Your Authentic Leadership," Harvard Business Review (February, 2007), pp. 1–9.

[]

[] For a more extended discussion based on positive psychology, see Avolio and Gardner, 2005.

[]

[] Judith A. Ross, "Making Every Leadership Moment Matter," Harvard Management Update (September, 2006), pp. 3–5.

[]

[] James K. Dittmar, "An Interview with Larry Spears," Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 13 (2006), pp. 108–118.

[]

[] Based on Lewis W. Fry, "Toward a Paradigm of Spiritual Leadership," The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005), pp. 619–622; Lewis W. Fry, Steve Vitucci, and Marie Cedillo, "Spiritual Leadership and Army Transformation: Theory, Measurement, and Establishing a Baseline," The Leadership Quarterly 16.5 (2005), pp. 835–862.

[]

[] For a discussion, see Michael E. Brown and Linda K. Trevino, "Ethical Leadership: A Review and Future Directions," The Leadership Quarterly 17.6 (2006), pp. 579–609.

[]

[] Michael E. Brown and Linda K. Trevino, "Ethical Leadership: A Review and Future Directions," The Leadership Quarterly 17 (2006), pp. 595–616.

[]

[] L. Jon Wertheim, "Do College Athletics Corrupt?" Sports Illustrated (March 5, 2007), p. 67.

[]

[] This discussion relies heavily on that of Katrina A. Zalatan and Gary Yukl, "Team Leadership," in George R. Goethals, Georgia J. Sorenson, and James McGregor Burns, Encyclopedia of Leadership, vol. A (Great Barrington, MA, Berkshire/Sage, 2004), pp. 1529–1552.

[]

[] See Mary Uhl-Bien, Russ Marion, and Bill McKelvey, "Complexity Leadership Theory: Shifting Leadership from the Industrial Age to the Knowledge Era," The Leadership Quarterly 18(4) (2007), pp. 298–318.

[]

[] For specific aspects of self leadership, see Jeffery D. Houghton, Christopher P. Neck, and Charles C. Manz, "Self Leadership and Super Leadership," in Craig L. Pearce and Jay A. Conger (eds.), Shared Leadership (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003), pp. 123–140.

[]

[] This discussion is built primarily upon Robert J. House, Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta (eds.), Culture, Leadership, and Organizations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2004); Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, Mary Sully de Luque, and Robert J. House, "In the Eye of the Beholder: Cross Cultural Lessons in Leadership from Project GLOBE," Academy of Management Perspectives 20.1 (2006), pp. 67–90.

[]

[] For a discussion of top-management teams, see Amy C. Edmonson, Michael A. Roberto, and Michael D. Watkins, "A Dynamic Model of Top Management Team Effectiveness: Matching Unstructured Task Streams," The Leadership Quarterly 14 (2003), pp. 297–325.

[]

[] See Michael D. Mumford, Alison Lantes, Jay J. Caughron, and Tamara L Friedrich, "Charismatic, Ideological and Pragmatic Leadership: Mult-level Influences on Emergence and Performance," The Leadership Quarterly 19.2 (2008), pp. 144–160.

[]

[] D. C. Hambrick, "Top Management Teams," in Nigel Nicholson (ed.), Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Organizational Behavior (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishers, 1995), pp. 567–568.

[]

[] This discussion of top management teams draws heavily upon A. C. Edmonson, Michael A. Roborto, and Michael D. Watkins, "A Dynamic Model of Top Management Team Effectiveness: Matching Unstructured Task Streams," The Leadership Quarterly 14 (2003), pp. 297–325.

[]

[] For a discussion of top management teams, see D. C. Hambrick, T. S. Cho, and M. J. Chen, "The Influence of Top Management Team Hetrogenity on Firm's Competitive Moves," Administrative Science Quarterly 41 (1996), pp. 659–684; T. Simons, L. H. Pelled, and K. A. Smith, "Making Use of Difference, Diversity, Debate and Decision Comprehensiveness in Top Management Teams," Academy of Management Journal 42 (1999), pp. 662–673.

[]

[] R. N. Osborn, J. G. Hunt, and L. R. Jauch, "Toward a Contextual Theory of Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 13 (2002), pp. 797–837.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] This discussion of the multiple-level perspective is based primarily on James G. Hunt, Leadership: A New Synthesis (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1991), Ken Shepard, Jerry L. Gray, James G. (Jerry) Hunt, and Sarah McArthur (eds.), Organization Design, Levels of Work and Human Capability (Ontario, Canada: Global Organization Design Society, 2007), p. 534.

[]

[] Gerry Larsson, Thorvald Haerem, Misa Sjöberg, Aida Alvinius, and Björn Bakken, "Indirect Leadership Under Severe Stress: a Qualitative Inquiry into the 2004 Kosovo Riots," International Journal of Organizational Analysis 15.1 (2007), pp. 23–35.

[]

[] Yair Berson, Shaul Oreg, and Taly Dvir, "CEO Values, Organizational Culture and Firm Outcomes." Journal of Organizational Behavior 29 (2008), pp. 615–633.

[]

[] See R. Marion and M. Uhl-Bien, "Leadership in Complex Organizations," The Leadership Quarterly 12.4 (2001), pp. 389–418.

[]

[] This discussion of Boal and Hooijberg's strategic leadership perspective is based primarily on Kimberly B. Boal and Robert Hooijberg, "Strategic Leadership Research: Moving On," The Leadership Quarterly 1 (2000), pp. 515–550.

