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Self-Test Answers

Self-Test Answers

Self-Test 1

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. b 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. c 6. c 7. a 8. a 9. d 10. d 11. a 12. c 13. c 14. c 15. b

SHORT RESPONSE

16. OB as a scientific discipline has the following characteristics: a) It is an interdisciplinary body of knowledge, drawing upon insights from such allied social sciences as sociology and psychology. b) OB researchers use scientific methods to develop and test models and theories about human behavior in organizations. c) OB focuses on application, trying to develop from science practical insights that can improve organizations. d) OB uses contingency thinking, trying to fit explanations to situations rather than trying to find "one best" answer that fits all situations.

17. The term "valuing diversity" is used to describe behavior that respects individual differences. In the workplace this means respecting the talents and potential contributions of people from different races and of different genders, ethnicities, and ages, for example.

18. An effective manager is one who is able to work with and support other people so that long-term high performance is achieved. This manager is able to maintain an environment for sustainable high performance by creating conditions for job satisfaction as well as high task performance.

19. Mintzberg would say that the executive would be very busy throughout the day and would work long hours. He would note that the day would be fragmented as the executive worked on many different tasks while subject to interruptions. He would point out that the day would be very communication intensive, with the executive interacting with other people in a variety of scheduled and unscheduled meetings and communicating by telephone and other electronic media.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. Carla is about to lead an important discussion since the world of work will certainly be different by the time these sixth graders are ready to enter the workforce. As they look ahead, she should encourage them to consider the following points:

  • Commitment to ethical behavior

  • Importance of knowledge and experience in the form of "human capital"

  • Less emphasis on boss-centered "command and control"

  • Emphasis on teamwork

  • Emphasis on use of computers and information technology

  • Respect for people and their work expectations

  • More people working for themselves and more job/employer shifting by people; fewer people working a lifetime for one organization

Of course, one of Carla's greatest challenges will be to express these concepts in words and examples that sixth graders will understand. Your answer should reflect that use of language and examples.

Self-Test 2

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. c 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. a 6. d 7. a 8. a 9. d 10. c 11. c 12. b 13. c 14. c

SHORT RESPONSE

15. The dimension of individualism-collectivism reflects different cultural emphases, and it appears in both the Hofstede and Trompenaars frameworks. As pointed out by Hofstede, for example, individualistic cultures tend to emphasize individual reward systems, whereas collectivist cultures emphasize teamwork. OB should help us become more aware of how cultural differences may affect the management of individuals and groups in various settings.

16. In high-power distance cultures managers are likely to be respected by subordinates and expected to exercise authority in their assigned roles. In low-power distance cultures the distinction between manager and subordinate may be more casual, and subordinates will expect to be more involved in decisions affecting them and their work.

17. Demographic characteristics are important for a number of reasons: (1) they serve as the basis for managing diversity; (2) there are various nondiscrimination laws affecting them; (3) they are often erroneously used stereotypically to categorize individuals; and (4) they can form the basis of a bio-data approach to help select employees.

18. Stress can be both constructive and destructive. Up to a certain point, stress is beneficial to performance because it helps to stimulate effort and even creativity. Beyond that point, stress becomes harmful because anxiety and other problems detract from performance. Thus the relationship between stress and performance is curvilinear; too little or too much stress has a negative effect on performance, whereas moderate stress has a positive effect on performance. The problem is finding the "friction" point where stress can be maintained for any given individual at the moderate level.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

19. Your boss needs to use selected demographic, aptitude and ability, personality, and value and attitude characteristics of individuals to help match specific job and organizational requirements. Along with this, your boss can use the kinds of accountability, development, and recruitment practices designed to manage a diverse, nontraditional workforce effectively.

Self-Test 3

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. d 2. a 3. a 4. a 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. a 9. a 10. d 11. d 12. b 13. a 14. d 15. c

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Emotions and moods are both part of what is called affect, or the range of feelings that people experience in their life context. An emotion is a strong positive or negative feeling directed toward someone or something. It is usually intense, not long-lasting, and always associated with a source—someone or something that makes you feel the way you do. An example is the positive emotion of elation a student feels when congratulated by an instructor. A mood is a more generalized positive and negative feeling or state of mind that may persist for some time. An example is someone who wakes up and just fells "grouchy" that day. See Figure 3.2 for additional material to fit this answer.

17. Anger: often bad, stops someone from being taken advantage of; empathy: often good, encourages being taken advantage of.

18. (1) Work itself: responsibility, interest, and growth; (2) Quality of supervision: technical and social support; (3) Relationships with co-workers: social harmony and respect; (4) Promotion opportunities: chances for further advancement; (5) Pay: adequacy and perceived equity vis-á-vis others. Although it depends on the individual and the context, in general each of these can be considered equally important.

