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Endnotes

Endnotes

Chapter 1

Endnotes

[]

[] Quotes from Jessi Hempel, "How LinkedIn Will Fire Up Your Career," Fortune, Kindle Edition (April 13, 2010).

[]

[] See monster.com; linkedin.com; Bridget Carey, "Old Resume Just the Start These Days," The Columbus Dispatch (March 16, 2008), p. D3; Joseph De Avila, "CEO Reorganizes Job-Search Pioneer, Wall Street Journal (May 12, 2008), p. B1.

[]

[] Information from John Tozzi, Stacy Perman, and Nick Leiber, "America's Best Young Entrepreneurs 2009," BusinessWeek (October 12, 2009).

[]

[] For a good discussion see Pino Audia, "A New B-School Specialty: Self-Awareness," Forbes (December 4, 2009): www.forbes.com.

[]

[] The Johari Window was originally described by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, "The Johari Window, a Graphic Model of Interpersonal Awareness," Proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development. (Los Angeles: UCLA, 1955).

[]

[] James O'Toole and Edward E. Lawler III, The New American Workplace (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).

[]

[] Thomas A. Stewart, Intellectual Capital: The Wealth of Organizations (New York: Bantam, 1998).

[]

[] Charles O'Reilly III and Jeffrey Pfeffer, Hidden Value: How Great Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results with Ordinary People (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000), p. 2.

[]

[] Thomas A. Stewart, Intellectual Capital: The Wealth of Organizations (New York: Bantam, 1998); and, Dave Ulrich, "Intellectual Capital = Competency X Commitment," Harvard Business Review (Winter 1998), pp. 15–26.

[]

[] Max DePree's books include Leadership Is an Art (New York: Dell, 1990) and Leadership Jazz (New York: Dell, 1993). See also Herman Miller's home page at www.hermanmiller.com.

[]

[] See Peter F. Drucker, The Changing World of the Executive (New York: T.T. Times Books, 1982), and The Profession of Management (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1997); and Francis Horibe, Managing Knowledge Workers: New Skills and Attitudes to Unlock the Intellectual Capital in Your Organization (New York: Wiley, 1999).

[]

[] Daniel Pink, A Whole New Mind: Moving from the Information Age to the Conceptual Age (New York: Riverhead Books, 2005).

[]

[] Gary Hamel, "Gary Hamel Sees 'More Options . . . Fewer Grand Visions," Wall Street Journal, Special Advertising Section (October 6, 2009), p. Akl16.

[]

[] Diana Middleton, "Landing a Job of the Future," Wall Street Journal (December 29, 2009), p. D4.

[]

[] Jeffrey Zaslow, "The Greatest Generation (of Networkers)," Wall Street Journal (November 4, 2009), pp. D1, D2; and, Jessica E. Vascellaro, "Why Email No Longer Rules . . .," Wall Street Journal (October 12, 2009), pp. R1, R3.

[]

[] Information from Sarah E. Needleman, "A New Job Is Just a Tweet Away," Wall Street Journal (September 6, 2009), pp. B7, B12.

[]

[] Handel, op. cit

[]

[] Hemnel, op. cit.

[]

[] Middleton, op. cit.

[]

[] Kenichi Ohmae's books include The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy (New York: Harper, 1989);

The End of the Nation State (New York: Free Press, 1996); The Invisible Continent: Four Strategic Imperatives of the New Economy (New York: Harper, 1999); and The Next Global Stage: Challenges and Opportunities in Our Borderless World (Philadelphia: Wharton School Publishing, 2006).

[]

[] Information from Micheline Maynard, "A Lifeline Not Made in the USA," The New York Times (October 18, 2009): nytimes.com (accessed April 15, 2010).

[]

[] Quote from Alfred E. Eckes Jr. and Thomas W. Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 1, 2. See also Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization (New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell, 2000); Joseph E. Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003); and Joseph E. Stiglitz, Making Globalization Work (New York: W.W. Norton, 2007).

[]

[] Michael E. Porter, The Competitive Advantage of Nations: With a New Introduction (New York: Free Press, 1998).

[]

[] Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005), p. 15.

[]

[] Esmé E. Deprez, "Madoff Sentenced to Maximum 150 Years," Business Week (June 29, 2009): businessweek.com (accessed April 15, 2010).

[]

[] For discussions of ethics in business and management see Linda K. Trevino and Katherine A. Nelson, Managing Business Ethics (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006); and Richard DeGeorge, Business Ethics, 5th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2005).

[]

[] Daniel Akst, "Room at the Top for Improvement," Wall Street Journal (October 26, 2004), p. D8; and Herb Baum and Tammy King, The Transparent Leader (New York: Collins, 2005).

[]

[] Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century (Indianapolis, IN: Towers Perrin/Hudson Institute, 1987); Richard W. Judy and Carol D'Amico (eds.), Work and Workers for the 21st Century (Indianapolis, IN: Hudson Institute, 1997). See also Richard D. Bucher, Diversity Consciousness: Opening Our Minds to People, Cultures, and Opportunities (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000); R. Roosevelt Thomas, "From Affirmative Action to Affirming Diversity," Harvard Business Review (March–April 1990), pp. 107–17; and Beyond Race and Gender: Unleashing the Power of Your Total Workforce by Managing Diversity (New York: AMACOM, 1992).

[]

[] June Dronholz, "Hispanics Gain in Census," Wall Street Journal (May 10, 2006), p. A6; Phillip Toledano, "Demographics: The Population Hourglass," Fast Company (March 2006), p. 56; June Kronholz, "Racial Identity's Gray Area," Wall Street Journal (June 12, 2008), p. A10; "We're Getting Old," Wall Street Journal (March 26, 2009), p. D2; Les Christie, "Hispanic Population Boom Fuels Rising U.S. Diversity," CnnMoney: www.cnn.com; Betsy Towner, "The New Face of 50+ America," AARP Bulletin (June 2009), p. 31; and, Kelly Evans, "Recession Drives More Women in the Workforce," Wall Street Journal (November 12, 2009), p. A21.

[]

[] Information from "Women and Work: We Did It!" Economist (December 31, 2009).

[]

[] Information from Eric Shurenberg, "Salary Gap: Men vs. Women," moneywatch.com (accessed April 15, 2010).

[]

[] Information from "Racism in Hiring Remains, Study Says," The Columbus Dispatch (January 17, 2003), p. B2.

[]

[] Survey data reported in Sue Shellenbarger, "New Workplace Equalizer: Ambition," Wall Street Journal (March 26, 2009), p. D5.

[]

[] Judith B. Rosener, "Women Make Good Managers. So What?" BusinessWeek (December 11, 2000), p. 24.

[]

[] BusinessWeek (August 8, 1990), p. 50.

[]

[] Thomas, op. cit.

[]

[] Charles Handy, The Age of Unreason (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1990); Also see Charles Handy, A Business Guru's Portfolio Life (New York: Amacom, 2008), and Myself and Other Important Matters (New York; Amacom, 2008).

[]

[] Peter Coy, Michelle Conlin, and Moira Herbst, "The Disposable Worker," BusinessWeek (January 18, 2010), pp. 33–39.

[]

[] See Gareille Monaghan, "Don't Get a Job, Get a Portfolio Career," Sunday Times (April 26, 2009), p. 15.

[]

[] Tom Peters, "The New Wired World of Work," BusinessWeek (August 28, 2000), pp. 172–73.

[]

[] Quote from Stephen Moore, "The Conscience of a Capitalist," Wall Street Journal (October 3–4, 2009), p. A11; see also www.wholefoods.com/company.

[]

[] For an overview of organizations and organization theory, see W. Richard Scott, Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems, 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998).

[]

[] Information from Paul F. Nunes, Geoffrey Godbey, and H. James Wilson, "Bet the Clock," Wall Street Journal (October 26, 2009), p. R6; and Steve Hamm, "The King of the Cloud," BusinessWeek (November 30, 2009), p. 77.

[]

[] Includes ideas from Jay A. Conger, Winning 'em Over: A New Model for Managing in the Age of Persuasion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), pp. 180–81; Stewart D. Friedman, Perry Christensen, and Jessica DeGroot, "Work and Life: The End of the Zero–Sum Game," Harvard Business Review (November–December 1998), pp. 119–29; Chris Argyris, "Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes," Harvard Business Review (May–June 1998), pp. 98–105; and John A. Byrne, "Management by Web," BusinessWeek (August 28, 2000), pp. 84–98. See also emerging reports such as O'Toole and Lawler, op. cit.; Jon Nicholson and Amanda Nairn, The Manager of the 21st Century: 2020 Vision (Sydney: Boston Consulting Group, 2008); and, Jeffry Pfeffer, "Building Sustainable Organizations: The Human Factor," Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 24 (February 2010), pp. 34–45.

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer and John F. Veiga, "Putting People First for Organizational Success," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13 (May 1999), pp. 37–48; Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998).

[]

[] George Anders, "Drucker's Teachings Find Following in Asia," Wall Street Journal (June 18, 2008), p. B2.

[]

[] Henry Mintzberg, "The Manager's Job: Folklore and Fact," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 53 (July–August 1975), p. 61.

See also his book The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper-Row, 1973: HarperCollins, 1997).

[]

[] Ellen Byron, "P&G's Lafley Sees CEOs as Link to World," Wall Street Journal (March 23, 2009), p. B6; and Stefan Stern, "What Exactly Are Chief Executives For?" Financial Times (May 15, 2009).

[]

[] For a perspective on the first-level manager's job, see Leonard A. Schlesinger and Janice A. Klein, "The First-Line Supervisor: Past, Present and Future," pp. 370–82 in Jay W. Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987). Research reported in "Remember Us?" Economist (February 1, 1992), p. 71.

[]

[] David Whitford, "A Human Place to Work," Fortune (January 8, 2001), pp. 108–20.

[]

[] Quote from "GM Shakes Up Management Team Three Days after Sacking Its Chief," Financial Times (December 5, 2009); see also "Boardroom Battles Are Breaking Out All Over," Financial Times (December 8, 2009).

[]

[] Pfeffer, op. cit.

[]

[] George Anders, "Overseeing More Employees—With Fewer Managers," Wall Street Journal (March 24, 2008), p. B6.

[]

[] This running example is developed from information from "Accountants Have Lives, Too, You Know," BusinessWeek (February 23, 1998), pp. 88–90; Silvia Ann Hewlett and Carolyn Buck Luce, "Off-Ramps and On-Ramps: Keeping Talented Women on the Road to Success," Harvard Business Review (March 2005), reprint 9491; and the Ernst-Young website: www.ey.com.

[]

[] Mintzberg (1973/1997), op. cit., p. 30.

[]

[] See Mintzberg (1973/1997), op. cit., Henry Mintzberg, "Covert Leadership: The Art of Managing Professionals," Harvard Business Review (November–December 1998), pp. 140–47; and Jonathan Gosling and Henry Mintzberg, "The Five Minds of a Manager," Harvard Business Review (November 2003), pp. 1–9.

[]

[] Mintzberg (1973/1997), op. cit., p. 60.

[]

[] For research on managerial work see Morgan W. McCall Jr., Ann M. Morrison, and Robert L. Hannan, Studies of Managerial Work: Results and Methods. Technical Report #9 (Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership, 1978), pp. 7–9. See also John P. Kotter, "What Effective General Managers Really Do," Harvard Business Review (November–December 1982), pp. 156–57.

[]

[] Kotter, op. cit., p. 164. See also his book The General Managers (New York: Free Press, 1986) and David Barry, Catherine Durnell Crampton, and Stephen J. Carroll, "Navigating the Garbage Can: How Agendas Help Managers Cope with Job Realities," Academy of Management Executive, vol. II (May 1997), pp. 43–56.

[]

[] Robert L. Katz, "Skills of an Effective Administrator," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1974), p. 94.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] See Daniel Goleman's books Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam, 1995) and Working with Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam, 1998); and his articles "What Makes a Leader," Harvard Business Review (November–December 1998), pp. 93–102, and "Leadership That Makes a Difference," Harvard Business Review (March–April 2000), pp. 79–90; quote from p. 80.

[]

[] See Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002).

[]

[] See Richard E. Boyatzis, The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance (New York: Wiley, 1982); Richard E. Boyatzis, "Competencies in the 21st Century," Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 (1) (2008), pp. 5–12; and, Richard Boyatzis (Guest Editor), "Competencies in the EU," Journal of Management Development, vol. 28 (2009), special issue.

[]

[] Audia, op cit.

[]

[] Suggested by and some items included from Outcome Measurement Project, Phase I and Phase II Reports (St. Louis: American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, 1986).

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—Based on incident reported in "FBI Nabs 3 over Coca-Cola Secrets," cnn.com (retrieved July 6, 2006); Betsy McKay, "Coke Employee Faces Charges in Plot to Sell Secrets," Wall Street Journal (July 6, 2006), p. B1; and "Man Gets Two Years in Coke Secrets Case," Wall Street Journal (June 7, 2007), p. A12.

Real People—Information from Kate Klonick, "Pepsi's CEO a Refreshing Change" (August 15, 2006): www.abcnews.go.com; Diane Brady, "Indra Nooyi: Keeping Cool in Hot Water," BusinessWeek (June 11, 2007), special report; Indra Nooyi, "The Best Advice I Ever Got," CNNMoney (April 30, 2008), www.cnnnmony.com; "Indra Nooyi," Wall Street Journal (November 10, 2008), p. R3; Andrew Hill, "The Women Who Mean Business, Financial Times, Kindle Edition (September 26, 2009); and, "PepsiCo's Nooyi on 'New Capitalism'," money. cnn.com (accessed April 16, 2010).

Photo Essays Notes

Salesforce.com—Information from Jessica Hodgson, "Selling and Software," Wall Street Journal (December 17, 2009), p. A25; and Steve Hamm, "The King of the Cloud," BusinessWeek (November 30, 2009), p. 77. Teach for America—Information from teachforamerica.org; and "Wendy Kopp's Mission: Ensure Educational Opportunity for All Students," VOANews.com (November 2, 2009).

Chapter 2

Endnotes

[]

[] Information from Venture Capital Dispatch, "Facebook and Zappos's Different Views on Worker Retention," Wall Street Journal (October 29, 2009): wsj.com.

[]

[] See David A. Kolb, Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984); and David A. Kolb, "Experiential Learning Theory and the Learning Style Inventory," The Academy of Management Review, vol. 6, 1981, pp. 289–96.

[]

[] Quote from Allan H. Church, Executive Commentary, Academy of Management Executive (February 2002), p. 74.

[]

[] A thorough review and critique of the history of management thought, including management in ancient civilizations, is provided by Daniel A. Wren, The Evolution of Management Thought, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1993).

[]

[] Pauline Graham, Mary Parker Follett—Prophet of Management: A Celebration of Writings from the 1920s (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995).

[]

[] For a time line of 20th-century management ideas, see "75 Years of Management Ideas and Practices: 1922–1997," Harvard Business Review, supplement (September–October 1997).

[]

[] For a sample of this work, see Henry L. Gantt, Industrial Leadership (Easton, MD: Hive, 1921; Hive edition published in 1974); Henry C. Metcalfe and Lyndall Urwick (eds.), Dynamic Administration: The Collected Papers of Mary Parker Follett (New York: Harper-Brothers, 1940); James D. Mooney, The Principles of Administration, rev. ed. (New York: Harper-Brothers, 1947); Lyndall Urwick, The Elements of Administration (New York: Harper-Brothers, 1943); and The Golden Book of Management (London: N. Neame, 1956).

[]

[] Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: W.W. Norton, 1967), originally published by HarperBrothers in 1911. See also the biography, Robert Kanigel, The One Best Way (New York: Viking, 1997).