[]

[] Robert E. Quinn, Sue R. Faerman, Michael P. Thompson, and Michael R. McGrath, Becoming a Master Manager, 4th ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006).

[]

[] Boal and Hooijberg (2000).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] L. W. Porter and G. B. McLaughlin, "Leadership and the Organizational Context: Like the Weather," The Leadership Quarterly 17 (2006), pp. 559–573.

[]

[] Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch, 2002.

[]

[] Gary Johns, "The Essential Impact of Context on Organizations Behavior," Academy of Management Review 31.2 (2006), pp. 386–408.

[]

[] Based on Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (2002).

[]

[] R. Marion, The Edge of Organization: Chaos and Complexity Theories of Formal Social Systems (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999).

[]

[] Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (2002).

[]

[] R. N. Osborn and R. Marion, "Contextual leadership, Transformational Leadership and the Performance of Innovation Seeking Alliances." The Leadership Quarterly (in press).

[]

[] Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (2002).

[]

[] Adopted from Karlene Grabner, "Giving circles bring people together for the sake of charity." Lubbock Avalarche Journal (November 12, 2006), p. 6.

[]

[] Michael Beer and Nitin Mitra, "Cracking the Code of Change," Harvard Business Review (May-June 2000), p. 133.

[]

[] See David Nadler and Michael Tushman, Strategic Organizational Design (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1988); Noel M. Tichy, "Revolutionize Your Company," Fortune (December 13, 1993), pp. 114–118.

[]

[] Jerry I. Porras and Robert C. Silvers, "Organization Development and Transformation," Annual Review of Psychology 42 (1991), pp. 51–78.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] The classic description of organizations on these terms is by Harold J. Leavitt, "Applied Organizational Change in Industry: Structural, Technological and Humanistic Approaches," in James G. March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965). This application is developed from Robert A. Cooke, "Managing Change in Organizations," in Gerald Zaltman (ed.), Management Principles for Nonprofit Organizations (New York: American Management Association, 1979). See also David A. Nadler, "The Effective Management of Organizational Change," pp. 358–369, in Jay W. Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987).

[]

[] Beer and Mitra, 2000, p. 133.

[]

[] Kurt Lewin, "Group Decision and Social Change," pp. 459–473, in G. E. Swanson, T. M. Newcomb, and E. L. Hartley (eds.), Readings in Social Psychology (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1952).

[]

[] Noel M. Tichy and Mary Anne Devanna, The Transformational Leader (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986), p. 44.

[]

[] The change strategies are described in Robert Chin and Kenneth D. Benne, "General Strategies for Effecting Changes in Human Systems," pp. 22–45, in Warren G. Bennis, Kenneth D. Benne, Robert Chin, and Kenneth E. Corey The Planning of Change, 3rd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969).

[]

[] Example developed from an exercise reported in J. William Pfeffer and John E. Jones, A Handbook of Structural Experiences for Human Relations Training, vol. II (La Jolla, CA: University Associates, 1973).

[]

[] Pfeffer and Jones, 1973.

[]

[] Pfeffer and Jones, 1973.

[]

[] Donald Klein, "Some Notes on the Dynamics of Resistance to Change: The Defender Role," in Bennis et al., 1969, pp. 117–124.

[]

[] See Everett M. Roberts, Communication of Innovations, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1993).

[]

[] Everett M. Roberts, 1993.

[]

[] John P. Kotter and Leonard A. Schlesinger, "Choosing Strategies for Change," Harvard Business Review 57 (March-April 1979), pp. 109–112.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/For more on John C. Lechleiter, see www.lilly.com. Leaders on Leadership—Information from Miguel Helft, "Yahoo's New Chief Makes Decisive Appearance," The New York Times (January 16, 2009): www.nytimes.com; Jessica E. Vascellaro, "Yahoo CEO Set to Install Top-Down Management," The Wall Street Journal (February 23, 2009), p. Bl; and, "A Question of Management," The Wall Street Journal (June 2, 2009), p. R4.

Adapted from Karlene Grabner, "Giving Circles Bring People Together for Sake of Charity," Lubbock Avalanche Journal (November 12, 2006), p. D6.

Based on John P. Kotter, "Why Transformation Efforts Fail," Harvard Business Review (March-April 1995), pp. 59–67.

Ethics in OB/L. Jon Wertheim, "Do College Athletics Corrupt?" Sports Illustrated (March 5, 2007), p.67.

MARGIN PHOTOS

John C. Lechleiter and Carol Bartz—Quote from "An Old Pro's Wisdom: it Begins with a Belief in People," New York Times (September 10, 1989), p. F2. Max DePree's books include Leadership Jazz (New York: Dell, 1993) and Leadership is an Art (New York: Broadway Business, 2004), and Leading Without Power: Finding Hope in Serving Community (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003).

Fred Smith—Fred Smith of FedEx on Change- Ellen Florian, "I have a Cast-Iron Stomach," Fortune (August 1, 2006).

Gene Smith and Oprah Winfrey—Information and quotes from the Associated Press, "Oprah Opens School for Girls in S. Africa Lavish Leadership Academy Aims to Give Impoverished Chance to Succeed," www.MSNBC.com (January 2, 2007); "Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls–South Africa Celebrates Its Official Opening," www.oprah.com/about; and, Jed Dreben, "Oprah Winfrey: 'I Don't Regret' Opening School," www.people.com (December 12, 2007).