19. Cognitive dissonance describes a state of inconsistency between an individual's attitudes and his or her behavior. Such inconsistency can result in changing attitudes, changing future behavior, or developing new ways to explain the inconsistency. The amount of control an individual has over the situation and the magnitude of the reward tend to influence which of these actions will be chosen.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. The heart of the issue rests with the satisfaction—performance relationship as discussed in this chapter. Does satisfaction cause performance? It appears that satisfaction alone is no guarantee of high-level job performance. Although a satisfied worker is likely not to quit and to have good attendance, his or her performance still remains uncertain. In the integrated model of motivation, performance is a function not only of motivation and effort, but also of individual attributes and organizational support. Thus I would be cautious in focusing only on creating satisfied workers and high-performing ones. I would try to make sure that the rewards for performance create satisfaction. I would also try to make sure that the satisfied worker has the right abilities, training, and other support needed to perform a job really well. Assuming that satisfaction alone will always lead to high performance seems risky at best; it leaves too many other important considerations left untouched, an example of which is described in the study of satisfaction in groups across time.

Self-Test 4

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. b 2. c 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. a 10. d 11. c 12. c 13. c 14. a 15. b

SHORT RESPONSE

16. A model similar to that in Figure 4.2 should be drawn to include a brief discussion of the perception process as discussed in the chapter.

17. There are six perceptual distortions listed and discussed in the chapter—stereotype, halo effect, selective perception, projection, contrast, and self-fulfilling prophecies. You may select any two and briefly note how they distort the perceptual process.

18. Figure 4.7 summarizes the underlying similarities and differences between classical and operant conditioning. Elaborate on the summary shown in the figure and use and explain different examples than those in the figures or the Pavlov's dog example.

19. Reinforcement learning is a function of its consequences, social learning theory. Emphasizes observational learning and the importance of perception and attribution. Thus, people respond to how their perceptions and attributions help define consequences, and not to the objective consequences as emphasized in reinforcement learning. Social learning theory may be elaborated through an explanation of Figure 4.6 and contrasted with reinforcement as shown through the different reinforcement strategies in Figure 4.9.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. A good example to illustrate attribution is the fundamental attribution error as opposed to the self-serving bias. You should explain the fundamental attribution error as the tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors in evaluating someone else's behaviors. In contrast, the self-serving bias is the tendency to deny personal responsibility for performance problems but accept personal responsibility for performance success. Then follow up with an example of each and implications for managing the department.

Self-Test 5

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. a 2. d 3. b 4. d 5. d 6. d 7. c 8. a 9. c 10. c 11. b 12. d 13. a 14. a 15. b

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Basically, this principle states that when one level of need is unsatisfied (or frustrated) the individual can revert back (or regress) to seek further satisfaction of a lower level need. For example, if a need for psychological growth in one's job is frustrated the person may regress back to place more emphasis on satisfying relatedness needs.

17. According to Herzberg the job content or satisfier factors are what really motivate people to work hard. They include such things as feelings of responsibility, opportunities for advancement and growth, and job challenges. In order to build these things into jobs and make them more motivational Herzberg recommends job enrichment—that is adding job content factors by moving into a job things traditionally done by higher levels such as planning and controlling responsibilities.

18. Distributive justice is when everyone is treated by the same rules with no one getting special favors or exceptions; procedural justice is when all rules and procedures are properly followed.

19. Expectancy theory states that Motivation = Expectancy × Instrumentality × Valence. The presence of multiplication signs creates the "multiplier effect." This means that a "0" in expectancy or instrumentality or valence creates a "0" for motivation. In other words, the multiplier effect is that all three factors—expectancy, instrumentality, valence—must be positive in order for motivation to be positive.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. The issue in this case boils down to motivation to work hard. A job might provide lots of satisfactions for someone—relationships, good pay, etc., and they may not work hard because there is no link between receiving the need satisfactions and doing a really good job every day. To apply the needs theories of motivation managers need to link opportunities for need satisfaction with tasks and activities that are important to getting the job done well. In this case, as perhaps Person B would be suggesting, individuals will work hard because they are satisfying important needs by doing important job-relevant things.

Self-Test 6

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. d 2. c 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. b 8. d 9. c 10. d 11. c 12. d 13. d 14. a 15. a

SHORT RESPONSE

16. In a traditional evaluation the employee's performance is evaluated by the supervisor. In the 360° evaluation the employee's performance is evaluated by those with whom he or she works, including supervisor, peers, subordinates, and perhaps even customers. The 360° evaluation also typically includes a self-evaluation. When the results of all evaluations are analyzed and compared, the employee has a good sense of his or her accomplishments and areas for improvement. This evaluation can then be discussed with the supervisor.