[]

[] For criticisms of Taylor and his work, see Charles W. Wrege and Amedeo G. Perroni, "Taylor's Pig-Tale: A Historical Analysis of Frederick W. Taylor's Pig Iron Experiments," Academy of Management Journal, vol. 17 (March 1974), pp. 6–27; Charles W. Wrege and Richard M. Hodgetts, "Frederick W. Taylor's 1899 Pig Iron Observations: Examining Fact, Fiction and Lessons for the New Millennium," Academy of Management Journal, vol. 43 (2000), pp. 1283–91; and Jill Lepore, "Not So Fast," The New Yorker (October 12, 2009); www.newyorker.com.

[]

[] For a discussion of the contemporary significance of Taylor's work, see Edwin A. Lock, "The Ideas of Frederick W. Taylor: An Evaluation," Academy of Management Review, vol. 7 (1982), p. 14.

[]

[] Information from Raymund Flandez and Kelly K. Sports, "Tackling the Energy Monster," Wall Street Journal (June 16, 2008), p. R1.

[]

[] Frank B. Gilbreth, Motion Study (New York: Van Nostrand, 1911).

[]

[] Ben Worthen, "Do You Need to Work Faster? Get a Bigger Computer Monitor," Wall Street Journal (March 25, 2008), p. B8; and "Plant Seeks Savings with Shot-Clock Approach," The Messenger, Athens, Ohio (November 15, 2009), p. A3.

[]

[] Available in English as Henri Fayol, General and Industrial Administration (London: Pitman, 1949); subsequent discussion is based on M. B. Brodie, Fayol on Administration (London: Pitman, 1949).

[]

[] A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons (eds. and trans.), Max Weber: The Theory of Social Economic Organization (New York: Free Press, 1947).

[]

[] Ibid., p. 337.

[]

[] For classic treatments of bureaucracy, see Alvin Gouldner, Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy (New York: Free Press, 1954); and Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure (New York: Free Press, 1957).

[]

[] M. P. Follett, Freedom and Coordination (London: Management Publications Trust, 1949).

[]

[] Judith Garwood, "A Review of Dynamic Administration: The Collected Papers of Mary Parker Follett," New Management, vol. 2 (1984), pp. 61–62; eulogy from Richard C. Cabot, Encyclopedia of Social Work, vol. 15, "Follett, Mary Parker," p. 351.

[]

[] The Hawthorne studies are described in detail in F. J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson, Management and the Worker (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966) and G. Homans, Fatigue of Workers (New York: Reinhold, 1941). For an interview with three of the participants in the relay– assembly test–room studies, see R. G. Greenwood, A. A. Bolton, and R. A. Greenwood, "Hawthorne a Half Century Later: Relay Assembly Participants Remember," Journal of Management, vol. 9 (1983), pp. 217–31.

[]

[] The criticisms of the Hawthorne studies are detailed in Alex Carey, "The Hawthorne Studies: A Radical Criticism," American Sociological Review, vol. 32 (1967), pp. 403–16; H. M. Parsons, "What Happened at Hawthorne?" Science, vol. 183 (1974), pp. 922–32; and B. Rice, "The Hawthorne Defect: Persistence of a Flawed Theory," Psychology Today, vol. 16 (1982), pp. 70–74. See also Wren, op. cit.

[]

[] This discussion of Maslow's theory is based on Abraham H. Maslow, Eupsychian Management (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1965) and Abraham H. Maslow, Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed. (New York: Harper-Row, 1970).

[]

[] Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960).

[]

[] This notion is also discussed in terms of the "pygmalion effect." See Dov Eden, Pygmalion in Management (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) and Dov Eden, Dvorah Geller, and Abigail Gerwirtz, "Implanting Pygmalion Leadership Style through Workshop Training: Seven Field Experiments," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 11 (2) (2000), pp. 171–210.

[]

[] Gary Heil, Deborah F. Stevens, and Warren G. Bennis, Douglas McGregor on Management: Revisiting the Human Side of Enterprise (New York: Wiley, 2000).

[]

[] Information from Terry Stephan, "Honing Her Kraft," Northwestern (Winter 2000), pp. 22–25.

[]

[] Chris Argyris, Personality and Organization (New York: Harper-Row, 1957).

[]

[] Stefan Stern, "Smarter Leaders Are Betting Big on Data," Financial Times, Kindle edition (March 9, 2010). See also Thomas H. Davenport, Jeanne G. Harris, and Robert Morison, Analytics at Work: Smarter Decisions, Better Results (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2010).

[]

[] Scott Morrison, "Google Searches for Staffing Answers," Wall Street Journal (May 19, 2009), p. B1.

[]

[] The ideas of Chester I. Bamard, Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1938), and Ludwig von Bertalanffy, "The History and Status of General Systems Theory," Academy of Management Journal, vol. 15 (1972), pp. 407–26, contributed to the emergence of this systems perspective on organizations. The systems view is further developed by Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn in their classic book, The Social Psychology of Organizations (New York: Wiley, 1978).

For an integrated systems view see Lane Tracy, The Living Organization (New York: Quorum Books, 1994). For an overview, see W. Richard Scott, Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems, 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1998).

[]

[] For an overview, see Scott, op. cit., pp. 95–97.

[]

[] See, for example, the classic studies of Tom Burns and George M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation (London: Tavistock, 1961, and republished by Oxford University Press, London, 1994) and Paul R. Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch, Organizations and Environment (Boston: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 1967).

[]

[] W. Edwards Deming, Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982); and Rafael Aguay, Dr. Deming: The American Who Taught the Japanese about Quality (New York: Free Press, 1997).

[]

[] See Howard S. Gitlow and Shelly J. Gitlow, The Deming Guide to Quality and Competitive Position (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987).

[]

[] See Joseph M. Juran, Quality Control Handbook, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979) and "The Quality Trilogy: A Universal Approach to Managing for Quality," in Total Quality Management, ed. H. Costin (New York: Dryden, 1994).

[]

[] Stephen Miller, "Joseph M. Juran: 1904–2008," Wall Street Journal (March 8–9, 2008), p. A7.

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker, "The Future That Has Already Happened," Harvard Business Review, vol. 75 (September–October 1997), pp. 20–24; and Peter F. Drucker, Esther Dyson, Charles Handy, Paul Daffo, and Peter M. Senge, "Looking Ahead: Implications of the Present," Harvard Business Review, vol. 75 (September–October 1997).

[]

[] See, for example, Thomas H. Davenport and Laurence Prusak, Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1997).

[]

[] Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline (New York: Harper, 1990).

[]

[] Eric Schmidt and Hal Varian, "Google: Ten Golden Rules," Newsweek (December 2, 2005).

[]

[] Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr., In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies (New York: Harper-Row, 1982).

[]

[] For a retrospective on In Search of Excellence, see William C. Bogner, "Tom Peters on the Real World of Business" and "Robert Waterman on Being Smart and Lucky," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 16 (2002), pp. 40–50.

[]

[] See Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap . . . and Others Don't (New York: HarperCollins, 2001).

[]

[] See Bruce G. Resnick and Timothy L. Smunt, "From Good to Great to . . ." Academy of Management Perspectives (November 2008), pp. 6–12; and "Bruce Niendorf and Kristine Beck, "Good to Great, or Just Good?" Academy of Management Perspectives (November 2008), pp. 13–20.

[]

[] Jim Collins, How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In (New York: HarperCollins, 2009).

[]

[] See Gordon Binder, Science Lessons: What the Business of Biotech Taught Me about Management (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2008).

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, Hard Facts, Dangerous Half-Truths, and Total Nonsense: Profiting from Evidence-Based Management (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006); and Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, "Management Half-Truths and Nonsense," California Management Review, vol. 48(3) (2006), 77–100; and Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, "EvidenceBased Management," Harvard Business Review (January 2006), reprint R0601E.

[]

[] Definition from Rob B. Viner, David Denyer, and Denise M. Rousseau, "Evidence-Based Management: Concept Cleanup Time?" Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 23 (November 2009), pp. 19–28. For debate on the EBMgt concept, see the exchange between ibid. and Trish Reay, Whitney Berta, and Melanie Kazman Kohn, "What's the Evidence on Evidence-Based Management?" Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 23 (November 2009), pp. 5–18.

[]

[] See Denise M. Rousseau, "On Organizational Behavior," BizEd (May/June, 2008), pp. 30–31; and David G. Allen, Phillip C. Bryant, and James A. Vardaman, "Retaining Talent: Replacing Misconceptions with Evidence-Based Strategies," Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 24 (May, 2010).

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998); and Charles O'Reilly III and Jeffrey Pfeffer, Hidden Value: How Great Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results with Ordinary People (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000).

[]

[] Developed from Sara L. Rynes, Tamara L. Giluk, and Kenneth G. Brown, "The Very Separate Worlds of Academic and Practitioner Periodicals in Human Resource Management: Implications for Evidence-Based Management," Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50 (October 2008), p. 986; and, David G. Allen, Phillip C. Bryant, and James M. Vardaman, "Retaining Talent: Replacing Misconceptions with Evidence-Based Strategies," Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 24 (May, 2010).

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—This situation was reported in the Columbus Dispatch (March 8, 2006), p. D2.

Real People—Information from "Chapter 2," Kellogg (Winter 2004), p. 6; David Pilling, "Establishing Libraries to Help Children Gain a Love of Books," Financial Times (December 8, 2009); Leaving Microsoft to Change the World (New York: HarperCollins), 2006; and, David Pilling, "Establishing Libraries to Help Gain a Love of Books," Financial Times, Kindle edition (December 8, 2009).

Photo Essays Notes

Cisco Systems—Adam Bryant, "Bouncing Back Is What Sets a Leader Apart," The Global Edition of the New York Times (August 3, 2009), p. 17. The Outliers—See Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers (New York: Little, Brown, 2009). Jim Collins—Jim Collins, How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In (New York: HarperCollins, 2009).

Chapter 3

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from www.interfaceglobal.com, accessed January 3, 2010.

[]

[] J. J. Graafland, "Do Markets Crowd out Virtues? An Aristotelian Framework," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 91 (2010), pp. 1–19.

[]

[] R. M. Ryckman, M. Hammer, L. M. Kaczor, and J. A. Gold, "Construction of a Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale," Journal of Personality Assessment, vol. 55 (1990), pp. 630–39.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Desmond Tutu, "Do More Than Win," Fortune (December 30, 1991), p. 59.

[]

[] For an overview, see Linda K. Trevino and Katherine A. Nelson, Managing Business Ethics, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley, 2003).

[]

[] M. J. O'Fallon and K. D. Butterfield, "A Review of the Empirical Ethical Decision-making Literature: 1996–2003," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 59 (2005), pp. 375–413; and, S. J. Vitell and E. R. Hidalgo, "The Impact of Corporate Ethical Values and Enforcement of Ethical Codes on the Perceived Importance of Ethics in Business: A Comparison of U.S. and Spanish Managers," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 64 (2006), pp. 31–43.

[]

[] D. Lyons, Ethics and the Rule of Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).

[]

[] See, for example, James Oliver Horter and Lois E. Horton, Slavery and the Making of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

[]

[] Trevino and Nelson, op. cit.

[]

[] Milton Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973). See also W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, "The Values of Corporate Executives and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications," in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.), Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990).

[]

[] Philip Delves Broughton, "MBA Students Sway Integrity for Plagiarism," Financial Times (May 19, 2008), p. 13.

[]

[] Case reported in Michelle Conlin, "Cheating—Or Postmodern Learning?" BusinessWeek (May 14, 2007), p. 42.

[]

[] See Gerald F. Cavanagh, Dennis J. Moberg, and Manuel Velasquez, "The Ethics of Organizational Politics," Academy of Management Review, vol. 6 (1981), pp. 363–74; Justin G. Locknecker, Joseph A. McKinney, and Carlos W. Moore, "Egoism and Independence: Entrepreneurial Ethics," Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1988), pp. 64–72; and Justin G. Locknecker, Joseph A. McKinney, and Carlos W. Moore, "The Generation Gap in Business Ethics," Business Horizons (September–October 1989), pp. 9–14.

[]

[] Raymond L. Hilgert, "What Ever Happened to Ethics in Business and in Business Schools?" The Diary of Alpha Kappa Psi (April 1989), pp. 4–8.

[]

[] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III), December 10, 1948, in the United Nations. See un.org/Overview/rights.html.

[]

[] Jerald Greenburg, "Organizational Justice: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow," Journal of Management, vol. 16 (1990), pp. 399–432; and Mary A. Konovsky, "Understanding Procedural Justice and Its Impact on Business Organizations," Journal of Management, vol. 26 (2000), pp. 489–511.

[]

[] For a review see Russell Cropanzano, David E. Bown, and Stephen W. Gilliland, "The Management of Organizational Justice," Academy of Management Perspectives (November 2007), pp. 34–48.

[]

[] Interactional justice is described by Robert J. Bies, "The Predicament of Injustice: The Management of Moral Outrage," in L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 9 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987), pp. 289–319. The example is from Carol T. Kulik and Robert L. Holbrook, "Demographics in Service Encounters: Effects of Racial and Gender Congruence on Perceived Fairness," Social Justice Research, vol. 13 (2000), pp. 375–402.

[]

[] M. Fortin and M. R. Fellenz, "Hypocrisies of Fairness: Towards a More Reflexive Ethical Base in Organizational Justice Research and Practice," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 78 (2008), pp. 415–33; and, W. Sadurski, "Social Justice and Legal Justice," Law and Philosophy, vol. 3 (1984), pp. 329–54.

[]

[] Robert D. Haas, "Ethics—A Global Business Challenge," Vital Speeches of the Day (June 1, 1996), pp. 506–9.

[]

[] This discussion is based on Thomas Donaldson, "Values in Tension: Ethics Away from Home," Harvard Business Review, vol. 74 (September–October 1996), pp. 48–62.

[]

[] Thomas Donaldson and Thomas W. Dunfee, "Towards a Unified Conception of Business Ethics: Integrative Social Contracts Theory," Academy of Management Review, vol. 19 (1994), pp. 252–85.

[]

[] Donaldson, op. cit.

[]

[] Reported in Barbara Ley Toffler, "Tough Choices: Managers Talk Ethics," New Management, vol. 4 (1987), pp. 34–39. See also Barbara Ley Toffler, Tough Choices: Managers Talk Ethics (New York: Wiley, 1986).

[]

[] See, for example, Steven N. Brenner and Earl A. Mollander, "Is the Ethics of Business Changing?" Harvard Business Review, vol. 55 (January–February 1977).

[]

[] Survey results from Del Jones, "48% of Workers Admit to Unethical or Illegal Acts," USA Today (April 4, 1997), p. A1.

[]

[] Reported in Adam Smith, "Wall Street's Outrageous Fortunes," Esquire (April 1987), p. 73.

[]

[] Lawrence Kohlberg, The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages (Essays in Moral Development, Volume 2) (New York: HarperCollins, 1984). See also the discussion by Linda K. Trevino, "Moral Reasoning and Business Ethics: Implications for Research, Education, and Management," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 11 (1992), pp. 445–59.

[]

[] See Thomas M. Jones, "Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue Contingent Model," Academy of Management Review, vol. 16 (1991), pp. 366–95; Sara Morris and Robert A. McDonald, "The Role of Moral Intensity in Moral Judgments: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 14 (9) (1995), pp. 715–26; and Tim Barnett, "Dimensions of Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision Making: An Empirical Study," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 31 (2001), pp. 1038–57.