Chapter 15

ENDNOTES

[]

[] This and many analyses of corporate culture are based on Edgar Schein, "Organizational Culture," American Psychologist 45 (1990), pp. 109–119; and E. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership(San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985).

[]

[] For a recent treatment, see Ali Danisman, C. R. Hinnings, and Trevor Slack, "Integration and Differentiation in Institutional Values: An Empirical Investigation in the Field of Canadian National Sport Organizations," Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences 23.4 (2006), pp. 301–315.

[]

[] Schein (1990).

[]

[] See www.dellapp.us.dell.com.

[]

[] This example was reported in an interview with Edgar Schein, "Corporate Culture Is the Real Key to Creativity," Business Month (May 1989), pp. 73–74.

[]

[] www.Sherwinwilliams.com.

[]

[] Schein (1990).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Jeffery Pfeffer, The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998).

[]

[] For an extended discussion, see J. M. Beyer and H. M. Trice, "How an Organization's Rites Reveal Its Culture," Organizational Dynamics (Spring 1987), pp. 27–41.

[]

[] A. Cooke and D. M. Rousseau, "Behavioral Norms and Expectations: A Quantitative Approach to the Assessment of Organizational Culture," Group and Organizational Studies 13 (1988), pp. 245–273.

[]

[] Mary Trefry, "A Double-edged Sword: Organizational Culture in Multicultural Organizations," International Journal of Management 23 (2006), pp. 563–576; J. Martin and C. Siehl, "Organization Culture and Counterculture," Organizational Dynamics 12 (1983), pp. 52–64.

[]

[] www.apple-history.com.

[]

[] For a recent discussion of the clash of corporate cultures, see George Lodorfos and Agyenim Boateng, "The Role of Culture in the Merger and Acquisition Process: Evidence from the European Chemical Industry," Management Decision 44 (2006) pp. 1405–1410.

[]

[] See R. N. Osborn, "The Aftermath of Daimler and Detroit," Working Paper, Department of Management, Wayne State University 2008.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] www.flowserve.com.

[]

[] Osborn (2008).

[]

[] Taylor Cox Jr., "The Multicultural Organization," Academy of Management Executive 2.2 (May 1991), pp. 34–47.

[]

[] See Schein (1985), pp. 52–57, and Schein, (1990).

[]

[] For a discussion from a different perspective, see Anat Rafaeli and Michael G. Pratt (eds.), Artifacts and Organizations: Beyond Mere Symbols (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006).

[]

[] For early work, see T. Deal and A. Kennedy, Corporate Culture (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982); and T. Peters and R. Waterman, In Search of Excellence (New York: Harper & Row, 1982), while more recent studies are summarized in Joanne Martin and Peter Frost, "The Organizational Culture War Games: The Struggle for Intellectual Dominance," in Stewart R. Clegg, Cynthia Hardy, and Walter R. Nord (eds.), Handbook of Organization Studies (London: Sage Publications, 1996), pp. 599–621.

[]

[] Schein (1990).

[]

[] www.montereypasta.com.

[]

[] H. Gertz, The Interpretation of Culture (New York: Basic Books, 1973).

[]

[] See Rafaeli and Pratt (2006) and Beyer and Trice (1987).

[]

[] H. M. Trice and J. M. Beyer, "Studying Organizational Cultures Through Rites and Ceremonials," Academy of Management Review 3 (1984), pp. 633–669.

[]

[] This description was provided by Marcus B. Osborn.

[]

[] www.lamre.com.

[]

[] J. Martin, M. S. Feldman, M. J. Hatch, and S. B. Sitkin, "The Uniqueness Paradox in Organizational Stories," Administrative Science Quarterly 28 (1983), pp. 438–453; BusinessWeek (November 23, 1992), p. 117.

[]

[] For a recent study, see John Barnes, Donald W. Jackson, Michael D. Hutt, and Ajith Kumar, "The Role of Culture Strength in Shaping Sales Force Outcomes," Journal of Personal Setting and Sales Management 26.3 (2006), pp. 255–269. This tradition of strong cultures goes back to work by Deal and Kennedy (1982) and Peters and Waterman (1982).

[]

[] Trice and Beyer (1984).

[]

[] R. N. Osborn and D. Jackson, "Leaders, River Boat Gamblers or Purposeful Unintended Consequences," Academy of Management Journal 31 (1988), pp. 924–947.

[]

[] For an interesting twist, see John Connolly, "High Performance Cultures," Business Strategy Review 17 (2006), pp. 19–32; a more conventional treatment may be found in Martin, Feldman, Hatch, and Sitkin (1983).

[]

[] Osborn and Jackson (1988).

[]

[] R. N. Osborn, "Purposeful Unintended Consequences and Systemic Financial Risk," Working Paper, Department of Management, Wayne State University (2009).

[]

[] www.generalmills.com.

[]

[] For the classic popular work see, Peter F. Drucker, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (New York: Harper, 1985); Edward B. Roberts, "Managing Invention and Innovation," Research Technology Management (January/February 1989), pp. 1–19 provides a practitioner perspective, whereas an interesting extended case study is provided by John Clark, Managing Innovation and Change (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995).

[]

[] Miller (2008).

[]

[] P. Berrone, L. Gelabert, A. Fosfuri, and L. Gomez-Mejia, "Can Institutional Forces Create Competitive Advantage? An Empirical Examination of Environmental Innovation. 2008 Academy of Management Proceedings (2008).