17. A halo error in performance appraisal occurs when one attribute or behavior inappropriately influences the overall appraisal. For example, an individual may have a unique style of dress but be a very high performer. If the evaluator lets his or her distaste for the dress style negatively bias the overall performance evaluation, a halo error has occurred. A recency error occurs when a performance appraisal is biased due to the influence of recent events. In other words, the performance appraisal is based on most recent performance and may not be an accurate reflection of performance for a full evaluation period. For example, I might have a very bad week just prior to an evaluation due to family problems. If my supervisor uses that week's performance to negatively bias the evaluation even though for the prior six months I had been a very strong performer, recency error would have occurred.

18. It is a moderator variable. In other words, it sets the condition under which an individual will or will not respond positively to the job characteristics. When an individual is high in growth-need strength, the prediction is that he or she will respond positively to a job high in the core characteristics and therefore largely enriched. However, when the individual has low-growth-need strength, the prediction is that he or she will not respond positively to high core characteristics and may be dissatisfied and less productive in such enriched job conditions.

19. The compressed workweek, or 4–40 schedule, offers employees the advantage of a three-day weekend. However, it can cause problems for the employer in terms of ensuring that operations are covered adequately during the normal five-day workweek. Also, the compressed workweek will entail more complicated work scheduling. In addition, some employees find that the schedule is tiring and can cause family adjustment problems.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. There are many things that can be done to use rewards and performance management well in the context of student organizations. On the reward side the most appropriate thing is to make sure that those who get the benefits from the organization are the ones who do the work. For example, if there is a fund-raiser to support a student trip, only those who actively raise the money should get financial support for the trip. And possibly, the financial support should be proportionate to the amount of time and effort each person contributed to raising the funds. Also it is probably quite common that little or no evaluation is done of how people perform in offices and special assignments in the student organizations. Many possible ways of creating and using more formal evaluation systems could be established. For example, officers could be rated on a BARS scale developed by the membership to reflect the desirable officer behaviors. These ratings could take place every month or two, and individuals who perform poorly can be counseled or removed, while those who perform well can be praised and continued.

Self-Test 7

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. a 2. b 3. d 4. c 5. b 6. d 7. b 8. d 9. d 10. c 11. b 12. c 13. d 14. c 15. c

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Teams are potentially good for organizations for several reasons. They are good for people, they can improve creativity, they sometimes make the best decisions, they gain commitment to decisions, they help control the behavior of their members, and they can help to counterbalance the effects of large organization size.

17. Permanent formal groups appear on organization charts and serve an ongoing purpose. These groups may include departments, divisions, teams, and the like. Temporary groups are created to solve a specific problem or perform a defined task and are then disbanded. Examples are committees, cross-functional task forces, and project teams.

18. Required behaviors are formally expected of team members. They are part of the group's formal structure and represent conditions of membership that are "required" to be exhibited. Emergent behaviors are not formally required of members. They "emerge" spontaneously as members work and relate together. They are part of the informal structure of the group.

19. Self-managing teams take different forms. A common pattern, however, involves empowering team members to make decisions about the division of labor and scheduling, to develop and maintain the skills needed to perform several different jobs for the team, to help train one another to learn those jobs, and to help select new team members.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. Saw your message and wanted to respond. Don't worry. There is no reason at all that a great design engineer can't run a high-performance project team. Go into the job with confidence, but try to follow some basic guidelines as you build and work with the team. First off, remember that a "team" isn't just a "group." You have to make sure that the members identify highly with the goals and will hold themselves collectively accountable for results—and that includes you. I suggest that you communicate high-performance standards right from the beginning. Set the tone in the first team meeting and even create a sense of urgency to get things going. Be sure that the members have the right skills, and find ways to create some early "successes" for them. Don't let them drift apart; make sure they spend a lot of time together. Give lots of positive feedback as the project develops and, perhaps most importantly, model the expected behaviors yourself. Go for it!

Self-Test 8

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. d 2. a 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. c 7. c 8. a 9. b 10. b 11. a 12. c 13. a 14. a 15. c

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Team building usually begins when someone notices that a problem exists or may develop in the group. Members then work collaboratively to gather data, analyze the situation, plan for improvements, and implement the plan. Everyone is expected to participate in each step, and the group as a whole is expected to benefit from continuous improvement.

17. To help build positive norms, a team leader must first act as a positive role model. She or he should carefully select members for the team and be sure to reinforce and reward members for performing as desired. She or he should also hold meetings to review performance, provide feedback, and discuss and agree on goals.

18. A basic rule of group dynamics is that members of highly cohesive groups tend to conform to group norms. Thus, when group norms are positive for performance, the conformity is likely to create high-performance outcomes. When the norms are negative, however, the conformity is likely to create low-performance outcomes.