[]

[] The Body Shop came under scrutiny over the degree to which its business practices actually live up to this charter and the company's self-promoted green image. See, for example, John Entine, "Shattered Image," Business Ethics (September–October 1994), pp. 23–28.

[]

[] The company story and information on Dame Anita Roddick from thebodyshopinternational.com/about+us.

[]

[] Information on this case from William M. Carley, "Antitrust Chief Says CEOs Should Tape All Phone Calls to Each Other," Wall Street Journal (February 15, 1983), p. 23; "American Air, Chief End Antitrust Suit, Agree Not to Discuss Fares with Rivals," Wall Street Journal (July 15, 1985), p. 4; "American Airlines Loses Its Pilot," Economist (April 18, 1998), p. 58.

[]

[] Saul W. Gellerman, "Why 'Good' Managers Make Bad Ethical Choices," Harvard Business Review, vol. 64 (July–August 1986), pp. 85–90.

[]

[] Items from news headlines. See also Blake E. Ashforth, Dennis A. Gioia, Sandra C. Robinson, and Linda K. Trevino, "Special Topic Forum on Corruption in Organizations," Academy of Management Review, vol. 33 (July 2008), pp. 670t.

[]

[] Information from the Lockheed Martin Company website retrieved from http://www.lockheedmartin.com/aboutus/ethics/index.html.

[]

[] Alan L. Otten, "Ethics on the Job: Companies Alert Employees to Potential Dilemmas," Wall Street Journal (July 14, 1986), p. 17; and "The Business Ethics Debate," Newsweek (May 25, 1987), p. 36.

[]

[] Information from corporate website: www.gapinc.com/communitysourcing/vendor_conduct.htm.

[]

[] Information from Joseph Pereira and Steve Stcklow. "WalMart Raises Bar on Toy-Safety Standards," Wall Street Journal (May 14, 2008), p. B1.

[]

[] Archie B. Carroll, "In Search of the Moral Manager," Business Horizons (March/April 2001), pp. 7–15.

[]

[] Kohlberg, op. cit.

[]

[] See "Whistle-Blowers on Trial," BusinessWeek (March 24, 1997), pp. 172–78, and "NLRB Judge Rules for Massachusetts Nurses in Whistle-Blowing Case," American Nurse (January–February 1998), p. 7.

[]

[] For a review of whistleblowing, see Marcia P. Micelli and Janet P. Near, Blowing the Whistle (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1992); see also Micelli and Near, "Whistleblowing: Reaping the Benefits," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 8 (August 1994), pp. 65–72; and, M. J. Gundlach, S. C. Douglas, and M. J. Martinko, "The Decision to Blow the Whistle: A Social Information Processing Framework." Academy of Management Review, vol. 28, no. 1 (2003), pp. 107–23.

[]

[] "A Tip for Whistleblowers: Don't," Wall Street Journal (May 31, 2007), p. B6.

[]

[] Information from Ethics Resource Center, "Major Survey of America's Workers Finds Substantial Improvements in Ethics," www.ethics.org/releases/nr_20030521_nbes.html.

[]

[] James A. Waters, "Catch 20.5: Mortality as an Organizational Phenomenon," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 6 (Spring 1978), pp. 3–15.

[]

[] Definition from www.pgsupplier.com/environmentalstustainability-scorecard (accessed: May 12, 2010).

[]

[] Alfred A. Marcus and Adam R. Fremeth, "Green Management Matters Regardless," Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 23 (August, 2009), pp. 17–26.

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer, "Building Sustainable Organizations: The Human Factor," Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 24 (February, 2010), pp. 34–45.

[]

[] Joe Biesecker, "What Today's College Graduates Want: It's Not All about Paychecks," Central Penn Business Journal (August 10, 2007).

[]

[] Ibid. Sarah E. Needleman, "The Latest Office Perk: Getting Paid to Volunteer," Wall Street Journal (April 29, 2008), p. D1.

[]

[] Examples are from Dancing Deer Bakery website retrieved from http://www.dancingdeer.com/index.cfm?page_id=45; "Growing Green Business," Northwestern (Winter 2007), p. 19; Regina McEnery, "Cancer Patients Getting the White-Glove Treatment," The Columbus Dispatch (March 1, 2008); and, Nanett Byrnes, "Heavy Lifting at the Food Bank," BusinessWeek (December 17, 2007), pp. SC08–SC09.

[]

[] See Thomas Donaldson and Lee Preston, "The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation," Academy of Management Review, vol. 20 (January 1995), pp. 65–91.

[]

[] R. K. Bradley, R. Agle, and D. J. Wood, "Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts," Academy of Management Review, vol. 22 (1997), pp. 853–86.

[]

[] See Joel Makower: Putting Social Responsibility to Work for Your Business and the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), pp. 17–18.

[]

[] Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer, "Strategy & Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility," Harvard Business Review (December 2006), Reprint R0612D.

[]

[] The historical framework of this discussion is developed from Keith Davis, "The Case for and against Business Assumption of Social Responsibility," Academy of Management Journal (June 1973), pp. 312–22; Keith Davis and William Frederick, Business and Society: Management: Public Policy, Ethics, 5th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984). The debate is also discussed by Makower, op. cit., pp. 28–33. For further perspective on this debate see, for example, Marcus and Fremeth, op cit., and, Donald S. Siegel, "Green Management Matters Only if It Yields More Green: An Economic/Strategic Perspective," Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 23 (August, 2009), pp. 5–16.

[]

[] The Friedman quotation is from Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). See also Henry G. Manne, "Milton Friedman Was Right," Wall Street Journal (November 24, 2006), p. A12. The Samuelson quotation is from Paul A. Samuelson, "Love That Corporation," Mountain Bell Magazine (Spring 1971). Both are cited in Davis, op. cit.

[]

[] Davis and Frederick, op. cit.

[]

[] Herb Greenberg, "How Values Embraced by a Company May Enhance That Company's Value," Wall Street Journal (October 27–28, 2007), p. B3.

[]

[] See James K. Glassman, "When Ethics Meet Earnings," International Herald Tribune (May 24–25, 2003), p. 15.

[]

[] See Makower, op. cit. (1994), pp. 71–75; Sandra A. Waddock and Samuel B. Graves, "The Corporate Social Performance— Financial Performance Link," Strategic Management Journal (1997), pp. 303–19; Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer, "Strategy-Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility," Harvard Business Review (December 2006), pp. 78–92.

[]

[] The "compliance–conviction" distinction is attributed to Mark Goyder in Martin Waller, "Much Corporate Responsibility Is Box-Ticking," The Times Business (July 8, 2003), p. 21.

[]

[] Archie B. Carroll, "A Three-Dimensional Model of Corporate Performance," Academy of Management Review, vol. 4 (1979), pp. 497–505. Carroll's continuing work in this area is reported in Mark S. Schwartz and Archie B. Carroll, "Corporate Social Responsibility: A Three Domain Approach," Business Ethics Quarterly, vol. 13 (2003), pp. 503–30.

[]

[] See the discussion by Porter and Kramer, op. cit.

[]

[] Elizabeth Gatewood and Archie B. Carroll, "The Anatomy of Corporate Social Response," Business Horizons, vol. 24 (September–October 1981), pp. 9–16.

[]

[] Judith Burns, "Everything You Wanted to Know about Corporate Governance . . . But Didn't Know How to Ask," Wall Street Journal (October 27, 2003), pp. R1, R7.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] "Warming to Corporate Reform," Wall Street Journal (October 25, 2005), p. R2.

[]

[] Adapted from James Weber, "Management Value Orientations: A Typology and Assessment," International Journal of Value Based Management, vol. 3, no. 2 (1990), pp. 37–54.

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—Information from Cheryl Soltis, Wall Street Journal (March 21, 2006), p. B7.

1 Real People—Information from the company website retrieved from http://www.stonyfield.com/about_us; company videos retrieved from http://www.stonyfield.com/yotube/index.jsp; Gary Hirshberg biography retrieved from http://www.notablebiographies.com/newsmakers2/2007-Co-Lh/Hirshberg-Gary.html#ixzz0dfM0qduA; and, "25 Rich Ass Greenies Who Made Their Fortune Saving the Environment", Earthfirst. com, August 25, 2008 retrieved from http://earthfirst.com/

Chapter 4

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from Jessica Hodgson, "Selling and Software," Wall Street Journal (December 17, 2009), p. A25; Steve Hamm, "The King of the Cloud," BusinessWeek (November 30, 2009), p. 77. See also Marc Benioff, Behind the Cloud: The Untold Story of How Salesforce.com Went from Idea to Billion-Dollar Company and Revolutionized an Industry (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2009).

[]

[] See "Risk," Psychology Today (October 1, 2009), www.psychologytoday.com (accessed February 3, 2010); Nathan Washburn, "Hard Times Can Inspire Wrong Type of Risk Taking," http://knowledgenetwork.thunderbird.edu (accessed January 12, 2010).

[]

[] Opening quotes from Joseph B. White and Peter Landers, "Toyoda is Wary Star of Kabuki at Capitol," Wall Street Journal (February 25, 2010), pp. A1, A7; and, Associated Press, "U.S. May Require Accelerator Override in New Cars," www.clickondetroit.com/automotive/22711707/detail.html (accessed March 8, 2010).

[]

[] See Kris Maher and Bob Tita, "Caterpillar Joins 'Onshoring' Trend," Wall Street Journal (March 10, 2010), pp. B1, B7.

[]

[] Kimberly Weisul, "Why More Are Buying into 'Buy Local'," BusinessWeek (March 1, 2010), pp. 57, 60.

[]

[] "Neighbor: Starbucks Stole My Ambiance," Seattle Post Intelligencer (July 16, 2009), retrieved from www.seattlepi.com.

[]

[] Josh Mitchell, "U.S. Weighs Stricter Car-Safety Rules," Wall Street Journal (March 12, 2010), p. B4.

[]

[] Charles Forelle, "EU Fines Microsoft $1.35 Billion," Wall Street Journal (February 28, 2008), p. B2.

[]

[] Data in table from "List of the 13 Internet Enemies," Reporters without Borders (July 11, 2006), retrieved from www.rsf.org (August 27, 2008).

[]

[] See Jane Spencer and Kevin J. Delaney, "YouTube Unplugged," Wall Street Journal (March 31, 2008), p. BIB2.

[]

[] Ibid; and, Ben Worthen and Siobhan Gorman, "Google Prepares to Stop Censoring in China," Wall Street Journal (March 12, 2010), p. B1.

[]

[] Example from Jena McGregor, "Customer Service Champs: USAA's Battle Plan," Bloomberg BusinessWeek (March 1, 2010), pp. 40–44.

[]

[] Information from Martin Giles, "Online Social Networks Are Changing the Way People Communicate," Economist, Kindle Edition (February 4, 2010).

[]

[] Bobby White, "The New Workplace Rules: No VideoWatching," Wall Street Journal (March 4, 2008), pp. B1, B3.

[]

[] Giles, op. cit.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] "The Smart Way to Hire Workers," Economist, Kindle Edition (February 4, 2010).

[]

[] See, for example, "America's Changing Workforce: Recession Turns a Graying Workforce Grayer," Pew Research Center (September 3, 2009); persocialtrends.com.

[]

[] Jean M. Twenge, Stacy M. Campbell, Brian J. Hoffman, and Charles E. Lance, "Generational Difference in Work Values: Leisure and Extrinsic Values Increasing, Social and Intrinsic Values Decreasing," Journal of Management Online First (March 1, 2010): www.jom.sagepub.com.

[]

[] See, for example, Sharon Jayson, "'iGeneration' Has No Off Switch ," USA Today (February 10, 2010), pp. D1, D2.

[]

[] For a debate on CEO compensation see "Exchange: CEO Compensation," Academy of Management Perspective, vol. 22 (May 2008), pp. 5–33. See also "The Gold-Plated Boardroom," Bloomberg Businessweek (February 22, 2010), pp. 72–73; and, "Jessica Silver-Greenberg, Tara Kalwarsi, and Alexis Leondis, "CEO Pay Drops, But . . . Cash is King," Bloomberg Businessweek (April 10, 2010), pp. 50–56.

[]

[] Rob Walker, "Sex vs. Ethics," Fast Company (June 2008), pp. 73–78.

[]

[] Information from Remi Trudel and June Cotte, "Does Being Ethical Pay?" Wall Street Journal (May 12, 2008), p. R4.

[]

[] Heather Green and Kerry Capell, "Carbon Confusion," BusinessWeek (March 17, 2008), pp. 52–56; and, "Business Begins to Stir," The Economist, Kindle Edition (May 29, 2010).

[]

[] See, for example, "Lessons," Bloomberg BusinessWeek (May 10–16, 2010), pp. 49–53.

[]

[] Definition from www.sustainablebusiness.com.

[]

[] Alfred A. Marcus and Adam R. Fremeth, "Green Management Matters Regardless," Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 23 (August 2009), pp. 17–26.

[]

[] See Thomas Donaldson and Lee Preston, "The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation," Academy of Management Review, vol. 20 (January 1995), pp. 65–91.

[]

[] "lvory Tower: How an MBA Can Bend Your Mind," BusinessWeek (April 1, 2002), p. 12.

[]

[] Quotation from a discussion by Richard J. Shonberger and Edward M. Knod Jr., Operations Management: Serving the Customer, 3rd ed. (Plano, TX: Business Publications, 1988), p. 4.

[]

[] Quote from The Vermont Teddy Bear Company Gazette, op. cit., p. 3.

[]

[] Rosabeth Moss Kanter, "Transcending Business Boundaries: 12,000 World Managers View Change," Harvard Business Review (May–June 1991), pp. 151–64.

[]

[] "How Marriott Never Forgets a Guest," BusinessWeek (February 21, 2000), p. 74.

[]

[] Roger D. Blackwell and Kristina Blackwell, "The Century of the Consumer: Converting Supply Chains into Demand Chains," Supply Chain Management Review (Fall 1999).

[]

[] See Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (New York: Free Press, 1980); and Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (New York: Free Press, 1986); see also Richard A. D'Aveni, Hyper-Competition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Maneuvering (New York: Free Press, 1994).

[]

[] Michael E. Porter, "Strategy and the Internet," Harvard Business Review, vol. 79, no. 3 (March 2001).

[]

[] James D. Thompson, Organizations in Action (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967); and Robert B. Duncan, "Characteristics of Organizational Environments and Perceived Environmental Uncertainty," Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 17 (1972), pp. 313–27. For discussion of the implications of uncertainty see Hugh Courtney, Jane Kirkland, and Patrick Viguerie, "Strategy under Uncertainty," Harvard Business Review (November–December 1997), pp. 67–79.

[]

[] Based on Gaerth N. Jones, Organization Theory and Design, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001).

[]

[] Quote from "Toyoda-San Speaks," BusinessWeek (March 8, 2010), p. 6.

[]

[] See Alan Ohnsman, Jeff Green, and Kae Inoue, "The Humbling of Toyota," BusinessWeek (March 22&29, 2010), pp. 33–36.

[]

[] "Indra Nooyi of PepsiCo," View from the Top, Financial Times, www.ft.com (February 1, 2010): retrieved March 11, 2010.

[]

[] Marcus and Fremeth, op. cit.

[]

[] From www.iso.org.

[]

[] See "Principles for Responsible Management Education," www.unprme.org/the-6-principles; and, Jose M. Alcaraz and Eappen Thiruvattal, "The United Nations' Principles for Responsible Management Education: A Global Call for Sustainability in Management Education. An Interview with Manuel Escudero," Academy of Management Learning & Education, in press (March 2010).

[]

[] Information from Margot Roosevelt, "Protection Money," Columbus Dispatch (March 10, 2010), pp. A1, A9.