[]

[] D. Dougherty, "Organizing for Innovation," in S. Clegg, C. Hardy and W. Nord (eds.), Handbook of Organization Studies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996), pp. 424–439.

[]

[] For a discussion of product cannibalization, see S. Netessie and T. Taylor, "Product Line Design and Production Technology," Marketing Science 26.1 (2007), pp. 101–118.

[]

[] Gerard J. Tellis, Jaideep, C. Prabhu, and Rajesh K. Chandy, "Radical Innovation Across Nations: The Preeminence of Corporate Culture," Journal of Marketing 73.1 (2009), pp. 3–23.

[]

[] N. Clymer and S. Asaba, "A new approach for understanding dominant design: The case of the ink-jet printer," Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 25.3 (2008), pp. 137–152.

[]

[] V. Acha, "Open by Design: The Role of Design in Open Innovation," 2008 Academy of Management Proceedings (2008), pp. 1–6.

[]

[] The first to emphasize the role of lead uses was E. von Hipple, The Sources of Innovation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).

[]

[] See J. Birkinshaw, G. Hamel, and M. Mol, "Management Innovation," Academy of Management Review 33 (2008), pp. 825–845.

[]

[] The terms exploration and exploitation were popularized by James G. March. See James G. March, "Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning," Organization Science 2.1 (1991), pp. 71–87.

[]

[] For a recent review, see Sung-Choon Kang, Shad S. Morris, and Scot A. Shell, "Relational Archetypes, Organizational Learning, and Value Creation: Extending the Human Resource Architecture," Academy of Management Review 32 (2007), pp. 236–256.

[]

[] Tellis, Prabhu, and Chandy, (2009). For an extended discussion of radical innovation, see R. N. Osborn and C. C. Baughn, An Assessment of the State of the Field of Organizational Design (Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute, 1994).

[]

[] See M. Tushman and P. Anderson, "Technological discontinuities and organizational environments," Administrative Science Quarterly 31 (1986), pp. 439–465.

[]

[] M. Tushman and C. O, Reilly, "Ambidextrous organizations: Managing evolutionary and revolutionary change," California Management Review 38.4 (1996), pp. 8–30.

[]

[] M. Tokman, R. G. Richey, L. Marino, and K. M. Weaver, "Exploration, Exploitation and Satisfaction in Supply Chain Portfolio Strategy," Journal of Business Logistics 28 (2007), pp. 25–48.

[]

[] See C. Mirow, K. Hoelzle, and H. Gemueden, "The Ambidextrous Organization in Practice: Barriers to Innovation Within Research and Development," 2008 Academy of Management Proceedings (2008), pp. 1–6.

[]

[] This section was originally based on Osborn and Baughn (1994).

[]

[] Y. Berson, S. Oreg, and T. Dvir, "CEO Values, Organizational Culture and Firm Outcomes," Journal of Organizational Behavior 29 (2008), pp. 615–633.

[]

[] www.cisco.com.

[]

[] J. Kerr and J. Slocum, "Managing Corporate Culture Through Reward Systems," Academy of Management Executive 19.4 (2005), pp. 130–138.

[]

[] J. Karpoff, D. S. Lee, and Gerald Martin, "A company's reputation is what gets fried when its books are cooked," uwnews.org (2007).

[]

[] Martin and Frost (1996).

[]

[] For example, see Tellis, Prabhu, and Chandy (2009).

[]

[] For an excellent review, see C. Miller, Formalization and Innovation: An Ethnographic Study of Process Formalization (Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest Company 2008).

[]

[] Ibid, p. 391.

[]

[] See K. Boal and P. Schultz, "Storytelling, time and evolution: The role of strategic leadership in complex adaptive systems," The Leadership Quarterly 18 (2007), pp. 411–428; and A. Grove, Only the paranoid survive (New York: Double Day, 1996).

FEATURE NOTES

Opener—Information and quotes from Chick-fill-A.com; Daniel Yee, "Chick-Fill-A Recipe Winning Customers," The Columbus Dispatch (September 9, 2006), p. D1; and, Tom Murphy, "Chick-fil-A plans aggressive product rollout initiatives," Rocky Mount Telegram (May 28, 2008), retrieved from: http://www.rockymounttelegram.com.

OB Savvywww.cantor.com/heritage/.

Leaders on Leadershipwww.sherwinwnliams.com.

Ethics in OBhttp://ethics.flowserve.com.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Aetnawww.aetna.com.

Microsoftwww.microsoft.com.

LAM Researchwww.lamrc.com.

Hope Labs—Information from "HopeLab Video Games for Health," Fast Company (December 2008/January 2009), p. 116; www.hopelab.org.

Cousins Subswww.cousinssubs.com. Carloyn Wlakup, "Having words with Christine Specht," Nations Restaurant News 42.49 (2008), p. 78.

Chapter 16

ENDNOTES

[]

[] The bulk of this chapter was originally based on Richard N. Osborn, James G. Hunt, and Lawrence R. Jauch, Organization Theory: Integrated Text and Cases(Melbourne, FL: Krieger, 1985). For a more recent but consistent view, see Lex Donaldson, "The Normal Science of Structural Contingency Theory," in Stewart R. Clegg, Cynthia Hardy, and Walter R. Nord (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Studies (London: Sage Publications, 1996), pp. 57–76. For a more advanced treatment, see: W. Richard Scott and Gerald F. Davis, Organizations and Organizing: Rational and Open Systems (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 2007)

[]

[] Allison Espiritu, "Seattle Storm Ownership Awarded Business of the Year," Ballard Tribune (2009), March 26, p. B1.