19. Intergroup competition can create problems in the way groups work with one another. Ideally, an organization is a cooperative system in which groups are well integrated and help one another out as needed. When groups get competitive, however, there is a potential dysfunctional side. Instead of communicating with one another, they decrease communication. Instead of viewing one another positively, they develop negative stereotypes of one another. Instead of viewing each other as mutual partners in the organization, they become hostile and view one another more as enemies. Although intergroup competition can be good by adding creative tension and encouraging more focused efforts, this potential negative side should not be forgotten.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. I would tell Alejandro that consensus and unanimity are two different, but related, things. Consensus occurs through extensive discussion and much "give and take," in which group members share ideas and listen carefully to one another. Eventually, one alternative emerges that is preferred by most. Those who disagree, however, know that they have been listened to and have had a fair chance to influence the decision outcome. Consensus, therefore, does not require unanimity. What it does require is the opportunity for any dissenting members to feel they have been able to speak and be sincerely listened to. A decision by unanimity that generates 100 percent agreement on an issue may be the ideal state of affairs, but it is not always possible to achieve. Thus, Alejandro should always try to help members work intensively together, communicate well with one another, and sincerely share ideas and listen. However, he should not be concerned for complete unanimity on every issue. Rather, consensus should be the agreed-upon goal in most cases.

Self-Test 9

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. c 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. b 6. d 7. a 8. c 9. a 10. c 11. b 12. a 13. b 14. c 15. d

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Heuristics are simplifying strategies, or "rules of thumb," that people use to make decisions. They make it easier for individuals to deal with uncertainty and limited information, but they can also lead to biased results. Common heuristics include availability-making decisions based on recent events; representativeness-making decisions based on similar events; and anchoring and adjustment making decisions based on historical precedents.

17. Individual, or authority, decisions are made by the manager or team leader acting alone based on information that he or she possesses. Consultative decisions are made by the manager or team leader after soliciting input from other persons. Group decisions are made when the manager or team leader asks others to participate in problem solving. The ideal form of the group decision is true consensus.

18. Escalating commitment is the tendency to continue with a previously chosen course of action even though feedback indicates that it is not working. This can lead to waste of time, money, and other resources, in addition to the sacrificing of the opportunity to pursue a course of action offering more valuable results. Escalating commitment is encouraged by the popular adage, "If at first you don't succeed try, try, again." Another way to look at it is "throwing good money after bad."

19. Most people are too busy to respond personally to every problem that comes their way. The effective manager and team leader knows when to delegate decisions to others, how to set priorities, and when to abstain from acting altogether. Questions to ask include: Is the problem easy to deal with? Might the problem resolve itself? Is this my decision to make? Is this a solvable problem within the context of the organization?

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. This is what I would say in the mentoring situation. First, teams can be great for creativity but they have to be set up and then led so that their creative potential is fully realized. To start with the team needs to have at least some highly creative members. They bring to the team context valuable insights, new ideas, and enthusiasm for finding new ways of doing things. These are people who already have strong creativity skills such as high energy, resourcefulness, intuition, lateral thinking. With people like this as part of the team it will have a strong baseline of team creativity skills in place. Then it is important to give this team management and organizational support to harness this creativity potential. The team leader has to believe in and want team creativity, he or she has to be patient and allow time for creative processes to work, and he or she also needs to make sure the team has all the resources it needs to do creative work. An organizational culture in which creativity is valued is also an asset since it provides a broader context of support for what the team is trying to accomplish. When people throughout the organization value creativity it tends to pull others along and also support their creative efforts. When creativity is expected and even evaluated as part of performance appraisals it is also further encouraged by the surrounding organizational context.

Self-Test 10

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. c 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. b 7. a 8. c 9. d 10. c 11. a 12. c 13. c 14. a 15. b

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Managers can be faced with the following conflict situations: vertical conflict—conflict that occurs between hierarchical levels; horizontal conflict—conflict that occurs between those at the same hierarchical level; line-staff conflict—conflict that occurs between line and staff representatives; role conflict—conflict that occurs when the communication of task expectations is inadequate or upsetting.

17. The major indirect conflict management approaches include the following: appeals to common goals—involves focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion; hierarchical referral—using the chain of command for conflict resolution; organizational redesign—including decoupling, buffering, linking pins, and liaison groups; use of myths and scripts—managing superficially through behavioral routines (scripts) or to hide conflict by denying the necessity to make a tradeoff in conflict resolution.

18. You should acknowledge that different styles may be appropriate under different conditions. Avoidance is the extreme form of nonattention and is most commonly used when the issue is trivial, when more important issues are pressing, or when individuals need to cool off. An accommodation strategy is used when an issue is more important to the other party than it is to you, or to build social credits.