[]

[] Quotes from Ibid.

[]

[] See, for example, "The Long Road to an Alternative Energy Future," Wall Street Journal (February 22, 2010), p. R4.

[]

[] www.wbcsd.org.

[]

[] Economics—Creating Environmental Capital," Wall Street Journal (March 8, 2010), p. R1.

[]

[] "Clean-Tech Companies: Ranking the Top Venture-Backed Firms," Wall Street Journal (March 8, 2010), p. R4.

[]

[] "Call for Submissions," 2009 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, www.meeting.aomonline.org/2009; and Marcus and Fremeth, op. cit., and Donald S. Siegel, "Green Management Matters Only if It Yields More Green: An Economic/Strategic Perspective," Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 23 (August 2009), pp. 5–16.

[]

[] See William M. Bulkeley, "Print Outsourcing Gives Boost to Xerox, H-P," Wall Street Journal (December 22, 2009), p. B5.

[]

[] "Tapping into a New Generation," Wall Street Journal (March 8, 2010), p. R4.

[]

[] See Thomas L. Friedman, "Daring to Dream Can Pay Off Big," Columbus Dispatch (March 9, 2010), p. A11.

[]

[] Quote and example, "Tapping into a New Generation; op cit.

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer, "Building Sustainable Organizations: The Human Factor," Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 24 (February, 2010), pp. 34–45.

[]

[] Quotes from Ibid.

[]

[] Management Smarts 4.2 suggested in part by Pfeffer's discussion in Ibid, pp. 36–40.

[]

[] Tom Peters, The Circle of Innovation (New York: Knopf, 1997).

[]

[] Quote from Jena McGregor, "The World's Most Innovative Companies," BusinessWeek (April 24, 2006), pp. 63–74.

[]

[] Ibid; "Innovation: The View from the Top," BusinessWeek (April 3, 2006), pp. 52–53; "The Enemies of Innovation," BusinessWeek (April 24, 2006), p. 68.

[]

[] See, for example, Michael Arndt and Bruce Einhorn, "The 50 Most Innovative Companies," Bloomberg Businessweek (April 25, 2010), pp. 34–40.

[]

[] David Cooperrider, "Sustainable Innovation," Bi z Ed (July/August, 2008), pp. 32–38.

[]

[] See Ellen Byron, "The American Soap Overdose," The Wall Street Journal (January 27, 2010), pp. D1, D8.

[]

[] "Green Business Innovations," BusinessWeek (April 28, 2008), special advertising section; and, cooperrider, op. cit.

[]

[] Quote from "How to Measure Up," Kellogg (Summer 2009), p. 17.

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, and Practices (New York: Harper-Row, 1973), p. 797.

[]

[] Gary Hamel, Leading the Revolution: How to Thrive in Turbulent Times (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002).

[]

[] "The Joys and Perils of 'Reverse Innovation'," BusinessWeek (October 5, 2009), p. 12.

[]

[] Ibid. Also, example and quotes from "How to Compete in a World Turned Upside Down," Financial Times, Kindle edition (October 6, 2009).

[]

[] "New Life for Old Threads," BusinessWeek (April 28, 2008), special advertising section.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Nancy Gohring, "Microsoft: Stodgy or Innovative? It's All about Perception," PC World (July 25, 2008).

[]

[] Kenneth Labich, "The Innovators," Fortune (June 6, 1988), pp. 49–64.

[]

[] Information and quote from Cuckoo Paul, "In Full Flight," Forbes India (February 19, 2010), pp. 36–38.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Yukari Iwatani Kane, "Sony CEO Urges Managers to Get 'Mad'," Wall Street Journal (May 23, 2008), p. B8.

[]

[] Reena Jana, "Brickhouse: Yahoo's Hot Little Incubator," BusinessWeek (November, 2007), p. IN 14.

[]

[] Charles O'Reilly III and Michael Tushman, "The Ambidextrous Organization," Harvard Business Review (2004), Reprint # R0404-D.

[]

[] Information from Steve Hamm, "International Isn't Just IBM's First Name," BusinessWeek (January 28, 2008), pp. 36–40.

[]

[] Jeff Jarvis, "The Buzz from Starbucks Customers," BusinessWeek (April 29, 2008), pp. 73–75.

[]

[] "How Google Fuels Its Idea Factory," BusinessWeek (May 12, 2008), pp. 54–55.

[]

[] See Jack and Suzy Welch, "Finding Innovation Where it Lives," BusinessWeek (April 21, 2008), p. 84.

[]

[] Based on Budner, S. "Intolerance of Ambiguity as a Personality Variable," Journal of Personality, Vol. 30, No. 1, (1962), pp. 29–50.

Feature Notes

Real People—Information from Jeffrey D. Sachs, The End of Poverty (New York: Penguin, 2005); Muhammad Yunus, Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2008); "Executive MBA Students Learn about Micro-Lending from Its Founder, Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus," Stern Business (Spring/Summer 2008), p. 41; New Steve Hamm, "When the Bottom Line Is Ending Poverty," Business Week (March 10, 2008), p. 85; Yunus, op cit.; Daniel Pimlott, "Bangladeshi's Aid for US Poor," Financial Times (February 16/17, 2008), p. 4; and Simon Hobbs, "Big Payback," CNBC European Business (January/February, 2009), pp. 36–38.

Real People—Information from the company website retrieved from http://www.stonyfield.com/about_us; company videos retrieved from http://www.stonyfield.com/yotube/index.jsp; Gary Hirshberg biography retrieved from http://www.notablebiographies.com/newsmakers2/2007-Co-Lh/Hirshberg-Gary.html#ixzz0dfM0qduA; and, "25 Rich Ass Greenies Who Made Their Fortune Saving the Environment", Earthfirst. com, August 25, 2008 retrieved from http://earthfirst.com/

Real Ethics—Information from Jim Phillips, "Business Leaders Say "Green" Approach Doable," The Athens News (March 27, 2008), From www.athensnews.com.

Photo Essay Notes

Airline Industry—Information from Mike Esterl, "More Lucrative Business Travelers Now Teleconference, Fly Coach," Wall Street Journal (February 18, 2010), p. B.1. Pennies for Peace—See "Greg Mortensen Delivers 2009 Ashok C. Sani Scholar-inResidence Lecture," STERNbusiness (2009), p. 6; and, Greg Mortensen, Stones into Schools: Promoting Peace with Books, Not Bombs, in Afghanistan and Pakistan (New York: Viking, 2009) and Three Cups of Tea: One Man's Mission to Promote Peace . . . One School at a Time (New York: Penguin, 2007). Infosys Technologies— Information from Reena Jana, "From India, the Latest Management Fad," Business Week (December 14, 2009), pp. 54–56.

Chapter 5

Endnotes

[]

[] Quotes from www.limited.com/feature.jsp and www.limited.com/who/index.jsp. pp. 40–43: and, limitedbrands.com.

[]

[] Richard D. Lewis, The Cultural Imperative: Global Trends in the 21st Century (Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 2002).

[]

[] China examples from Emily Parker, "The Roots of Chinese Nationalism;" Wall Street Journal (April 1, 2008), p. A17. For more on boxed material see Makoto Ohtsiv, Inside Japanese Business: A Narrative History 1960–2000 (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2002).

[]

[] See, for example, Dan Gearino, "Made in This Hemisphere," Columbus Dispatch (January 11, 2010), pp. A10, A11; and David Welch, "One Man, One Car, One World," BusinessWeek (January 25, 2010), pp. 48–49.

[]

[] Sample articles include "Globalization Bites Boeing," BusinessWeek (March 24, 2008), p. 32; "One World, One Car, One Name," BusinessWeek (March 24, 2008), p. 32; Eric Bellman and Jackie Range, "Indian-Style Mergers: Buy a Brand, Leave it Alone," Wall Street Journal (March 22–23, 2008), pp. A9, A14; Bruce Emhorn, "Alan Mulally's Asian Sales Call," Bloomberg Businessweek (April 12, 2010), pp. 41–43.

[]

[] See, for example, Kenichi Ohmae's books The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy (New York: Harper, 1989); The End of the Nation State (New York: Free Press, 1996); The Invisible Continent: Four Strategic Imperatives of the New Economy (New York: Harper, 1999); and The Next Global Stage: Challenges and Opportunities in Our Borderless World (Philadelphia: Wharton School Publishing, 2006).

[]

[] See, for example, Gregg Easterbrook, Sonic Boom: Globalization at Mach Speed (New York: Random House, 2009).

[]

[] Pietra Rivoli, The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009).

[]

[] Rosabeth Moss Kanter, World Class: Thinking Locally in the Global Economy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), preface.

[]

[] Thomas L. Friedman, Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—and How It Can Renew America (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008).

[]

[] Information from Mark Niquette, "Honda's 'Bold Move' Paid Off," Columbus Dispatch (November 16, 2002), pp. C1, C2.

[]

[] Information from Mei Fong, "Chinese Refrigerator Maker Finds U.S. Chilly," Wall Street Journal (March 18, 2008), pp. B1, B2.

[]

[] Quote from John A. Byrne, "Visionary vs. Visionary," BusinessWeek (August 28, 2000), p. 210.

[]

[] Information from newbalance.com/corporate; and, "Nike Strategy Leaves It Room to Run," The Wall Street Journal (March 16, 2010), P. C10.

[]

[] Steve Hamm, "Into Africa: Capitalism from the Ground Up," BusinessWeek (May 4, 2009), pp. 60–61.

[]

[] Information on hour wage costs reported in "Breaking a Taboo, High Fashion Starts Making Goods Overseas," Wall Street Journal (September 27, 2005), pp. A1, A10.

[]

[] Information in box from "Factory to the World," National Geographic (May 2008), p. 170. For how Chinese firms are being affected by the global economic slowdown see Dexter Roberts, "China's Factory Blues," BusinessWeek (April 7, 2008), pp. 78–82.

[]

[] Information from Geoff Dyer, "iPod Points to Struggle Ahead," Financial Times (December 30, 2009).

[]

[] Information from Michael A. Fletcher, "Ohio Profits from Exports," Columbus Dispatch (December 30, 2007), p. B3.

[]

[] "Survey: Intellectual Property Theft Now Accounts for 31 Percent of Global Counterfeiting," Gieschen Consultancy, February 25, 2005.

[]

[] Information from "Not Exactly Counterfeit," Fortune (April 26, 2006): money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune.

[]

[] Matthew J. Slaughter, "What Tata Tells Us," Wall Street Journal (March 27, 2008), p. A15; and, Michelle Maynard, "A La Feline Not Made in the USA," The New York Times (October 18, 2009): www.nytimes.com.

[]

[] Criteria for choosing joint venture partners developed from Anthony J. F. O'Reilly, "Establishing Successful Joint Ventures in Developing Nations: A CEO's Perspective," Columbia Journal of World Business (Spring 1988), pp. 65–71; and "Best Practices for Global Competitiveness," Fortune (March 30, 1998), pp. S1–S3, special advertising section.

[]

[] See James T. Areddy, "Danone Pulls Out of Disputed China Venture," Wall Street Journal (October 1, 2009), p. B1.

[]

[] Karby Leggett, "U.S. Auto Makers Find Promise—and Peril—in China," Wall Street Journal (June 19, 2003), p. B1; "Did Spark Spark a Copycat?" BusinessWeek (February 7, 2005), p. 64.

[]

[] "Best Practices for Global Competitiveness," Fortune (March 30, 1998), pp. S1–S3, special advertising.

[]

[] Quote from Charles Forelle and Don Clark, "Intel Fine Jolts Tech Sector," Wall Street Journal (May 14, 2009), pp. A1, A14.

[]

[] See Cliff Edwards, "HP Declares War on Counterfeiters," BusinessWeek (June 8, 2009), pp. 44–45.

[]

[] Information and quote from Dan Molinski and Norihiko Shirouzu, "Venezuelan President Threatens Toyota, GM," Wall Street Journal (December 26–27, 2009), pp. A1, A6.

[]

[] www.wto.org/English/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact3_e.htm (March 25, 2008).

[]

[] Information and quotes from Dexter Roberts, "Closing for Business?" Bloomberg Businessweek (April 5, 2010), pp. 32–37

[]

[] Information and quote from "WTO Takes Up U.S. Complaint against China Patent Regime," AFP (September 7, 2007): afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hASBbePC8gtbmtfz ExtmfkdNDvKQ.

[]

[] Pete Engardio, Geri Smith, and Jane Sasseen, "Refighting NAFTA," BusinessWeek (March 31, 2008), pp. 55–59.

[]

[] Kevin Brown, "Chinese Deal Tops Busy Year for Asean Southeast Asia," Financial Times (January 2, 2010).

[]

[] The Economist is a good weekly source of information on Africa; and "Embracing Africa," BusinessWeek (December 18, 2006), p. 101.

[]

[] See Robert Farzad, "Can Greed Save Africa?" BusinessWeek (December 10, 2007), pp. 46–54; "The Big Bounce," Bloomberg BusinessWeek (May 17–23, 2010), pp. 48–57; and, Will Connors and Sarah Childress, "Africa's Local Champions Begin to Spread Out," The Wall Street Journal (May 26, 2010), p. B8.

[]

[] Information from Chris Tomlinson, "Africa's New Hope: Entrepreneurs Lead Economic Growth," Columbus Dispatch (December 9, 2007), p. G3.

[]

[] www.sadc.int/about_sadc/vision.php.

[]

[] Data from "By Mac Index 2010," www.wallstcheatsheet.com. accessed April 23, 2010.

[]

[] Information from "Fortune Global 500," Fortune.com; "FT Global 500 2008," FT Weekend (June 28/29, 2008), pp. 34–41: and, "The Rise of New Business Powers," FT Weekend (June 28/29, 2008), p. 14.

[]

[] See Peter F. Drucker, "The Global Economy and the Nation-State," Foreign Affairs, vol. 76 (September–October 1997), pp. 159–71.

[]

[] Information from Steve Hamm, "IBM vs. TATA: Which Is More American?" BusinessWeek (May 5, 2008), p. 28; and, Greg Farrell, "McDonald's Continues to Rely on European Restaurants for Growth," Financial Times, Kindle edition (April 20, 2010).

[]

[] Michael Mandel, "Multinationals: Are They Good for America?," BusinessWeek (February 28, 2008): businessweek.com.

[]

[] See, for example, www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=377.

[]

[] Developed from R. Hall Mason, "Conflicts between Host Countries and Multinational Enterprise," California Management Review, vol. 17 (1974), pp. 6, 7.

[]

[] Mandel, op. cit.; Engardio, op. cit.

[]

[] Devon Maylie, "Alcoa Invests Near Planned Mines," Wall Street Journal (March 24, 2008), p. B4; Tom Wright, "Indonesia's Commodity Boom Is a Mixed Bag," Wall Street Journal (March 24, 2008), p. A8; and James T. Areddy, "Tibet Unrest May Deter Foreign Investors," Wall Street Journal (March 24, 2008), p. A3.

[]

[] See transparency.org. See also Blake E. Ashforth, Dennis A. Gioia, Sandra L. Robinson, and Linda K. Trevino, "Special Topic Forum on Corruption," Academy of Management Review, vol. 33 (July 2008), pp. 670t.

[]

[] Quote from Carol Matlack, "The Peril and Promise of Investing in Russia," BusinessWeek (October 5, 2009), pp. 48–51.

[]

[] Transparency International, "Corruption Perceptions Index 2009," www.transparency.org: accessed April 23, 2010.