[]

[] Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985).

[]

[] H. Talcott Parsons, Structure and Processes in Modern Societies (New York: Free Press, 1960).

[]

[] See B. Bartkus, M. Glassman, and B. McAfee, "Mission Statement Quality and Financial Performance," European Management Journal 24.1 (2006), pp. 66–79; J. Peyrefitte and F. R. David, "A Content Analysis of the Mission Statements of United States Firms in Four Industries," International Journal of Managemen 23.2 (2006), pp. 296–305; Terri Lammers, "The Effective and Indispensable Mission Statement," Inc. 7.1 (August 1992), p. 23; and I. C. MacMillan and A. Meshulack, "Replacement versus Expansion: Dilemma for Mature U.S. Businesses," Academy of Management Journal 26 (1983), pp. 708–726.

[]

[] www.cummins.com.

[]

[] Anonymous, "Making Vision Statements Meaningful," The British Journal of Administrative Management (April/May 2006), p. 17; and L. Larwood, C. M. Falbe, M. Kriger, and P. M. Miesing, "Structure and Meaning of Organizational Vision," Academy of Management Journal 38 (1995), pp. 740–770.

[]

[] See Scott and Davis (2007); Stewart R. Clegg and Cynthia Hardy, "Organizations, Organization and Organizing," in Clegg, Hardy, and Nord (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Studies (1996), pp. 1–28; and William H. Starbuck and Paul C. Nystrom, "Designing and Understanding Organizations," in P. C. Nystrom and W. H. Starbuck (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Design: Adapting Organizations to Their Environments (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981).

[]

[] See Jeffery Pfeffer, "Barriers to the Advance of Organization Science," Academy of Management Review 18.4 (1994), pp. 599–620; Richard M. Cyert and James G. March, A Behavioral Theory of the Firm (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963). A historical view of organizational goals is also found in Charles Perrow, Organizational Analysis: A Sociological View (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1970) and in Richard H. Hall, "Organizational Behavior: A Sociological Perspective," in Jay W. Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987), pp. 84–95.

[]

[] See Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985) for the historical rates, and for differences in survival rates by time of formation in the development of a technology, see R. Agarwal, M. Sarkar, and R. Echambadi, "The conditioning effect of time on firm survival: An industry life cycle approach," Academy of Management Journal 25 (2002), pp. 971–985.

[]

[] Janice Beyer, Danta P. Ashmos, and R. N. Osborn, "Contrasts in Enacting TQM: Mechanistic vs. Organic Ideology and Implementation," Journal of Quality Management 1 (1997), pp. 13–29; and for an early treatment, see Paul R. Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch, Organization and Environment (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1969).

[]

[] Kate Klonick, "Pepsi's CEO a Refreshing Change" (August 15, 2006): www.abcnews.go.com; Diane Brady, "Indra Nooyi: Keeping Cool in Hot Water," BusinessWeek (June 11, 2007), special report; Indra Nooyi, "The Best Advice I Ever Got," CNNMoney (April 30, 2008), www.cnnnmony.com; and, "Indra Nooyi," The Wall Street Journal (November 10, 2008), p. R3.

[]

[] Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985).

[]

[] For reviews, see Scott and Davis (2007); Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985); Clegg, Hardy, and Nord (1996).

[]

[] See www.nucor.com.

[]

[] For instance, J. Gao, R. Kishore, K. Nam, H. R. Rao, and H. Song, "An Investigation of the Factors that Influence the Duration of IT Outsourcing Relationships," Decision Support Systems 42.4 (2007), pp. 21–37; J. E. M. McGee, M. J. Dowling, and W. L. Megginson, "Cooperative Strategy and New Venture Performance: The Role of Business Strategy and Management Experience," Strategic Management Journal 16 (1995), pp. 565–580; and James B. Quinn, Intelligent Enterprise: A Knowledge and Service Based Paradigm for Industry(New York: Free Press, 1992).

[]

[] F. T. Rothaemel, M. A. Hitt, and L. A. Jobe, "Balancing Vertical Integration and Strategic Outsourcing: Effects on Product Portfolio, Product Success, and Firm Performance," Strategic Management Journal 27.11 (2006), pp. 1033–1049. Also see L. F. Cranor and S. Greensteing (eds.), Communications Policy and Information Technology: Promises, Problems and Prospects (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002); P. Candace Deans, Global Information Systems and Technology: Focus on the Organization and Its Functional Areas (Harrisburg, PA: Ideal Group Publishing, 1994); and Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985).

[]

[] Haim Levy and Deborah Gunthorpe, Introduction to Investments, 2nd ed. (Cincinatti, OH: South-Western, 1999); and L. F. Cranor and S Greensteing (eds.), Communications Policy and Information Technology: Promises, Problems and Prospects (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002).

[]

[] William G. Ouchi and M. A. McGuire, "Organization Control: Two Functions," Administrative Science Quarterly 20 (1977), pp. 559–569.

[]

[] This discussion is adapted from W. Edwards Deming, "Improvement of Quality and Productivity Through Action by Management," Productivity Review (Winter 1982): pp. 12–22; Edwards Deming, Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position (Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering, 1982).

[]

[] For related reviews, see Scott and Davis (2007); Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985); Clegg, Hardy, and Nord (1996).

