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1.Jorge Reina Schement and Terry Curtis, Tendencies and Tensions of the Information Age: The Production and Distribution of Information in the United States (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1995): 21–39.
2.But computers are still blamed for loss of jobs. See, for example, Jeremy Rifkin, The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1995): 6–11, 101–106. Peter Cappelli et al., on the other hand, documents how computers are affecting workers in Change at Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
3.A partial exception is economist Richard K. Lester, The Productive Edge: How U.S. Industries Are Pointing the Way to a New Era of Economic Growth (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998): 39–40.
4.Rifkin, The End of Work, passim.
5.Four studies describe these findings: Alfred D. Chandler and James W. Cortada (eds.), A Nation Transformed by Information: How Information Shaped the United States from Colonial Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as An Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformation in Early-Modern Europe, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979); Alberto Manguel, A History of Reading (New York: Viking, 1996); and Henri-Jean Martin, The History and Power of Writing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).
6.For more details, see James W. Cortada (ed.), Rise of the Knowledge Worker (Boston: Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).
7.This idea is very well contradicted by an MIT professor of the 1990s in a best selling book, The Trouble with Computers: Usefulness, Usability, and Productivity (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995) by Thomas K. Landauer. While he had much to say about how computers should be made easier to use, and was very accurate in pointing out their faults, he unfortunately wrote his book just as the technology was becoming far easier to use. Moreover, he naïvely ignored the reality that we were going to use them warts and all, because in the final analysis, they were more useful than frustrating.
8.Larry Prusak was most likely the first user of the term, creating it to name a series of management practices he was developing and codifying in the early 1990s (e-mail Prusak to author, October 12, 1999).
9.J. Edwards Deming, The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education (Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 1993) summarized a life-time of thinking on the subject.
10.Capelli et al., Change at Work, remains the single best study on this issue.
11.The United Nations collects massive amounts of data each year, which it constantly publishes. Some of the useful series for the themes discussed in this chapter include the U.N.'s Demographic Yearbook (New York: UN, annual); but also see Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's annual publication, Employment Outlook (Paris: OECD, annual).
12.For a fascinating history of these paper-based tools for preserving information and communicating, see JoAnne Yates, Control Through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989).
13.Thomas H. Davenport, Process Innovation: Reengineering Work through Information Technology (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1993) made the most widely-read argument in support of this point.
14.Perhaps because of the size of the firm, there were some divisions that had done a better job than others exploiting IT and KM. The critical lesson: At least know what others in your firm have already learned and leverage that earlier experience and insight!
15.The topic has a growing body of best practices. See Stephen H. Haeckel, Adaptive Enterprise: Creating and Leading Sense-and-Respond Organizations (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999).


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