19. Distributive negotiation focuses on staking out positions and claiming portions of the available "pie." It usually takes the form of hard negotiation—the parties maximize their self-interests and hold out to get their own way—or soft negotiation—one party is willing to make concessions in order to reach an agreement. Distributive negotiation can lead to competition, compromise, or accommodation, but it tends to be win-lose oriented in all cases. Integrative negotiation focuses on the merits of an issue and attempts to enlarge the available "pie." It may lead to avoidance, compromise, or collaboration. It tends to be more win-win oriented and seeks to satisfy the needs and interests of all parties.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. When negotiating the salary for your first job, you should attempt to avoid the common pitfalls of negotiation. These include falling prey to the myth of the "fixed pie"; nonrational escalation of conflict, such as trying to compare the proposed salary to the highest offer you have heard; overconfidence; and ignoring other's needs (the personnel officer probably has a fixed limit). While the initial salary may be very important to you, you should also recognize that it may not be as significant as what type of job you will have and whether you will have an opportunity to move up in the firm.

Self-Test 11

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. d 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. a 6. d 7. a 8. d 9. a 10. a 11. b 12. a 13. a 14. d 15. a

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Channel richness is a useful concept for managers because it describes the capacity of a communication channel to convey and move information. For example, if a manager wants to convey basic and routine information to a lot of people, a lean channel such as the electronic bulletin or written memorandum may be sufficient. However, if the manager needs to convey a complicated message and one that may involve some uncertainty, a richer channel such as the face-to-face meeting may be necessary. Simply put, the choice of channel may have a lot of impact on the effectiveness of a communication attempt.

17. Informal communication channels are very important in today's organizations. The modern workplace places great emphasis on cross-functional relationships and communication. Employee involvement and participation in decision-making are very important. This requires that people know and talk with one another, often across departmental lines. Progressive organizations make it easy for people to interact and meet outside of formal work assignments and relationships. When people know one another, they can more easily and frequently communicate with one another.

18. Status effects can interfere with the effectiveness of communication between lower and higher levels in an organization. Lower-level members are concerned about how the higher-level members will respond, especially if the information being communicated is negative or unfavorable. In such cases, a tendency exists to filter or modify the information to make it as attractive as possible to the recipient. The result is that high-level decision makers in organizations sometimes act on inaccurate or incomplete information. Although their intentions are good, they just aren't getting good information from their subordinates.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

19. Organizations depend on communication flowing upward, downward, and laterally. Rapid developments in technology have led to a heavy reliance on computers to assist in the movement of this information. E-mail is one part of an electronic organizational communication system. Research suggests that people may fall prey to the "impersonality" of computer-based operations and that the personal or face-to-face side of communication may suffer. Rather than eliminate e-mail and other forms of computer-mediated communication, however, the managing director should work hard to establish proper e-mail protocols and provide many other avenues for communication. The managing director can serve as a role model in his or her use of e-mail, in being regularly available for face-to-face interactions, by holding regular meetings, and by "wandering around" frequently to meet and talk with people from all levels. In addition, the director can make sure that facility designs and office arrangements support interaction and make it less easy for people to disappear behind computer screens. Finally, the director must actively encourage communication of all types and not allow himself or herself to get trapped into serving as a classic example of the "e-mail boss."

Self-Test 12

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. d 2. a 3. d 4. d 5. c 6. b 7. a 8. c 9. d 10. a 11. b 12. a 13. d 14. a 15. d

SHORT RESPONSE

16. For the first part of the question, you should consider the notions of reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, and referent power. The response should recognize the difference between position sources and personal sources. The second part of the question concerns the power of lower level participants in organizational settings. Link the sources of power with Bernard's acceptance theory of authority.

17. The text introduces five basic guidelines for increasing position power. They are (1) increase your centrality and criticality in the organization; (2) increase the personal discretion and flexibility of your job; (3) build into your job tasks that are difficult to evaluate; (4) increase the visibility of your job performance; (5) increase the relevance of your tasks to the organization. The text also identifies three basic guidelines for acquiring personal power. They are: (1) increase your knowledge and information as it relates to the job; (2) increase your personal attractiveness; (3) increase your effort in relation to key organizational tasks.

18. The text identifies seven basic strategies of managerial influence: reason, friendliness, coalition, bargaining, assertiveness, higher authority, and sanctions. You should be able to express them in everyday language along with an example. Each of these strategies is available to the manager in the downward influence attempt; however, the choices in upward attempts may be more limited. In the exercise of upward influence, influence attempts can be expected frequently to include assertiveness, friendliness, and reason.

19. Organizational politics is formally defined as "the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned means." Yet it can also be viewed as the art of creative compromise among competing interests. You should be able to express these apparently conflicting views in everyday language that communicates a sense of understanding. It is important that politics not be viewed as an entirely dysfunctional phenomenon that can result in people becoming dissatisfied and feeling emotionally distraught or estranged from the organizational situation. In particular, the functional aspects of organizational politics include helping managers to overcome personal inadequacies, cope with change, channel personal contacts, and substitute for formal authority.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. While the financial implications to stockholders from merger and acquisition seems to vary considerably, one lesson is quite clear—the senior executive of the acquiring firm gains power and influence. Further, a chief reason for senior executives involuntarily leaving firms is being taken over by another corporation. Thus, some executives believe that it is merge or be merged so they would rather be on the acquiring end.