[]

[] Rhys Andrews, George A. Boyne, Jennifer Law, and Richard M Walker, "Centralization, Organization Strategy, and Public Service Performance," Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 19.1 (2009), pp. 57–81.

[]

[] See C. Bradley, "Succeeding by (Organizational) Design, Decision: Irelands Business Review 11.1 (2006), pp. 24–29; Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985), pp. 273–303, for a discussion of centralization/decentralization.

[]

[] Rhys et al. (2009).

[]

[] For reviews of structural tendencies and their influence on outcomes, also see Scott and Davis (2007); Clegg, Hardy, and Nord (1996).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] For a good discussion of the early use of matrix structures, see Stanley Davis, Paul Lawrence, Harvey Kolodny, and Michael Beer, Matrix (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977).

[]

[] www.NBBJ.com.

[]

[] See P. R. Lawrence and J. W. Lorsch, Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1967).

[]

[] See Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1985); Scott and Davis (2007).

[]

[] Chris P. Long, Corinee Bendersky, and Calvin Morrill, "Fair Control: Complementarities Between Types of Managerial Controls and Employees' Fairness Evaluations," 2008 Academy of Management Proceedings (2008), pp. 362–368.

[]

[] Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, translated by A. M. Henderson and H. T. Parsons (New York: Free Press, 1947).

[]

[] Stephen Cummings and Todd Bridgman, "The Strawman: The Reconfiguration of Max Weber in Management Textbooks and Why it Matters," 2008 Academy of Management Proceedings (2008), pp. 243–249.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] These relationships were initially outlined by Tom Burns and G. M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation (London: Tavistock, 1961).

[]

[] See Henry Mintzberg, Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] See Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1984) for an extended discussion.

[]

[] See Peter Clark and Ken Starkey, Organization Transitions and InnovationDesign (London: Pinter Publications, 1988).

FEATURE NOTES

Mastering Managementwww.lobar.com.

Leaders on Leadership—Information from Kate Klonick, "Pepsi's CEO a Refreshing Change" (August 15, 2006): www.abcnews.go.com; Diane Brady, "Indra Nooyi: Keeping Cool in Hot Water," BusinessWeek (June 11, 2007), special report; Indra Nooyi, "The Best Advice I Ever Got," CNNMoney (April 30, 2008), www.cnnnmony.com; and, "Indra Nooyi," The Wall Street Journal (November 10, 2008), p. R3.

Ethics in OB—Anne L. Davis and Hannah R. Rothstein, "The effects of the perceived behavioral integrity of managers on employee attitudes: A meta analysis," Journal of Business Ethic 67.4 (2006), pp. 407–426.

Research Insight in OB—Beth A. Bechky, "Gaffers, gofers, and grips: Role-based coordination in temporary organizations," Organization Science 17.1 (2006), pp. 3–23.

Jerry Brewer, "Storm Begin Life of Independence," Seattle Times, 2009 May 20, p. C3. Greg Bishop, "Karen Bryant is Building a Foundation for the Storm," Seattle Times (2004) July 29 pC1. www.wnba.com/storm/news/bry and Allison Espiritu, "Seattle Storm Ownership Group Awarded Business of the Year," Ballard New-Tribune (2009) March 26, p. B1.

MARGIN PHOTOS

HopeLab—Information from "HopeLab Video Games for Health," Fast Company (December, 2008/January, 2009), p. 116; and www.hopelab.org.

Bear Workshop—Information from "Build-A-Bear Workshop, Inc., Funding Universe: www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/BuildABear-Workshop-Inc (accessed March 9, 2009); and, www.buildabear.com. See also Maxine Clark and Amy Joyner, The Bear Necessities of Business: Building a Company with Heart (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007).

ATA Engineering—Information from "Top Small Workplaces 2008," The Wall Street Journal (October 13, 2008), p. R4.

Shiseidowww.shoseido.com/2008annual report. www.landolakes.com.

Chapter 17

ENDNOTES

[]

[] www.costco.com.

[]

[] This view of strategy was drawn from several sources, including David Simon, Michael Hitt, and Duane Ireland, "Managing Firm Resources in Dynamic Environments to Create Value: Looking Inside the Black Box," Academy of Management Review 32 (2007), pp. 273–292; Alfred D. Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in America (Cambridge, MA: Belnap, 1977); Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Free Press, 1980); L. R. Jauch and R. N. Osborn, "Toward an Integrated Theory of Strategy," Academy of Management Review 6 (1981), pp. 491–498; B. Wernefelt, "A Resourcebased View of the Firm," Strategic Management Journal 5 (1984), pp. 171–180; J. B. Barney, "Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage," J. Management 17 (1991), pp. 99–120; Russ Marion, The Edge of Organization: Chaos and Complexity Theories of Formal Social Systems (London, Sage, 1999); Arie Lewin, Chris Long, and Timothy Caroll, "The Coevolution of New Organizational Forms," Organization Science 10 (1999), pp. 535–550; Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E. Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competition and Globalization (Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern, 2001).

[]

[] G. Huber, "Organizational Learning: The Contributing Process and the Literature," Organization Science 2.1 (1991), pp. 88–115.

[]

[] J. W. Myer and B. Rowan, "Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony," American Journal of Sociology 83 (1977), pp. 340–363.