[]

[] See Dionne Searcey, "U.S. Cracks Down on Corporate Bribes," Wall Street Journal (May 26, 2009), pp. A1, A4.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Information and quote from David Crawford and Donne Searcy, "U.S. Joins H-P Bribery Investigation, "The Wall Street Journal (April 16, 2010), pp. B1, B5.

[]

[] See, for example, Jason Dean and Ting-I Tsai, "Suicides Spark Inquiries," The Wall Street Jounal (May 27, 2010), pp. B1, B7.

[]

[] Information and quote from Andrew Morse and Nick Wingfield, "Apple Audits Labor Practices," The Wall Street Journal (March 1, 2010), p. B3.

[]

[] Information and quote from Andrew Morse and Nick Wingfield, "Microsoft will Investigate Conditions at Chinese Plant," The Wall Street Journal (April 16, 2010), p. B7.

[]

[] Examples reported in Neil Chesanow, The World-Class Executive (New York: Rawson Associates, 1985).

[]

[] For alternative definitions of culture, see Martin J. Gannon, Paradoxes of Culture and Globalization (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), Chapter 2.

[]

[] P. Christopher Earley and Elaine Mosakowski, "Toward Cultural Intelligence: Turning Cultural Differences Into Workplace Advantage," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 18 (2004), pp. 151–57.

[]

[] For a good overview of the practical issues, see Lewis, op. cit.; and Martin J. Gannon, Understanding Global Cultures (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994).

[]

[] Example from Fong, op. cit.

[]

[] Edward T. Hall, The Silent Language (New York: Anchor Books, 1959).

[]

[] Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture (New York: Doubleday, 1976).

[]

[] Edward T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension (New York: Anchor Books, 1969) and Hidden Differences (New York: Doubleday, 1990).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Information from Hiroko Tabuchi, "In Japan, an Odd Perch for Google: Looking up at Leader," New York Times (November 30, 2009), pp. B4, B5.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1984), and Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001). See also Michael H. Hoppe, "An Interview with Geert Hofstede," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 18 (2004), pp. 75–79.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede and Michael H. Bond, "The Confucius Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 16 (1988), pp. 4–21.

[]

[] See Geert Hofstede, Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind (London: McGraw-Hill, 1991).

[]

[] For another perspective see Harry Triandis and M. Gelfand, "Convergent Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Collectivism," Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, vol. 74, pp. 118–28.

[]

[] This dimension is explained more thoroughly by Geert Hofstede et al., Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998).

[]

[] Information for "Stay Informed" from "The Conundrum of the Glass Ceiling," Economist (July 23, 2005), p. 634, and "Japan's Diversity Problem," Wall Street Journal (October 24, 2005), pp. B1, B5.

[]

[] See Hofstede and Bond, op. cit.

[]

[] See, for example, Nancy Adler and Allison Gundersen, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 5th ed. (New York: Thomson South-Western, 2008).

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, "Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?" Organizational Dynamics (1980), p. 43; Geert Hofstede, "The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices," Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1983), pp. 75–89. See also Hofstede's "Cultural Constraints in Management Theories," Academy of Management Review, vol. 7 (1993), pp. 81–94.

[]

[] Haier, op. cit.

[]

[] Geert Hofstede, "A Reply to Goodstein and Hunt," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 10 (Summer 1981), p. 68.

[]

[] Robert J. House, Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta, eds., Culture, Leadership and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., 2004). Further issues on Project GLOBE are developed in George B. Graen, "In the Eye of the Beholder: Cross-Cultural Lessons in Leadership from Project GLOBE: A Response Viewed from the Third Culture Bonding (TCB) Model of Cross-Cultural Leadership," Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 20 (November 2006), pp. 95–101; and Robert J. House, Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, and Mary Sully de Luque, "A Failure of Scholarship: Response to George Graen's Critique of GLOBE," Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 20 (November 2006), pp. 102–14.

[]

[] This summary is based on Mansour Javidan, P. Dorfman, Mary Sully de Luque, and Robert J. House, "In the Eye of the Beholder: Cross-Cultural Lessons in Leadership from Project GLOBE," Academy of Management Perspectives (February 2006), pp. 67–90.

[]

[] Summary in "Universals" box from Gannon, op. cit., p. 52.

[]

[] For additional cultural models and research, see the summary in House, op. cit., as well as Fons Trompenaars, Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business (London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1993); Harry C. Triandis, Culture and Social Behavior (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994); Steven H. Schwartz, "A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work," Applied Psychology: An International Review, vol. 48 (1999), pp. 23–47; and Martin J. Gannon, Understanding Global Cultures, 3rd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2004).

[]

[] Developed from "Is Your Company Really Global?" BusinessWeek (December 1, 1997).

Feature Notes

Real People—Information and quotes from Matthew Saltmarsh, "A Staunch Advocate of Globalization and Trade," International Herald Tribune (March 20, 2009): www.iht.com; and, Anne Lee, "2009 Fast 50: The Most Innovative Companies in China," Fast Company (February 11, 2009): www.fastcompany.com/fast_50; and Bruce Einhorn, "How Not to Sweat the Retail Deals," Business Week (May 25, 2009), pp. 52–59.

Photo Essays Notes

Coffee Roasters—Information from "Green Mountain Coffee's 'Be Fair' Campaign Celebrates Fair Trade Month in October," press release: www.justmeans.com/press-releases/ (October 1, 2009). BMW—Information from "Auto Maker Plans to Build a Second Plant in China," Wall Street Journal (November 13, 2009), p. B3. Yahoo Japan—Information from Hiroko Tabuchi, "In Japan, an Odd Perch for Google: Looking up at Leader," New York Times (November 30, 2009), pp. B4, B5. McDonald's— Information from Daisy Nguyen, "McBack and Relax," Columbus Dispatch (March 28, 2008), pp. C12, C10.

Chapter 6

Endnotes

[]

[] Information from Douglas MacMillan, Peter Burrows, and Spencer E. Ante, "The App Economy," BusinessWeek, (November 2, 2009), pp. 44–49; zynga.com/about; and, Douglas MacMillan, "Zynga and Facebook. It's Complicated, "Bloomberg Businessweek (April 26–May 2, 2010), pp. 50, 51.

[]

[] Stephen Covey, "How to Succeed in Today's Workplace," USA Weekend (August 29–31, 1997), pp. 4–5.

[]

[] Information and quotes for these examples from Alison Damasi, "No Job? Create One," Bloomberg Businessweek (March 22 & 29, 2010), p. 89; Laura Lorber, "Older Entrepreneurs Target Peers," The Wall Street Journal (February 16, 2010), p. B6; and Dale Buss, "The Mothers of Invention," The Wall Street Journal (February 8, 2010), p. R7.

[]

[] Information from "Women Business Owners Receive FirstEver Micro Loans Via the Internet," Business Wire (August 9, 2000); Jim Hopkins, "Non-Profit Loan Group Takes Risks on Women in Business," USA Today (August 9, 2000), p. 2B; and "Women's Group Grants First Loans to Entrepreneurs," Columbus Dispatch (August 10, 2000), p. B2.

[]

[] Quote from "Working for Somebody Else Never Amounted to Anything—Wayne Huizenga," http://www.youngentrepreneur.com (accessed Janaury 22, 2010).

[]

[] Speech at the Lloyd Greif Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, 1996.

[]

[] Information from Thomas Heath, "Value Added: The Nonprofit Entrepreneur," voices.washingtonpost.com/washbizblog/2009/03.

[]

[] Information from the corporate websites; Entrepreneur's Hall of Fame at www.1tbn.com/halloffame.html; and Josh Quittner, "The Flickr Founders," Time (April 30, 2006): www.time.com (accessed May 17, 2010); and, www.hunch.com.

[]

[] Examples from "America's Best Young Entrepreneurs 2008," BusinessWeek (September 8, 2009): www.businessweek.com.

[]

[] For the top-selling franchises, see "Top 10 Franchises for 2009," Entrepreneur Magazine (January 2009): www.entrepreneur.com.

[]

[] For a review and discussion of the entrepreneurial mind, see Jeffry A. Timmons, New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century (New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999), pp. 219–25.

[]

[] See the review by Robert D. Hisrich and Michael P. Peters, Entrepreneurship, 4th ed. (New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1998), pp. 67–70; and Paulette Thomas, "Entrepreneurs' Biggest Problems and How They Solve Them," Wall Street Journal Reports (March 17, 2003), pp. R1, R2.

[]

[] Based on research summarized by Hisrich and Peters, op. cit., pp. 70–74.

[]

[] Information from Jim Hopkins, "Serial Entrepreneur Strikes Again at Age 70," USA Today (August 15, 2000).

[]

[] Timothy Butler and James Waldroop, "Job Sculpting: The Art of Retaining Your Best People," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1999), pp. 144–52.

[]

[] This list is developed from Timmons, op. cit, pp. 47–48; and Hisrich and Peters, op. cit., pp. 67–70.

[]

[] "Smart Talk: Start-Ups and Schooling," Wall Street Journal (September 7, 2004), p. B4.

[]

[] Quote from www.anitaroddick.com/aboutanita.php (accessed: April 24, 2010).

[]

[] Paths to Entrepreneurship: New Directions for Women in Business (New York: Catalyst, 1998) and Eve Hayek, "Report Shatters Myths about U.S. Women's Equality" (October 1, 2005); both available on the National Foundation for Women Business Owners website: www.nfwbo.org/key.html.

[]

[] Data from Paths to Entrepreneurship: New Directions for Women in Business (New York: Catalyst, 1998), as summarized on the National Foundation for Women Business Owners website: www.nfwbo.org/key.html.

[]

[] National Foundation for Women Business Owners, Women Business Owners of Color: Challenges and Accomplishments (1998).

[]

[] Data in the table are reported by Karen E. Klein, "Minority Start Ups: A Measure of Progress," BusinessWeek (August 25, 2005), retrieved from www.businessweekonline; and press release, Minority Business Development Agency (March 5, 2009): www.mbda.gov.

[]

[] Data reported by Karen E. Klein, "Minority Start Ups: A Measure of Progress," BusinessWeek (August 25, 2005), retrieved from www.businessweekonline.

[]

[] David Bornstein, How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004).

[]

[] "The 10 Best Social Enterprises of 2009," Fast Company (December 1, 2009): www.fastcompany.com/magazine (accessed April 24, 2010).

[]

[] Examples are from Byrnes and "Growing Green Business," Northwestern (Winter 2007), p. 19; and Byrnes, op. cit.; and Regina McEnery, "Cancer Patients Getting the White-Glove Treatment,"Columbus Dispatch (March 1, 2008).

[]

[] See U.S. Small Business Administration website: www.sba.gov; and Statistical Abstract of the United States (Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau, 1999).

[]

[] The White House, "Small Business Week, 2009," News Release (May 15, 2009):www.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents.

[]

[] Information reported in "The Rewards," Inc. State of Small Business (May 20–21, 2001), pp. 50–51.

[]

[] Information from Sue Shellenbarger, "Plumbing for Joy? Be Your Own Boss," Wall Street Journal (September 16, 2009), pp. D1, D2.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Steve Lohr, "The Rise of the Fleet-Footed Start-Up," The New York Times (April 23, 2010): www.nytimes.com.

[]

[] Reported in Mitchell Baker and John Lilly, "Net Neurtrality: Spur to Entrepreneurship . . .," Wall Street Journal (October 30, 2009), p. A23.

[]

[] "Small Business Expansions in Electronic Commerce," U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy (June 2000).

[]

[] Information from Will Christensen, "Rod Spencer's Sports- Card Business Has Migrated to Cyberspace Marketplace," Columbus Dispatch (July 24, 2000), p. F1.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Tracy Turner, "Smooth Transition: Three Sisters Take over Family's Velvet Ice Cream Business," Columbus Dispatch (September 25, 2009), pp. A12, A13.

[]

[] Data reported by The Family Firm Institute: www.ffi.org/looking/factsfb.html.

[]

[] Conversation from the case "Am I My Uncle's Keeper?" by Paul I. Karofsky (Northeastern University Center for Family Business) and published at: www.fambiz.com/contprov.cfm? ContProvCode=NECFB[ANGELO]ID=140.

[]

[] Survey of Small and Mid-Sized Businesses: Trends for 2000 (Arthur Andersen, 2000).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] See U.S. Small Business Administration website: www.sba.gov.

[]

[] George Gendron, "The Failure Myth," Inc. (January 2001), p. 13.

[]

[] Discussion based on "The Life Cycle of Entrepreneurial Firms," in Ricky Griffin, ed., Management, 6th ed. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), pp. 309–10; and Neil C. Churchill and Virginia L. Lewis, "The Five Stages of Small Business Growth," Harvard Business Review (May–June 1993), pp. 30–50.

[]

[] Anne Field, "Business Incubators Are Growing Up," BusinessWeek (November 16, 2009), p. 76.

[]

[] See www.sba.gov/aboutsba.

[]

[] Developed from William S. Sahlman, "How to Write a Great Business Plan," Harvard Business Review (July–August 1997), pp. 98–108.

[]

[] Marcia H. Pounds, "Business Plan Sets Course for Growth," Columbus Dispatch (March 16, 1998), p. 9; see also the firm's website: www.calcustoms.com.

[]

[] Standard components of business plans are described in many text sources such as Linda Pinson and Jerry Jinnett, Anatomy of a Business Plan: A Step-by-Step Guide to Starting Smart, Building the Business, and Securing Your Company's Future, 4th ed. (Dearborn Trade, 1999); and on websites such as American Express Small Business Services, Business Town.com, and Bizplanlt.com.

[]

[] Example from Matt Golsinski, "Entrepreneurs Score on 'Shark Tank'," Kellogg (Winter 2009), p. 9.

[]

[] Information and quote from "Thriving Small Businesses Still Struggling to Get Loans," CNN.com (December 12, 2009): www.cnn.com/2009/Politics.

[]

[] "You've Come a Long Way Baby," BusinessWeek Frontier (July 10, 2000).

[]

[] Adapted from Norman M. Scarborough and Thomas W. Zimmerer, Effective Small Business Management, 3rd ed. (Columbus, OH: Merrill, 1991), pp. 26–27. Used by permission.

[]

[] Quote from http://www.woopidoo.com/businessquotes/authors/michaelgerber/index.htm (retrieved September 16, 2006); see also Michael Gerber, The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and What to Do about It (New York: HarperCollins, 2001).

Feature Notes

Real People—Information and quotes from Joe Higgins, "Athens Business Owner Presented State Award," The Athens Messenger (November 18, 2009), p. 3; and Samantha Pirc, "A Local Success Story: Q&A with Michelle Greenfield of Third Sun," OHIO Today (Fall/Winter, 2009), pp. 14, 15.

Management Smarts 6.2—Information from Colleen DeBaise, "Why You Need a Business Plan," Wall Street Journal (September 27, 2009): www.wsj.com.

Real Ethics—Information from Jessica Shambora, "The Story Behind the World's Hottest Shoemaker," Financial Times, Kindle Edition (March 21, 2010); and, www.toms.com/movement-one-forone; and, John Tozzi, "The Ben & Jerrys' Law: Principles before Profit," Bloomberg Businessweek (April 26–May 2, 2010), pp. 69, 70.

Photo Essays Notes

Roger the Plumber—Information from Sue Shellenbarger, "Plumbing for Joy? Be Your Own Boss," Wall Street Journal (September 16, 2009), pp. D1, D2. DiFara's Pizza—Information from Kelly Greene, "Tapping Talent, Experience of Those Age 60-Plus" Wall Street Journal (November 29, 2005), p. B7; Manny Fernandez, "Straight Out of Brooklyn, the $5 Slice," New York Times (July 31, 2009): www.nytimes.com.