Self-Test 13

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. a 2. b 3. b 4. b 5. c 6. c 7. a 8. d 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a 13. b 14. a 15. c

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Leadership is the process of influencing others and facilitating effort in order to accomplish shared objectives. Leadership tends to emphasize adaptive or useful change, whereas management is designed to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly.

17. Leader trait and behavior approaches assume that, in a given setting, leadership (as opposed to other variables) is central to task performance and satisfaction-related out-comes.

18. Situational contingency approaches to leadership assume that leader traits or behaviors act in conjunction with situational contingencies (other important aspects of the leadership situation) to determine outcomes.

19. Implicit leadership is in the mind of the respondent and is discussed in the text in two forms: Leadership as attribution (inference-based) and leadership prototypes. Leadership as attribution argues that followers tend to describe a leader of a high performing group or organization favorably; in other words, they infer good leadership or real leadership to such an individual and if the group is not performing well, poor leadership is inferred. In the leadership prototype approach, people are seen as having a mental image of the characteristics that make a good or real leader in a given situation. This is sometimes termed recognition-based (you know a good leader when you see one). The characteristics range from specific to general for different kinds of leaders and across different cultures.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. You are asked to respond on the point that leadership is not real and is only a figment of people's imaginations. You might start by arguing there is some truth to the argument, but it neglects the fact that leadership can also be real, where if it had not been exhibited certain outcomes would not have occurred. So the argument here, as in many cases, would be one of moderation—leadership can be real but it also can be inference- or recognition-based. That is, leadership can be seen as a mixture of both. The report can also use some examples of inference- and recognition-based leadership and how these relate to the more traditional treatment of leadership as a real phenomenon. One also could extend the discussion to leadership and management differences and similarities and how they relate to this point.

Self-Test 14

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. c 2. d 3. a 4. a 5. c 6. d 7. c 8. b 9. b 10. d 11. b 12. d 13. c 14. b 15. a

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Three ways in which shared leadership can be used in self-directed work teams are (1) behavior-focused strategies that tend to increase self-awareness, leading to the behaviors involving necessary but not always pleasant tasks; (2) self rewards in conjunction with behavior-focused strategies; and (3) constructive thought patterns that focus on the creation or alteration of cognitive thought processes. The student should then elaborate on each of these along the lines of the discussion in the chapter.

17. The multiple-level approach argues that organizations comprise three domains from bottom to top, with two managerial levels within each domain. The domains from bottom to top are production, organization, and systems. Each domain and level gets more complex in terms of managerial and leadership requirements. Managerial leader cognitive and behavioral complexity should match the additional complexity requirements at each domain and level. The Boal and Hooijberg approach essentially builds absorptive capacity, capacity to change, and managerial wisdom around charismatic, transformational, and vision leadership and their interaction with behavioral, social, and cognitive complexity. These characteristics are argued to be related to strategic leadership effectiveness and organizational effectiveness. Essentially, the student should elaborate and provide examples for the above frameworks and then do a compare and contrast treatment.

18. Not all change in organizations is planned. Unplanned change—that which occurs spontaneously or by surprise—can be useful. The appropriate goal in managing unplanned change is to act immediately once the change is recognized to minimize any negative consequences and maximize any possible benefits. The goal is to take best advantage of the change situation by learning from the experience.

19. External forces for change are found in the relationship between an organization and its environment. Examples are the pressures of mergers, strategic alliances, and divestitures. Internal forces for change include those found in different lifecycle demands as the organization passes from birth through growth and toward maturity. Internal forces also include the political nature of organizations as reflected in authority and reward systems.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. Jorge may begin his attempts to deal with resistance to change by using education and communication. Through one-on-one discussions, group presentations, and even visits to other centers he can better inform his staff about the nature and logic of the changes. He should also utilize participation and involvement by allowing others (for examples, in a series of task forces) to help choose the new equipment and design the new programs. In all this he should offer enough facilitation and support to help everyone deal with any hardships the changes may cause. He should be especially alert to listen to any problems and complaints that may arise. On certain matters, Jorge might use negotiation and agreement to exchange benefits for staff support. In the extreme case, manipulation and cooperation through covert attempts to influence others might be used to achieve needed support, although this is not advisable. Similarly, explicit or implicit coercion would use force to get people to accept change at any cost. My advice would be to stick with the first four strategies as much as possible and avoid the latter two.