[]

[] M. Mumford, "The Leadership Quarterly Special Issue on Leading Innovation," Leadership Quarterly 14 (2003), pp. 385–387; and M. Mumford, G. Scott, B. Gaddis, B. Strange, and J. Strange, "Leading Creative People: Orchestrating Expertise and Relationships," Leadership Quarterly 13 (2002), pp. 705–750.

[]

[] See Bjame Espedal, "Do Organization Routines Change as Experience Changes," The Journal of Applied Behavior Science 42.4 (2006), pp. 468–491.

[]

[] See Raji Srinivasan, Pamela Haunschild, and Rajdeep Grewal, "Vicarious Learning in Product Development Introductions in the Early Years of a Converging Market," Management Science 53.1 (2007), pp. 16–29.

[]

[] James G. March, Decisions and Organizations (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988).

[]

[] For an illustration with dire consequences, see R. N. Osborn and D. H. Jackson, "Leaders, Riverboat Gamblers, or Purposeful Unintended Consequences in the Management of Complex Technologies," Academy of Management Journal 31 (1988), pp. 924–947.

[]

[] O. P. Walsch and G. R. Ungson, "Organization Memory," Academy of Management Review 16.1 (1991), pp. 57–91.

[]

[] Jansen, Van Bosh, and Volberda (2006).

[]

[] Simon, Hitt, and Ireland (2007).

[]

[] This discussion of organizational design was initially based on R. N. Osborn, J. G. Hunt, and L. Jauch, Organization Theory Integrated Text and Cases (Melbourne, FL: Krieger, 1984), pp. 123–215. For a more advanced treatment, see W. Richard Scott and Gerald F. Davis, Organizations and Organizing: Rational and Open Systems (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2007).

[]

[] http://domino.research.ibm.com/comm/research_people.nsf/pages/nabe.index.html.

[]

[] Simon, Hitt, and Ireland (2007); Marion (1999); Jauch and Osborn (1981).

[]

[] Porter (1980).

[]

[] For example, Simon, Hitt, and Ireland (2007).

[]

[] Jeffery Pfeffer, "Producing Sustainable Competitive Advantage Through the Effective Management of People," Academy of Management Executive 19.4 (2005), pp. 85–115.

[]

[] Marion (1999).

[]

[] Samuel J. Palmisano, "The New CIO: Setting the Innovation Agenda," speech for the first IBM CIO Leadership Forum, Monte Carlo, www.IBM.com.

[]

[] See Henry Mintzberg, Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983).

[]

[] www.g24i.com. Carla Power, "Green Contrarian," Fortune Small Business 19.1 (2009), p. 76.

[]

[] This inertia may be due to both fixed routines and resources; Gilbert Clark, "Unbundling the Structure of Inertia: Resource Versus Routine Rigidity," Academy of Management Journal 48.6 (2005), pp. 741–763.

[]

[] See R. Lord and M. Kernan, "Scripts as Determinants of Purposeful Behavior in Organizations," Academy of Management Review 12 (1987), pp. 265–278; A. L. Stinchcombe, Economic Sociology (New York: Academic Press, 1983).

[]

[] This treatment of the boundaryless organization is based on R. Ashkenas, D. Ulrich, T. Jick, and S. Kerr, The Boundaryless Organization: Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1995). For earlier discussion, also see R. Golembiewski, Men, Management and Morality (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1989). For a critical review, see R. Golembiewski, "The Boundaryless Organization: Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure, A Review," International Journal of Organizational Analysis 6 (1998), pp. 267–270.

[]

[] S. Kerr and D. Ulrich, "Creating the Boundaryless Organization: The Radical Reconstruction of Organization Capabilities," Planning Review 23 (1995), pp. 41–46.

[]

[] See Scott and Davis (2007); David A. Nadler and Michael L. Tushman, Competing by Design: The Power of Organizational Architecture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997); Jack Veiga and Kathleen Dechant, "Wired World Woes: www.help," Academy of Management Executive 11.3 (1997), pp. 73–79.

[]

[] A. A. Marcus, Business and Society: Ethics Government and the World of Economy (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1993).

[]

[] See Scott and Davis (2007); Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1984).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] See Peter M. Blau and Richard A. Schoenner, The Structure of Organizations (New York: Basic Books, 1971); Joan Woodward, Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice (London: Oxford University Press, 1965).

[]

[] Gerardine DeSanctis, "Information Technology," in Nigel Nicholson (ed.), Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Organizational Behavior (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1995), pp. 232–233.

[]

[] James D. Thompson, Organization in Action (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).

[]

[] Woodward (1965).

[]

[] For an updated review, see Scott and Davis (2007). This discussion also incorporates Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1984); and Louis Fry, "Technology-Structure Research: Three Critical Issues," Academy of Management Journal 25 (1982), pp. 532–552.

[]

[] Mintzberg (1983).

[]

[] See Henry Mintzberg and Alexandra McHugh, "Strategy Formulation in an Adhocracy," Administrative Science Quarterly 30.2 (1985), pp. 160–193.

[]

[] Halit Keskis, Ali E. Akgun, Ayse Gunsel, and Salih Imamoglu, "The Relationship Between Adhocracy and Clan Cultures and Tacit Oriented KM Strategy," Journal of Transnational Management 10.3 (2005), pp. 39–51.

[]

[] DeSanctis (1995).

[]

[] Prashant C. Palvia, Shailendra C. Palvia, and Edward M. Roche, Global Information Technology and Systems Management: Key Issues and Trends (Nashua, NH: Ivy League Publishing, 1996).

[]

[] DeSanctis (1995).