Chapter 7

Endnotes

[]

[] Information from David A. Price, "From Dorm Room to Wal-Mart," Wall Street Journal (March 11, 2009), p. A13; "Huddler.com Interview with CEO and Founder Tom Szaky," www.greenhome.huddler.com/wiki/terracycle; and Tom Szaky, Revolution in a Bottle (Knoxville, TN: Portfolio Trade, 2009).

[]

[] Situation from Carol Hymowitz, "Middle Managers Are Unsung Heroes on Corporate Stage," Wall Street Journal (September 19, 2005), p. B1.

[]

[] Ram Charan, "Six Personality Traits of a Leader," careeradvice.monster.com/leadership-skills (retrieved August 6, 2008).

[]

[] Example and quotes from Carol Hymowitz, "Independent Program Puts College Students on Leadership Paths," Wall Street Journal (January 14, 2003), p. B1.

[]

[] See Stefan Stern, "Smarter Leaders Are Betting Big on Data," Financial Times, Kindle edition (March 9, 2010); and, Thomas H. Davenport, Jeanne G. Harris, and Robert Morison, Analytics at Work: Smarter Decisions, Better Results (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2010).

[]

[] Richard Tedlow, "Toyota Was in Denial. How About You?" Bloomberg Businessweek (April 19, 2010), p. 76.

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker, "Looking Ahead: Implications of the Present," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1997), pp. 18–32. See also Shaker A. Zahra, "An Interview with Peter Drucker," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 17 (August 2003), pp. 9–12.

[]

[] See "Time for Communication to Move Towards Centre Stage," Financial Times (December 29, 2009).

[]

[] Information from John A. Byrne, "Visionary vs. Visionary," BusinessWeek (August 28, 2000), pp. 10–14.

[]

[] Jaclyn Fierman, "Winning Ideas from Maverick Managers," Fortune (February 6, 1995), pp. 66–80.

[]

[] See Susan G. Cohen and Don Mankin, "The Changing Nature of Work: Managing the Impact of Information Technology," Chapter 6 in Susan Albers Mohrman, Jay R. Galbraith, Edward E. Lawler III, and Associates, Tomorrow's Organization: Crafting Winning Capabilities in a Dynamic World (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988), pp. 154–78.

[]

[] Noel M. Tichy and Warren G. Bennis, Judgment: How Winning Leaders Make Great Calls (Knoxville, TN: Portfolio Hardcover, 2007).

[]

[] Noel M. Tichy and Warren G. Bennis, "Judgment: How Winning Leaders Make Great Calls," BusinessWeek (November 19, 2007), pp. 68–72.

[]

[] Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper Collins, 1997).

[]

[] For a good discussion, see Watson H. Agor, Intuition in Organizations: Leading and Managing Productively (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1989); Herbert A. Simon, "Making Management Decisions: The Role of Intuition and Emotion," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 57–64; Orlando Behling and Norman L. Eckel, "Making Sense Out of Intuition," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 5 (1991), pp. 46–54.

[]

[] See, for example, William Duggan, Strategic Intuition: The Creative Spark in Human Achievement (New York: Columbia Business School, 2007).

[]

[] Alan Deutschman, "Inside the Mind of Jeff Bezos," Fast Company, Issue 85 (August 2004); www.fastcompany.com.

[]

[] See Susan Berfield, "The Limits of Going with Your Gut," BusinessWeek (December 21, 2009), p. 90. See also Michael J. Mauboussin, Think Twice: Harnessing the Power of Counterintuition (Boston: Harvard Business, 2009).

[]

[] Daniel J. Isenberg, "How Senior Managers Think," Harvard Business Review, vol. 62 (November–December 1984), pp. 81–90.

[]

[] Daniel J. Isenberg, "The Tactics of Strategic Opportunism," Harvard Business Review, vol. 65 (March–April 1987), pp. 92–97.

[]

[] Quote from Susan Carey, "Pilot 'in Shock' as He Landed Jet in River," Wall Street Journal (February 9, 2009), p. A6.

[]

[] Based on Carl Jung's typology as described in Donald Bowen, "Learning and Problem-Solving: You're Never Too Jung," in Donald D. Bowen, Roy J. Lewicki, Donald T. Hall, and Francine S. Hall, eds., Experiences in Management and Organizational Behavior, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1997), pp. 7–13; and John W. Slocum Jr., "Cognitive Style in Learning and Problem Solving," ibid., pp. 349–53.

[]

[] Paul Ingrassia, "How GM Lost Its Way," Wall Street Journal (June 2, 2009), p. A21. See also Paul Ingrassia, Crash Course: The American Automobile Industry's Road from Glory to Ruin (New York: Random House, 2010).

[]

[] "They Don't Teach This in B-School," BusinessWeek (September 19, 2005), pp. 46–47.

[]

[] Developed from Anna Muoio, "Where There's Smoke It Helps to Have a Smoke Jumper," Fast Company, vol. 33, p. 290.

[]

[] For scholarly reviews, see Dean Tjosvold, "Effects of Crisis Orientation on Managers' Approach to Controversy in Decision Making," Academy of Management-Journal, vol. 27 (1984), pp. 130–38; and Jan I. Mitroff, Paul-Shrivastava, and Firdaus E. Udwadia, "Effective Crisis Management," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 283–92.

[]

[] Quotes from Jeff Kingston, "A Crisis Made in Japan," The Wall Street Journal (February 6–7, 2010), pp. W1, W2; and Kate Linebaugh, Dionne Searcey and Norihiko Shirouzu, "Secretive Culture Led Toyota Astray," The Wall Street Journal (February 10, 2010), pp. A1, A16.

[]

[] Information from Paul Farhi, "Behind Domino's Mea Culpa Ad Campaign," The Washington Post (January 13, 2010): www.washingtonpost.com, accessed June 5, 2010; and J. Patrick Doyle, "Hard Choices," Bloomberg BusinessWeek (May 3–9, 2010), p. 84.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Terry Kosdrosky and John D. Stoll, "GM Puts Electric-Car Testing on Fast Track to 2010," Wall Street Journal (April 4, 2008), p. B2.

[]

[] Paul Glader, "GE's Immelt to Cite Lessons Learned," Wall Street Journal (December 15, 2009), p. B2.

[]

[] See George P. Huber, Managerial Decision Making (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1975). For a comparison, see the steps in Xerox's problem-solving process as described in David A. Garvin, "Building a Learning Organization," Harvard Business Review (July–August 1993), pp. 78–91; and the Josephson model for ethical decision making described at www.josephsoninstitute.org.

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles (New York: Harper Row, 1985).

[]

[] Joseph B. White and Lee Hawkins Jr., "GM Cuts Deeper in North America," Wall Street Journal (November 22, 2005), p. A3.

[]

[] For a sample of Simon's work, see Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior (New York: Free Press, 1947); James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, Organizations (New York: Wiley, 1958); Herbert A. Simon, The New Science of Management Decision (New York: Harper, 1960).

[]

[] This figure and the related discussion are developed from conversations with Dr. Alma Acevedo of the University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras, and her articles "Of Fallacies and Curricula: A Case of Business Ethics," Teaching Business Ethics, vol. 5 (2001), pp. 157–70; and, "Business Ethics: An Introduction," Working Paper (2009).

[]

[] Based on Gerald F. Cavanagh, American Business Values, 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998).

[]

[] Josephson, op. cit.

[]

[] See Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, "Psychology of Preferences," Scientific American, vol. 246 (1982), pp. 161–73.

[]

[] This presentation is based on the discussion in Max H. Bazerman, Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, 6th ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005).

[]

[] Barry M. Staw, "The Escalation of Commitment to a Course of Action," Academy of Management Review, vol. 6 (1981), pp. 577–87; and Barry M. Staw and Jerry Ross, "Knowing When to Pull the Plug," Harvard Business Review, vol. 65 (March–April 1987), pp. 68–74.

[]

[] See, for example, Amy Saunders and Matzer Rose, "Skybus Throttles Back on Growth," Columbus Dispatch (March 13, 2008).

[]

[] Information from "Lonnie Johnson," USAA Magazine (Fall 2007), p. 38; and www.johnsonrd.com.

[]

[] See, for example, Roger von Oech, A Whack on the Side of the Head (New York: Warner Books, 1983); and A Kick in the Seat of the Pants (New York: Harper & Row, 1986).

[]

[] Teresa M. Amabile, "Motivating Creativity in Organizations," California Management Review, vol. 40 (Fall 1997), pp. 39–58.

[]

[] Developed from discussions by Edward De Bono, Lateral Thinking: Creativity Step-by-Step (New York: HarperCollins, 1970); John S. Dacey and Kathleen H. Lennon, Understanding Creativity (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998); and Bettina von Stamm, Managing Innovation, Design & Creativity (Chichester, England: Wiley, 2003).

[]

[] Example from Dayton Fandray, "Assumed Innocent: Hidden and Unexamined Assumptions Can Ruin Your Day," Continental.com/Magazine (December 2007), p. 100.

[]

[] Josephson, op. cit.

[]

[] Information from Stephen H. Wildstrom, "Video iPod, I Love You," BusinessWeek (November 7, 2005), p. 20; "Voices of Innovation," BusinessWeek (December 12, 2005), p. 22.

[]

[] Developed from Donald Bowen, "Learning and ProblemSolving: You're Never Too Jung," in Donald D. Bowen, Roy J. Lewicki, Donald T. Hall, and Francine S. Hall, eds., Experiences in Management and Organizational Behavior, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1997), pp. 7–13; and John W. Slocum Jr., "Cognitive Style in Learning and Problem Solving," Ibid., pp. 349–353.

[]

[] Adapted from "Lost at Sea: A Consensus-Seeking Task," in the 1975 Handbook for Group Facilitators. Used with permission of University Associates, Inc.

Feature Notes

Real People—Information from Rachel Farrell, "Clean and Green," Kellogg (Winter 2009), p. 31; and "Mission Statement," http://www.ecos.com/mission.html.

Real Ethics—Information from Economist, vol. 379, no. 8482, (June 17, 2006), pp. 65–66, 2p, 1c.

Photo Essays Notes

Infosurv—Information and quote from Teri Evans, "Entrepreneurs Seek to Elicit Workers' Ideas, Wall Street Journal (December 22, 2009), p. B7. Tropicana—See "The O. J. Trial," BusinessWeek (December 28, 2009 & January 4, 2010), p. 41. Fisker Automotive—Information and quotes from Josh Mitchell and Stephen Power, "Gore-Backed Car Firm Gets Large U.S. Loan," Wall Street Journal (September 25, 2009), p. B6; and Josh Mitchell, "Fisker Automotive: U.S. Site Chosen to Build Family Hybrid," Dow Jones Newswires (October 20, 2009): www.wsj.com.

Chapter 8

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from the Associated Press, "Oprah Opens School for Girls in S. Africa," "Lavish Leadership Academy Aims to Give Impoverished Chance to Succeed," MSNBC.com (January 2, 2007); "Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls—South Africa Celebrates Its Official Opening," www.oprah.com/about; Jed Dreben, "Oprah Winfrey: 'I Don't Regret' Opening School," www.people.com (December 12, 2007); and, "Givson Foundation Builds Relationship with Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy to Support Music Education," news release (April 14, 2009), www.gibson.com (accessed January 26, 2010).

[]

[] Data from "Hurry Up and Decide," BusinessWeek (May 14, 2001), p. 16; and BusinessWeek (June 23, 2008), p. 56.

[]

[] Eaton Corporation Annual Report, 1985.

[]

[] Paul Ingrassia, "The Right Stuff," The Wall Street Journal (April 18, 2005), p. D5.

[]

[] Quote from Stephen Covey and Roger Merrill, "New Ways to Get Organized at Work," USA Weekend (February 6–8, 1998), p. 18. Books by Stephen R. Covey include The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change (New York: Fireside, 1990); and Stephen R. Covey and Sandra Merril Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Families: Building a Beautiful Family Culture in a Turbulent World (New York: Golden Books, 1996).

[]

[] See Stanley Thune and Robert House, "Where Long-Range Planning Pays Off," Business Horizons, vol. 13 (1970), pp. 81–87. For a critical review of the literature, see Milton Leontiades and Ahmet Teel, "Planning Perceptions and Planning Results," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 1 (1980), pp. 65–75; and J. Scott Armstrong. "The Value of Formal Planning for Strategic Decisions," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 3 (1982), pp. 197–211. For special attention to the small business setting, see Richard B. Robinson Jr., John A. Pearce II, George S. Vozikis, and Timothy S. Mescon, "The Relationship between Stage of Development and Small Firm Planning and Performance," Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 22 (1984), pp. 45–52; and Christopher Orphen, "The Effects of Long-Range Planning on Small Business Performance: A Further Examination," Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 23 (1985), pp. 16–23. For an empirical study of large corporations, see Vasudevan Ramanujam and N. Venkataraman, "Planning and Performance: A New Look at an Old Question," Business Horizons, vol. 30 (1987), pp. 19–25.

[]

[] "McDonald's Tech Turnaround," Harvard Business Review (November 2004), p. 128.

[]

[] Information from Carol Hymowitz, "Packed Calendars Rule over Executives," Wall Street Journal (June 16, 2008), p. B1.

[]

[] Quote from BusinessWeek (August 8, 1994), pp. 78–86.

[]

[] See William Oncken Jr. and Donald L. Wass, "Management Time: Who's Got the Monkey?" Harvard Business Review, vol. 52 (September–October 1974), pp. 75–80, and featured as an HBR classic, Harvard Business Review (November–December 1999).

[]

[] Dick Levin, The Executives Illustrated Primer of Long Range Planning (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981).

[]

[] See Elliot Jaques, The Form of Time (New York: Russak-Co., 1982). For an executive commentary on his research, see Walter Kiechel III, "How Executives Think," Fortune (December 21, 1987), pp. 139–44.

[]

[] Information from "Skype: How a Startup Harnessed the Hoopla," BusinessWeek (September 26, 2005), p. 35.

[]

[] Information from "Avoiding a Time Bomb: Sexual Harassment," BusinessWeek, enterprise issue (October 13, 1997), pp. ENT20–21.

[]

[] Data from "Car Crazy," National Geographic (May 2008), p. 142.

[]

[] Paul Glader, "BE's Immelt to Cite Lessons Learned," Wall Street Journal (December 15, 2009), p. B2.

[]

[] For a thorough review of forecasting, see J. Scott Armstrong, Long-Range Forecasting, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1985).

[]

[] Information and quotes from Guy Chazan and Neil King, "BP's Preparedness for Major Crisis is Questioned, "The Wall Steeet Journal (May 10, 2010), p. A6; and Ben Casselman and Guy Chazan, "Disaster Plans Lacking at Deep Rigs," The Wall Street Journal (May 18, 2010), p. A1.

[]

[] The scenario-planning approach is described in Peter Schwartz, The Art of the Long View (New York: Doubleday/Currency, 1991).

[]

[] See Arie de Geus, The Living Company: Habits for Survival in a Turbulent Business Environment (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1997).

[]

[] Information and quote from "The No. 2 Killer in Africa by Parasite," Fast Company (June 2008), pp. 102–103. See, for example, Robert C. Camp, Business Process Benchmarking (Milwaukee: ASQ Quality Press 1994); Michael J. Spendolini, The Benchmarking Book (New York: AMACOM, 1992); and Christopher E. Bogan and Michael J. English, Benchmarking for Best Practices: Winning through Innovative Adaptation (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994).

[]

[] David Kiley, "One Ford for the Whole World," BusinessWeek (June 15, 2009), pp. 58–59.