Self-Test 15

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. c 2. a 3. b 4. a 5. d 6. d 7. a 8. a 9. b 10. c 11. b 12. a 13. d 14. d 15. a

SHORT RESPONSE

16. Cox's theory is designed for organizations that are located in the United States. His ideas may not be easily expanded to multinational corporations headquartered in other cultures. Cox believes that it is important for culturally divergent groups within an organization to communicate and educate one another. This helps subgroups become more tolerant and interactive with other portions of the organization. Second, the organization needs to make sure that one type of cultural group is not segregated into one type of position. When cultural subgroups are spread throughout the organization, the levels of interaction increase as the stereotyping decreases. The company also needs to help restructure many of its informal lines of communication. By encouraging the integration of the informal communication, subgroups become more involved with one another. The organization must also ensure that no one group is associated with the company's outside image. A company that is perceived to be uniform in its culture attracts individuals who are from a similar culture. Finally, Cox states that interpersonal conflict that is based on group identity needs to be controlled.

17. Groups first need to define who is in the group and who is not. Criteria for both formal and informal groups need to be established to provide a framework for membership. Second, the group needs to set standards of behavior. These standards should consist of a series of informal rules that describe proper behavior and activities for the members. Finally, group members need to identify the friends and adversaries of the group. The identification process helps the group build alliances throughout the organization when they attempt to get projects and ideas completed.

18. If you have not had full-time employment, think seriously about this question because it is designed to help you appreciate the importance of organizational rules and roles. Formal rules should be covered to show that they help dictate procedures individuals use. Informal interaction should be discussed as well. Such questions as, "How are subgroups treated?" "Do different instructors have different rules?" and "Are Seniors treated differently from Sophomores in this system?" could all be potential subtopics.

19. The first element is the need for a widely shared philosophy. Although this first element seems vague, an effective company philosophy is anything but abstract. An organization member needs to be exposed to what the firm stands for. The firm's mission needs to be articulated often and throughout the organization. Organizations should put people ahead of rules and general policy mandates. When staffers feel included and important in a system they feel more loyal and accepting of the culture. Every company has heroes or individuals who have succeeded beyond expectations. Companies with strong company cultures allow the stories of these individuals to become well known throughout the organization. Through these stories, workers need to make sure that they understand the rituals and ceremonies that are important to the company's identity. Maintaining and enhancing these rituals helps many organizations keep a strong corporate culture. Informal rules and expectations must be evident so that workers understand what is expected of them and the organization. Finally, employees need to realize that their work is important; their work and knowledge should be networked throughout the company. The better the communication system in the company, the better the company's culture.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

20. An overemphasis on exploration is likely to yield a great number of new ideas, programs, and initiatives, but comparatively little effective commercialization. In contrast, an over emphasis on exploitation often results in small incremental changes to existing products in existing markets and does not yield the changes often dictated by environmental and technological change. Thus, most OB researchers stress the need for some type of balance. There are a variety of ways to do this. The most ambitious is to develop an ambidextrous organization that stresses both. Often, however, senior managers ask some parts to stress exploration and other exploitation. Here they recognize the tension and are prepared to reconcile opposing views.

Self-Test 16

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. b 2. b 3. b 4. c 5. d 6. a 7. a 8. d 9. b 10. d 11. a 12. b 13. c 14. b 15. c 16. b 17. a 18. a 19. b 20. d

SHORT RESPONSE

21. Output goals are designed to help an organization define its overall mission and to help define the kind of business it is in. Output goals can often help define the types of products and the relationships that the company has with its consumers. Output goals often help demonstrate how a company fits into society. The second kind of organizational goal is the systems goal. A systems goal helps the company realize what behaviors it needs to maintain for its survival. The systems goal provides the means for the ends. It is important to recognize the importance of systems goals for day-to-day operations.

22. Control is the set of mechanisms used to keep action and/or outputs within predetermined limits. Two types of controls are often found in organizations. Output controls focus on desired targets to allow managers discretion in using different methods for reaching these targets. Process controls attempt to specify the manner in which tasks are accomplished. Policies, procedures, and rules as well as formalization and standardization can be seen as types of process controls. Total Quality Management can be seen as a systemic way of managing processes within the firm and thus be viewed as a control mechanism.

23. The first advantage is that functional specialization can yield clear task assignments that replicate an individual's training and experience. Functional specialization also provides the ability for departmental colleagues to build upon one another's knowledge and experience. The functional approach also provides an excellent training ground for new managers. Finally, this system is easy to explain because members can understand the role of each group even though they do not understand a particular individual's functions. There are some major disadvantages to the system as well. The system may reinforce overspecialization. Many jobs within the system may become boring and too routine. The lines of communication within the organization may become overly complex. Top management is often overloaded with too many problems that should be addresses at a lower level. Many top managers spend too much time dealing with cross-functional issues. Finally, many individuals look up in the hierarchy for reinforcement instead of focusing their attention on products, services, and clients.