[]

[] Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1984).

[]

[] Jaana Woiceshyn, "The Role of Management in the Adoption of Technology: A Longitudinal Investigation," Technology Studies 4.1 (1997), pp. 62–99; Melissa A. Schilling, "Technological Lockout: An Integrative Model of the Economic and Strategic Factors Driving Technological Success and Failure," Academy of Management Review 23.2 (1998), pp. 267–284.

[]

[] David Lei, Michael Hitt, and Richard A. Bettis, "Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management," Journal of Management 22 (1996), pp. 547–567.

[]

[] www.moen.com.

[]

[] Veiga and Dechant (1997).

[]

[] Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E. Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing, 2007).

[]

[] www.amazon.com.

[]

[] While this form is known under a variety of names, we emphasize the information technology base that makes it possible. See Peter Senge, Benyamin B. Lichtenstein, Katrin Kaeufer, Hilary Bradbury, and John S. Carol, "Collaborating for Systematic Change," MIT Sloan Management Review 48.2 (2007), pp. 44–59; Josh Hyatt, "The Soul of a New Team," Fortune 153.11 (2006), pp. 134–145; M. L. Markus, B. Manville, and C. E. Agres, "What Makes a Virtual Organization Work," MIT Sloan Management Review 42 (2002), pp. 13–27; B. Hedgerg, G. Hahlgren, J. Hansson, and N. Olve, Virtual Organizations and Beyond (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2001); and Janice Beyer, Danti P. Ashmos, and R. N. Osborn, "Contrasts in Enacting TQM: Mechanistic vs Organic Ideology and Implementation," Journal of Quality Management 1 (1997), pp. 13–29.

[]

[] M. L. Markus, B. Manville, and C. E. Agres, "What Makes a Virtual Organization Work," MIT Sloan Management Review 42 (2002), pp. 13–27.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] This section is based on R. N. Osborn, "The Evolution of Strategic Alliances in High Technology," working paper, Detroit: Department of Business, Wayne State University (2007); R. N. Osborn and J. G. Hunt, "The Environment and Organization Effectiveness," Administrative Science Quarterly 19 (1974), pp. 231–246; and Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (1984). For a more extended discussion, see P. Kenis and D. Knoke, "How Organizational Field Networks Shape Interorganizational Tieformation Rates," Academy of Management Journal 27 (2002), pp. 275–294.

[]

[] Michael Skapinker, "Why Corporate Responsibility is a Survivor," Financial Times (April 21, 2009), p. 11.

[]

[] See R. N. Osborn and C. C. Baughn, "New Patterns in the Formation of U.S. Japanese Cooperative Ventures," Columbia Journal of World Business 22 (1988), pp. 57–65.

[]

[] This section is based on R. N. Osborn, "International Alliances: Going Beyond the Hype," Mt Eliza Business Review 6 (2003), pp. 37–44; S. Reddy, J. F. Hennart, and R. Osborn, "The Prevalence of Equity and Non-equity Cross-boarder Linkages: Japanese Investments in the U.S.," Organization Studies 23 (2002), pp. 759–780.

[]

[] Wepin Tsai, "Knowledge Transfer in Interorganizational Networks: Effects of Network Position and Absorptive Capacity on Business Unit Innovation and Performance," Academy of Management Journal 44.5 (2001), pp. 996–1004.

[]

[] Osborn (2007).

[]

[] Osborn (2003).

[]

[] Osborn (2007).

[]

[] Thomas Keil, Markku Maula, Henri Schildt, and Shaker Zahra, "The Effect of Governance Modes and Relatedness of External Business Development Activities on Innovative Performance," Strategic Management Journal 29 (2008), pp. 895–907.

FEATURE NOTES

Opener/Costco—Information from www.costco.com.

Leaders on Leadershipwww.g24i.com. Carla Power, "Green Contrarian," Fortune Small Business. (2009) VI.19 #1 p. 76.

Ethics in OBwww.millenniumchem.com/.

Mastering Management—M. L. Markus, B. Manville, and C. E. Agres, "What Makes a Virtual Organization Work." MIT Sloan Management Review 42 (2002), pp. 13–27.

Research Insight—Thomas Keil, Markku Maula, Henri Schildt, and Shaker Zahra, "The effect of Governance Modes and Relatedness of External Business Development Activities on Innovative Performance," Strategic Management Journal 29 (2008). pp. 895–907.

MARGIN PHOTOS

Innocent—Information from Aaron O. Patrick and Valerie Bauerlein, "Coke Teams Up with Socially Responsible Smoothie," The Wall Street Journal (April 8, 2009), p. B6.

IBM's Watson Research Centerhttp://domino.research. ibm.com/comm/research_people.nsf/pages/nabe.index.html.

Fab India—Information from Manjeet Kripalani, "Weaving a New Kind of Company," BusinessWeek (March 23 & 30, 2009), pp. 64–65.

Fairtradehttp://www.tradingvisions.org/. Michael Skapinker, "Why Corporate Responsibility is a Survivor," Financial Times (2009), April 21, p. 11.

Jim Collins—Information from Jim Collins, "How the Mighty fall," BusinessWeek (May 25, 2009), pp. 26–38. See also Jim Collins, How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In (New York: HarperCollins, 2009). Corningwww.corning.com.

M. L. Markus, B. Manville, and C. E. Agres, "What Makes a Virtual Organization Work," MIT Sloan Management Review 42 (2002), pp. 13–27.

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