[]

[] Rachel Tiplady, "Taking the Lead in Fast-Fashion," BusinessWeek Online (August 29, 2006); and Cecile Rohwedder and Keith Johnson, "Pace-Setting Zara Seeks More Speed to Fight Its Rising Cheap-Chic Rivals," Wall Street Journal (February 20, 2008), pp. B1, B6.

[]

[] Information from Peter Burrows and Manjeet Kripalani, "Cisco: Sold on India," BusinessWeek (November 28, 2005), pp. 50–51.

[]

[] Quote from Kenneth Roman, "The Man Who Sharpened Gillette," Wall Street Journal (September 5, 2007), p. D8.

[]

[] T. J. Rodgers, with William Taylor and Rick Foreman, "No Excuses Management," World Executive's Digest (May 1994), pp. 26–30.

[]

[] Example from Roman, op. cit.

[]

[] See Dale D. McConkey, How to Manage by Results, 3rd ed. (New York: AMACOM, 1976); Stephen J. Carroll Jr. and Henry J. Tosi Jr., Management by Objectives: Applications and Research (New York: Macmillan, 1973); and Anthony P. Raia, Managing by Objectives (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1974). See also Steven Kerr, "Overcoming the Dysfunctions of MBO," Management by Objectives, vol. 5, no. 1 (1976).

[]

[] "How Classy Can 7-Eleven Get?" BusinessWeek (September 1, 1997), pp. 74–75; and Kellie B. Gormly, "7-Eleven Moving Up a Grade," Columbus Dispatch (August 3, 2000), pp. C1–C2.

[]

[] The work on goal-setting theory is well summarized in Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham, Goal Setting: A Motivational Technique That Works! (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984). See also Edwin A. Locke, Kenneth N. Shaw, Lisa A. Saari, and Gary P. Latham, "Goal Setting and Task Performance 1969–1980," Psychological Bulletin, vol. 90 (1981), pp. 125–52; Mark E. Tubbs, "Goal Setting: A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Empirical Evidence," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71 (1986), pp. 474–83; and Terence R. Mitchell, Kenneth R. Thompson, and Jane George-Falvy, "Goal Setting: Theory and Practice," Chapter 9 in Cary L. Cooper and Edwin A. Locke, eds., Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory with Practice (Malden, MA: Blackwell Business, 2000), pp. 211–49.

[]

[] Suggested by a discussion in Robert E. Quinn, Sue R. Faerman, Michael P. Thompson, and Michael R. McGrath, Becoming a Master Manager: A Contemporary Framework (New York: Wiley, 1990), pp. 75–76.

[]

[] Developed in part from Roy J. Lewicki, Donald D. Bowen, Douglas T. Hall, and Francine S. Hall, Experiences in Management and Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1988), pp. 261–67. Used by permission.

Feature Notes

Real People—Information from Julie Bennitt, "Don Thompson Engineers Winning Role as McDonald's President," Franchise Times (February 2008): www.franchisetimes.com.

Real Ethics—Information from "Trial and Error," Forbes (June 19, 2006), pp. 128–30; Drake Bennett, "Measures of Success," Boston Globe Online (July 2, 2006).

Photo Essays Notes

Office Romance Policies—Information from Phred Dvorak, Baob Davis, and Louise Radnofsky, "Firms Confront BossSubordinate Love Affairs," Wall Street Journal (October 27, 2008), p. B5, with survey data from Society for Human Resource Management. Wars Cola—Information and quotes from Julia Day, "'Protest' Drinks Range Targets Muslims," MediaGuardian (April 23, 2003), www.guardian.co.uk/media/2003, accessed December 14, 2009; and, www.qiblacola.com. Coach—Information and quotes from "Coach's New Bag," BusinessWeek (June 29, 2009), pp. 41–43.

Chapter 9

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from Ethan Smith and Lauren A. E. Schuker, "Disney Nabs Marvel Heroes," Wall Street Journal (September 1, 2009), pp. A1, A14; and Ronald Grover, "Disney Remakes the Movie Studio," BusinessWeek (November 9, 2009), pp. 50–51.

[]

[] Examples from Edward De Bono, Lateral Thinking: Creativity Step by Step (New York: Harper & Row, 1970).

[]

[] For an overview of Wal-Mart see Charles Fishman, The WalMart Effect (New York: Penguin, 2006).

[]

[] See Michelle Conlin, "Look Who's Stalking Wal-Mart," BusinessWeek (December 7, 2009), pp. 30–33.

[]

[] See Anne D'Innocenzio, "Walmart.com CEO Aims to Dominate Web Retail," Columbus Dispatch (December 20, 2009), p. D6.

[]

[] Jackie Crosby, "Retail Makeover," Columbus Dispatch (December 30, 2009), pp. A10, A12.

[]

[] See, for example, Walter Kiechel III, The Lords of Strategy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2010).

[]

[] Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (New York: Free Press, 1980).

[]

[] Robert D. Hof, "Can Google Stay on Top of the Web?" BusinessWeek (October 12, 2009), pp. 45–49.

[]

[] See Porter, op. cit., Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (New York: Free Press, 1986); and Richard A. D'Aveni, Hyper-Competition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Maneuvering (New York: Free Press, 1994).

[]

[] Jim Collins, "Bigger, Better, Faster," Fast Company, vol. 71 (June 2003), p. 74; and www.fastcompany.com/magazine/71/walmart.html.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Marcia Stepanek, "How Fast Is Net Fast?" BusinessWeek E-Biz (November 1, 1999), pp. EB52–EB54.

[]

[] Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, "Strategic Intent." Harvard Business Review (May–June 1989), pp. 63–76.

[]

[] www.pepsico.com/PEP_company.

[]

[] For research support, see Daniel H. Gray, "Uses and Misuses of Strategic Planning," Harvard Business Review, vol. 64 (January–February 1986), pp. 89–97.

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New York: Harper-Row, 1973), p. 122.

[]

[] For more on the Patagonia story see Yvon Chouinard, Let My People Go Surfing: The Education of a Reluctant Businessman (New York: Penguin Press HC, 2005).

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker, "Five Questions," Executive Excellence (November 6, 1994), pp. 6–7.

[]

[] See Laura Nash. "Mission Statements—Mirrors and Windows," Harvard Business Review (March–April 1988), pp. 155–56; James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras, "Building Your Company's Vision," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1996), pp. 65–77; and James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies (New York: Harper Business, 1997).

[]

[] Gary Hamel, Leading the Revolution (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000), pp. 72–73.

[]

[] Values quote from www.patagonia.com/web/us/patagonia.go?assetid=3351.

[]

[] www.patagonia.com/web/us/patagonia.go?assetid=2047&ln=24.

[]

[] Steve Hamm, "A Passion for the Plan," BusinessWeek (August 21/28, 2006), pp. 92–94; quote in box from "Yvon Chouinard: Patagonia's Founder Turned His Passion into Profit," Spirit (August, 2008), p. 40.

[]

[] www.patagonia.com.

[]

[] Terrence E. Deal and Allen A. Kennedy, Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1982), p. 22. For more on organizational culture see Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997).

[]

[] www.patagonia.com.

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker's views on organizational objectives are expressed in his classic books: The Practice of Management (New York: Harper-Row, 1954) and Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New York: Harper-Row, 1973). For a more recent commentary, see his article, "Management: The Problems of Success," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 13–19.

[]

[] Hamm, op. cit., 2006.

[]

[] C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel, "The Core Competencies of the Corporation," Harvard Business Review (May–June 1990), pp. 79–91.

[]

[] See D'Aveni, op. cit.

[]

[] For a discussion of Michael Porter's approach to strategic planning, see his books Competitive Strategy and Competitive Advantage; and his article, "What Is Strategy?" Harvard Business Review (November–December 1996), pp. 61–78; and Richard M. Hodgetts's interview, "A Conversation with Michael E. Porter. A Significant Extension toward Operational Improvement and Positioning," Organizational Dynamics (Summer 1999), pp. 24–33.

[]

[] See Jonathan Welsh, "The Long Goodbye for Dying Brands," Wall Street Journal (December 23, 2009), pp. D1, D3.

[]

[] Richard G. Hammermesh, "Making Planning Strategic," Harvard Business Review, vol. 64 (July/August 1986), pp. 115–120; and Richard G. Hammermesh, Making Strategy Work (New York: Wiley, 1986).

[]

[] See Gerald B. Allan, "A Note on the Boston Consulting Group Concept of Competitive Analysis and Corporate Strategy," Harvard Business School, Intercollegiate Case Clearing House, ICCH9-175-175 (Boston: Harvard Business School, June 1976).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Hammermesh, op cit.

[]

[] The four grand strategies were described by William F. Glueck, in Business Policy: Strategy Formulation and Management Action (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976).

[]

[] Information from Vauhini Vara, "Facebook CEO Seeks Help as Site Suffers Growing Pains," Wall Street Journal (March 5, 2008), pp. A1, A14.

[]

[] See Mariko Sanchanta, "Starbucks Plans Big Expansion in China," The Wall Street Journal (April 14, 2010), p. B10.

[]

[] Information and quote from Rajesh Mahapatra, "Tata Group Catapults into Global Marketplace," Columbus Dispatch (April 3, 2008), pp. C1, C9.

[]

[] Liam Denning, "Vertical Integration Isn't Just for Christmas," Wall Street Journal (December 30, 2009), p. C12.

[]

[] See William McKinley, Carol M. Sanchez, and A. G. Schick, "Organizational Downsizing: Constraining, Cloning, Learning," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 9 (August 1995), pp. 32–44.

[]

[] See Harry R. Weber, "Higher Fuel Costs Prompt Delta to Cut Jobs," Huffington Post (April 6, 2008).

[]

[] Kim S. Cameron, Sara J. Freeman, and A. K. Mishra, "Best Practices in White-Collar Downsizing: Managing Contradictions," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 4 (August 1991), pp. 57–73.

[]

[] Information and quote from Steven Musil and Jonathan E. Skillings, "Sold! eBay Jettisons Skype in $2 Billion Deal," CNET News (September 1, 2009): www.news.cnet.com (accessed April 25, 2010).

[]

[] Information from Janet Adamy, "Coffee Clutch: McDonald's Brews a Test for Weakened Starbucks," Wall Street Journal (January 8, 2003), pp. 16–17.

[]

[] This strategy classification is found in Hitt et al., op. cit.; the attitudes are from a discussion by Howard V. Perlmutter, "The Tortuous Evolution of the Multinational Corporation," Columbia Journal of World Business, vol. 4 (January–February 1969). See also Pankaj Ghemawat, "Managing Differences," Harvard Business Review (March 2007), Reprint R0703C.

[]

[] Adam M. Brandenburger and Barry J. Nalebuff, Co-Opetition: A Revolutionary Mindset that Combines Competition and Cooperation (New York: Bantam, 1996).

[]

[] For a discussion of Michael Porter's approach to strategic planning, see his books Competitive Strategy and Competitive Advantage, and his article, "What Is Strategy? Harvard Business Review (November/December, 1996), pp. 61–78; and Richard M. Hodgetts' interview "A Conversation with Michael E. Porter: A Significant Extension Toward Operational Improvement and Positioning," Organizational Dynamics (Summer 1999), pp. 24–33.

[]

[] Information from www.polo.com.

[]

[] Porter, op. cit. (1996).

[]

[] www.patagonia.com/web/us/patagonia.go?assetid=3351.

[]

[] For research support, see Daniel H. Gray, "Uses and Misuses of Strategic Planning," Harvard Business Review, vol. 64 (January–February 1986), pp. 89–97.

[]

[] See Judith Burns, "Everything You Wanted to Know about Corporate Governance . . . But Didn't Know How to Ask," Wall Street Journal (October 27, 2003), pp. R1, R7.

[]

[] Quote from Stephen Moore, "The Conscience of a Capitalist," The Wall Street Journal (October 3-4, 2009), p. A11.

[]

[] Quote from Joann S. Lublin, "Boards Flex Their Pay Muscles," Wall Street Journal (April 14, 2008), p. R1.

[]

[] Josh Levs, "Big Three Auto CEOs Flew Private Jets to Ask for Taxpayer Money," www.cnn.com (retrieved November 21, 2008). See also David Kiley, "Auto Execs in the Hot Seat," BusinessWeek (November 19, 2008): www.businessweek.com.

[]

[] Paul Ingrassia, "The Auto Makers Are Already Bankrupt," Wall Street Journal (November 21, 2008), p. A23.

[]

[] See R. Duane Ireland and Michael A. Hitt, "Achieving and Maintaining Strategic Competitiveness in the 21st Century," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13 (1999), pp. 43–57.

[]

[] Hodgetts, op. cit.

[]

[] AIM Survey (El Paso, TX: ENFP Enterprises, 1989), Copyright (c)1989 by Weston H. Agor. Used by permission.

[]

[] Suggested by an exercise in John F. Veiga and John N. Yanouzas, The Dynamics of Organization Theory: Gaining a Macro Perspective (St. Paul, MN: West, 1979), pp. 69–71.

Feature Notes

Real People—Information and quotes from William M. Bulkeley, "Xerox Names Burns Chief as Mulcahy Retires Early," Wall Street Journal (May 22, 2009), pp. B1, B2; Nanette Byrnes and Roger O. Crockett, "An Historic Succession at Xerox," Business Week (June 9, 2008), pp. 18–21; Ben Baker and Geoff Colvin, "Less Than a Year Into the Job, the Xerox CEO Is Already Transforming the Company," Fortune, Kindle Edition (April 19, 2010).

Photo Essay Notes

Patagonia—Information and quotes from www.patagonia.com/web/us. Chrysler—Information and quotes from Shawn Langlois, "A Familiar Road," Columbus Dispatch (December 15, 2009), p. A11. Dell Computer—Information and quotes from Cliff Edwards, "Dell's Do-Over," BusinessWeek (October 26, 2009), pp. 37-40.

Chapter 10

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from "Build-A-Bear Workshop, Inc., Funding Universe," www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/ BuildABear-Workshop-Inc (accessed March 9, 2009); and, www.buildabear.com. See also Maxine Clark and Amy Joyner, The Bear Necessities of Business: Building a Company with Heart (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007).

[]

[] Henry Mintzberg and Ludo Van der Heyden, "Organigraphs: Drawing How Companies Really Work," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1999), pp. 87–94.

[]

[] The classic work is Alfred D. Chandler, Strategy and Structure (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962).

[]

[] See Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., "Origins of the Organization Chart," Harvard Business Review (March–April 1988), pp. 156–57.

[]

[] "A Question of Management," Wall Street Journal (June 2, 2009), p. R4.

[]

[] Information from Jena McGregor, "The Office Chart that Really Counts," BusinessWeek (February 27, 2006), pp. 48–49.

[]

[] See David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson, "Informal Networks: The Company Behind the Chart," Harvard Business Review (July–August 1993), pp. 104–11.

[]

[] Information from Dana Mattioli, "Job Fears Make Offices All Ears," Wall Street Journal (January 20, 2009): www.wsj.com.

[]

[] See Kenneth Noble, "A Clash of Styles: Japanese Companies in the U.S.," New York Times (January 25, 1988), p. 7.

[]

[] For a discussion of departmentalization, see H. I. Ansoff and R. G. Bradenburg, "A Language for Organization Design," Management Science, vol. 17 (August 1971), pp. B705–B731; Mariann Jelinek.

[]

[] "A Question of Management," Wall Street Journal (June 2, 2009), p. R4.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Luis Garicanco and Richard A. Posner, "What Our Spies Can Learn from Toyota," Wall Street Journal (January 13, 2010), p. A23.