24. A matrix combines the strengths of both the functional a division departmentation. For instance, divisional specialization provides the organization with adaptability and flexibility to meet important demands of key external groups. With the matrix this emphasis is blended with a stress on technical affairs found under functional departmentation. Unfortunately, there is a cost for this blending. Unity of command is lost. The authority and responsibilities of managers may overlap causing conflict. And this form may be expensive.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

25. The notion that the Postal Service is a mechanistic bureaucracy is important because it suggests that there are already many controls built into the system by the division of labor. You should recognize several primary side effects that are exhibited when control mechanisms are placed on an individual in an organization such as the Postal Service. There is often a difficulty in balancing organizational controls. As one control is emphasized, others may be neglected. Controls often force managers to emphasize the "quick fix" instead of long-term planning. Often, controls lead to solutions that are not customized to specific problems (i.e., "across the board cuts"). Planning and documentation can become burdensome and limit the amount of action that actually occurs. Managers often become more concerned with internal paperwork than with problem solving or customers. And there are far too many supervisors and managers. Controls that are vaguely designed are often ineffective and unrealistic. As a result, the manager may interpret the control, as he or she wants. The "do the best you can" goal that is commonly given to managers in the Postal Service is an example of this concept. Controls that are inserted drastically and harshly often cause panic among managers and administrators. A swift change in the territories of postal delivery clerks is an example. Finally, many goals and controls are inserted without the appropriate resources. This practice can make the attainment of goals difficult, if not impossible.

Self-Test 17

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. d 2. d 3. d 4. a 5. d 6. d 7. c 8. c 9. c 10. d 11. b 12. a 13. b 14. b 15. b 16. a 17. b 18. a 19. b 20. a

SHORT RESPONSE

21. There are a number of ways to answer this question. Actually, a very large firm could use a simple structure but its chances of reaching its goals and surviving would be small. As the firm grows so does the complexity inside and individuals become overwhelmed if the firm does not evolve into a bureaucracy. Recall that a bureaucracy involved labor that is divided so that each worker was specialized. Every worker would have well-defined responsibilities and authorities. To complement this specialization, the organization should be arranged hierarchically. Authority should be arranged from the bottom up. A worker should be promoted only on the basis of merit and technical competence. Most importantly, employees are to work under rules and guidelines that were impersonal and applied to all staffers equally.

22. Information technology is the combination of machines, artifacts, procedures, and systems used to gather, store, analyze, and disseminate information for translating it into knowledge. It can be used as (a) a partial substitute for some operations as well as some process controls and impersonal methods of coordination, (b) a capability for transforming information to knowledge for learning and (c) a strategic capability.

23. James Thompson believed that technology could be divided into three categorie—intensive, mediating, or long linked. An intensive technology occurs when uncertainty exists as to how to produce the desired outcomes. Teams of specialists are brought together to pool knowledge and resources to solve the problem. An interdependence among specialists develops because all parties need one another to fulfill the project successfully. This technology often occurs in the research and development portion of organizations. A mediating technology allows various parties to become interdependent. For example, the ATM network that most banks utilize allows customers to bank at other institutions and still be tied to their home bank, automatically. Without this technology, the banking industry would not be so well linked. The technology helps determine the nature of the banks' relationships with one another. Finally, Thompson believed that long-linked technologies had a unique effect on organizations as well. Long-linked technology is more commonly known as industrial technology. This type of knowledge allows organizations to produce goods in mass quantities. The assembly line designed by Henry Ford is one of the early examples of long-linked technology. Thompson uses these distinctions to highlight the various impacts that technology has on organizations. His approach differs greatly from Joan Woodward's approach, which focuses more on the mode of production. Woodward divides technology into three areas: small-batch manufacturing, mass production, and continuous process custom goods. Crafts persons are often characterized as small producers who must alter production to fit the needs of each client. Mass production technology deals with production of uniform goods for a mass market. The production design is altered to maximize speed while limiting product styles. The last type of technology deals with continuous-process technology. Oil refineries and chemical plants are classic examples of this type of technology. These industries are intensely automated and produce the same products without variation.

24. We define environmental complexity as an estimate of the magnitude of the problems and opportunities in an organization's environment as influenced by three main factors: degree of richness, degree of interdependence, and degree of uncertainty. Environmental richness, is shown by an environment that is improving around the company. The economy is growing, and people are investing and spending money. Internally, the company may be growing, and its employees may be prospering as well. In a rich environment, organizations can succeed despite their poor organizational structure. An environment that is not rich allows only well-organized companies to survive in the long run. The second major factor in environmental complexity is the level of interdependence. This factor focuses on the relationships an organization needs to develop to compete in a certain setting. How free is that organization to conduct business? Uncertainty and volatility are the final factors that make up complexity. Organizations must decide how to deal with markets and environments that are continually changing and where the rate of change is changing.

APPLICATIONS ESSAY

25. In the design and development of cars and trucks, Ford must recognize both the voice of the customer and a whole series of extremely complex technical requirements. If the company violates either the customer requirements or the technical requirements, it will not be able to develop a profitable vehicle. In the product and assembly plants these conflict forces are not as prominent, and the firm may opt for a simpler structure.

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