[]

[] "Organization Structure: The Basic Conformations," in Mariann Jelinek, Joseph A. Litterer, and Raymond E. Miles, eds., Organizations by Design: Theory and Practice (Plano, TX: Business Publications, 1981), pp. 293–302; Henry Mintzberg, "The Structuring of Organizations," in James Brian Quinn, Henry Mintzberg, and Robert M. James, eds., The Strategy Process: Concepts, Contexts, and Cases (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988), pp. 276–304.

[]

[] Norihiko Shirouzu, "Toyota Plans a Major Overhaul in U.S.," Wall Street Journal (April 10, 2009), p. B3.

[]

[] Information and quotes from "Management Shake-Up to Create 'Leaner Structure'," Financial Times (June 11, 2009).

[]

[] Information and quote from "Revamped GM Updates Image of Core Brands," Financial Times (June 18, 2009).

[]

[] The focus on process is described in Michael Hammer, Beyond Reengineering (New York: Harper Business, 1996).

[]

[] Excellent reviews of matrix concepts are found in Stanley M. Davis and Paul R. Lawrence, Matrix (Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1977); Paul R. Lawrence, Harvey F. Kolodny, and Stanley M. Davis, "The Human Side of the Matrix," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 6 (1977), pp. 43–61; and Harvey F. Kolodny, "Evolution to a Matrix Organization," Academy of Management Review, vol. 4 (1979), pp. 543–53.

[]

[] Developed from Frank Ostroff, The Horizontal Organization: What the Organization of the Future Looks Like and How It Delivers Value to Customers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

[]

[] The nature of teams and teamwork is described in Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, "The Discipline of Teams," Harvard Business Review (March–April 1993), pp. 111–20.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Nick Wingfield, "To Rebuild Windows, Microsoft Razed the Walls," Wall Street Journal (October 20, 2009), p. B9.

[]

[] Susan Albers Mohrman, Susan G. Cohen, and Allan M. Mohrman Jr., Designing Team-Based Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996).

[]

[] See Glenn M. Parker, Cross-Functional Teams (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995).

[]

[] Information from William Bridges, "The End of the Job," Fortune (September 19, 1994), pp. 62–74; Alan Deutschman, "The Managing Wisdom of High-Tech Superstars," Fortune (October 17, 1994), pp. 197–206.

[]

[] See the discussion by Jay R. Galbraith, "Designing the Networked Organization: Leveraging Size and Competencies," in Susan Albers Mohrman, Jay R. Galbraith, Edward E. Lawler III, and associates, Tomorrow's Organizations: Crafting Winning Strategies in a Dynamic World (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998), pp. 76–102. See also Rupert F. Chisholm, Developing Network Organizations: Learning from Practice and Theory (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1998).

[]

[] See the discussion by Michael S. Malone, The Future Arrived Yesterday: The Rise of the Protean Corporation and What It Means for You (New York: Crown Books, 2009).

[]

[] See Jerome Barthelemy, "The Seven Deadly Sins of Outsourcing," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 17 (2003), pp. 87–98.

[]

[] Paulo Prada and Jiraj Sheth, "Delta Air Ends Use of India Call Centers," Wall Street Journal (April 18–19, 2009), pp. B1, B5.

[]

[] See Ron Ashkenas, Dave Ulrich, Todd Jick, and Steve Kerr, The Boundaryless Organization: Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996).

[]

[] Information from "Scott Livengood and the Tasty Tale of Krispy Kreme," BizEd (May/June 2003), pp. 16–20.

[]

[] Information from John A. Byrne, "Management by Web," BusinessWeek (August 28, 2000), pp. 84–97; see the collection of articles by Cary L. Cooper and Denise M. Rousseau, eds., The Virtual Organization: Vol. 6, Trends in Organizational Behavior (New York: Wiley, 2000).

[]

[] For a classic work, see Jay R. Galbraith, Organizational Design (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977).

[]

[] This framework is based on Harold J. Leavitt, "Applied Organizational Change in Industry," in James G. March, Handbook of Organizations (New York: Rand McNally, 1965), pp. 1144–70; and Edward E. Lawler III, From the Ground Up: Six Principles for the New Logic Corporation (San Francisco: JosseyBass Publishers, 1996), pp. 44–50.

[]

[] Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, A. M. Henderson, trans., and H. T. Parsons (New York: Free Press, 1947).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] For classic treatments of bureaucracy, see Alvin Gouldner, Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy (New York: Free Press, 1954); and Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure (New York: Free Press, 1957).

[]

[] Tom Burns and George M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation (London: Tavistock, 1961; republished by Oxford University Press, London, 1994). See also, Paul R. Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch, Organizations and Environment (Boston: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 1967).

[]

[] See Henry Mintzberg, Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983).

[]

[] See Rosabeth Moss Kanter, The Changing Masters (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983). Quotation from Rosabeth Moss Kanter and John D. Buck, "Reorganizing Part of Honeywell: From Strategy to Structure," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 13 (Winter 1985), p. 6.

[]

[] See, for example, Jay R. Galbraith, Edward E. Lawler III, and associates, Organizing for the Future (San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1993); and Mohrman, Galbraith, Lawler, and associates, Tomorrow's Organizations.

[]

[] Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Doubleday, 1994).

[]

[] www.nucor.com/aboutus.htm

[]

[] David Van Fleet, "Span of Management Research and Issues," Academy of Management Journal, vol. 26 (1983), pp. 546–52.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Ellen Byron and Joann S. Lublin, "Appointment of New P&G Chief Sends Ripples through Ranks ," Wall Street Journal (June 11, 2009), p. B3.

[]

[] Burns and Stalker, op. cit.

[]

[] Questionnaire adapted from L. Steinmetz and R. Todd , First Line Management, 4th ed. (Homewood, IL: BPI/Irwin, 1986), pp. 64–67. Used by permission.

Feature Notes

Real People—Information and quotes from Stacy Perman, "Scones and Social Responsibility," BusinessWeek (August 21/28, 2006), p. 38; and www.dancingdeer.com

Photo Essays

Cisco Systems—Information and quote from Peter Burrows, "Cisco's Extreme Ambitions," BusinessWeek (November 30, 2009), p. 26. Macy's—Information from Matthew Boyle, "A Leaner Macy's Tries Catering to Local Tastes," BusinessWeek (September 14, 2009), p. 13.

Chapter 11

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from Daniel Roth, "Netflix Everywhere: Sorry Cable, You're History," Wired Magazine (September 21, 2009): www.wired.com.

[]

[] Michael Beer and Nitin Nohria, "Cracking the Code of Change," Harvard Business Review (May–June 2000), pp. 133–41.

[]

[] Quote from John A. Byrne, "Visionary vs. Visionary," BusinessWeek (August 28, 2000), p. 210.

[]

[] Information from David Welch, "GM: His Way or the Highway," BusinessWeek (October 5, 2009), pp. 62–63.

[]

[] See the discussion of Anthropologie in William C. Taylor and Polly LaBarre, Mavericks at Work: Why the Most Original Minds in Business Win (New York: William Morrow, 2006).

[]

[] Edgar H. Schein, "Organizational Culture," American Psychologist, vol. 45 (1990), pp. 109–19. See also Schein's Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997) and The Corporate Culture Survival Guide (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999).

[]

[] James Collins and Jerry Porras, Built to Last (New York: HarperBusiness, 1994).

[]

[] Information and quotes from Christopher Palmeri, "Now for Sale, the Zappos Culture," BusinessWeek (January 11, 2010), p. 57. See also Tony Hsieh, Delivering Happiness! A Path to Profits, Passion, and Purpose (New York: BusinessPlus, 2010).

[]

[] Jena McGregor, "Zappos' Secret: It's an Open Book," BusinessWeek (March 23/30, 2009), p. 62.

[]

[] Quotes from Dean Foust, "Where Headhunters Fear to Tread," BusinessWeek (September 14, 2009), pp. 42–43.

[]

[] In their book Corporate Culture and Performance (New York: Macmillan, 1992), John P. Kotter and James L. Heskett make the point that strong cultures have the desired effects over the long term only if they encourage adaptation to a changing environment. See also Collins and Porras, op. cit.

[]

[] John P. Wanous, Organizational Entry, 2nd ed. (New York: Addison-Wesley, 1992).

[]

[] Scott Madison Patton, Service Quality, Disney Style (Lake Buena Vista, FL: Disney Institute, 1997).

[]

[] This is a simplified model developed from Schein, op. cit. (1997).

[]

[] Schein, op. cit. (1997); Terrence E. Deal and Alan A. Kennedy, Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982); Ralph Kilmann, Beyond the Quick Fix (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984).

[]

[] James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras, "Building Your Company's Vision," Harvard Business Review (September– October 1996), pp. 65–77.

[]

[] David Rocks, "Reinventing Herman Miller," BusinessWeek eBiz (April 2, 2000), pp. E88–E96; www.hermanmiller.com.

[]

[] James Collins and Jerry Porras, Built to Last (New York: HarperBusiness, 1994).

[]

[] This case is reported in Jenny C. McCune, "Making Lemonade," Management Review (June 1997), pp. 49–53.

[]

[] See Mary Kay Ash, Mary Kay: You Can Have It All (Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 1995).

[]

[] See Robert A. Giacalone and Carol L. Jurkiewicz (eds.), Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2005).

[]

[] McCune, op. cit.

[]

[] R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr., Beyond Race and Gender (New York: AMACOM, 1992), p. 10. See also R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr., "From 'Affirmative Action' to 'Affirming Diversity,'" Harvard Business Review (November–December 1990), pp. 107–17; R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr., with Marjorie I. Woodruff, Building a House for Diversity (New York: AMACOM, 1999).

[]

[] Taylor Cox Jr., Cultural Diversity in Organizations (San Francisco: Berrett Koehler, 1994).

[]

[] Survey reported in "The Most Inclusive Workplaces Generate the Most Loyal Employees," Gallup Management Journal (December 2001), retrieved from http://gmj.gallup.com/press_room/release.asp?i=117.

[]

[] Thomas Kochan, Katerina Bezrukova, Robin Ely, Susan Jackson, Aparna Joshi, Karen Jehn, Jonathan Leonard, David Levine, and David Thomas, "The Effects of Diversity on Business Performance: Report of the Diversity Research Network," reported in SHRM Foundation Research Findings, retrieved from www.shrm.org/foundation/findings.asp. Full article published in Human Resource Management (2003).

[]

[] See Joseph A. Raelin, Clash of Cultures (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1986).

[]

[] See Anthony Robbins and Joseph McClendon III, Unlimited Power: A Black Choice (New York: Free Press, 1997), and Augusto Failde and William Doyle, Latino Success: Insights from America's Most Powerful Latino Executives (New York: Free Press, 1996).

[]

[] Barbara Benedict Bunker, "Appreciating Diversity and Modifying Organizational Cultures: Men and Women at Work," Chapter 5 in Suresh Srivastava and David L. Cooperrider, Appreciative Management and Leadership (San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1990).

[]

[] See Gary N. Powell, Women-Men in Management (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1993) and Cliff Cheng (ed.), Masculinities in Organizations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996). For added background, see also Sally Helgesen, Everyday Revolutionaries: Working Women and the Transformation of American Life (New York: Doubleday, 1998).

[]

[] See, for example, Richard Donkin, "Caught Somewhere between the Ys and the Boomers," Financial Times, Kindle Edition (December 31, 2009).

[]

[] Tips in box—See "Reality Check for Gen Y and Its Managers," Financial Times, Kindle Edition (May 14, 2009).

[]

[] See "Women and Work: We Did It!" The Economist, ndle Edition (December 31, 2009); and, "Women CEOs," Fortune: money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2007/womenceos.

[]

[] Laurie Landro, "Of Women and Working," The Wall Street Journal, online edition (December 5, 2009). See also Karine Moe and Dianna Shandy, Glass Ceilings and 100-Hour Couples (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2009).

[]

[] Michael Skapinker, "Companies Need to Recruit the Older Woman," The Financial Times, Kindle Edition (February 2, 2010).

[]

[] "Bias Cases by Workers Increase 9%," Wall Street Journal (March 6, 2008), p. D6.

[]

[] Sue Shellenbarger, "More Women Pursue Claims of Pregnancy Discrimination," Wall Street Journal (March 27, 2008), p. D1; and Rob Walker, "Sex vs. Ethics." Fast Company (June 2008), pp. 73–78.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Thomas, op. cit. (1992).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] For a review of scholarly work on organizational change, see Arthur G. Bedian, "Organizational Change: A Review of Theory and Research," Journal of Management, vol. 25 (1999), pp. 293–315; and W. Warner Burke, Organizational Change: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008).

[]

[] Quote from Pilita Clark, "Delayed, not Cancelled," Financial Times (December 19, 2009).

[]

[] Reported in G. Christian Hill and Mike Tharp, "Stumbling Giant—Big Quarterly Deficit Stuns Bank America, Adds Pressure on Chief," Wall Street Journal (July 18, 1985), pp. 1–16.

[]

[] Beer and Nohria, op. cit.; and "Change Management: An Inside Job," Economist (July 15, 2000), p. 61.

[]

[] Information and quote from Adam Bryant, "Xerox's New Chief Tries to Redefine Its Culture," The New York Times (February 21, 2010): www.nytimes.com.

[]

[] See Bedian, op. cit.

[]

[] Based on John P. Kotter, "Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail," Harvard Business Review (March–April 1995), pp. 59–67.

[]

[] Jack and Suzy Welch, "Finding Innovation Where It Lives," BusinessWeek (April 21, 2008), p. 84.

[]

[] This is based on Rosabeth Moss Kanter's "Innovation Pyramid," BusinessWeek (March 2007), p. IN 3.

[]

[] For a discussion of alternative types of change, see David A. Nadler and Michael L. Tushman, Strategic Organizational Design (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1988); Kotter, op. cit; and W. Warner Burke, Organization Change (Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage, 2002).

[]

[] GM information and quote from David Welch, "Ed Whitacre's Battle to Save GM from Itself," Bloomberg Businessweek (May 3– May 9, 2010), pp. 47–55.

[]

[] Kurt Lewin, "Group Decision and Social Change," in G. E. Swanson, T. M. Newcomb, and E. L. Hartley, eds., Readings in Social Psychology (New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1952), pp. 459–73.

[]

[] See Wanda J. Orlikowski and J. Debra Hofman, "An Improvisational Model for Change Management: The Case of Groupware Technologies," Sloan Management Review (Winter 1997), pp. 11–21.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] This discussion is based on Robert Chin and Kenneth D. Benne, "General Strategies for Effecting Changes in Human Systems," in Warren G, Bennis, Kenneth D. Benne, Robert Chin, and Kenneth E. Corey (eds.), The Planning of Change, 3rd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1969), pp. 22–45.

[]

[] The change agent descriptions here and following are developed from an exercise reported in J. William Pfeiffer and John E. Jones, A Handbook of Structured Experiences for Human Relations Training, vol. 2 (La Jolla, CA: University Associates, 1973).

[]

[] Ram N. Aditya, Robert J. House, and Steven Kerr, "Theory and Practice of Leadership: Into the New Millennium," Chapter 6 in Cary L. Cooper and Edwin A. Locke, Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory with Practice (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000).

[]

[] Information from Mike Schneider, "Disney Teaching Excess Magic of Customer Service." Columbus Dispatch (December 17, 2000), p. G9.

[]

[] Teresa M. Amabile, "How to Kill Creativity," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1998), pp. 77–87.

[]

[] For an overview see Jeffrey D. Ford, Laurie W. Ford, and Angelo D'Amoto "Resistance to Change: The Rest of the Story," Academy of Management Review, vol. 33, no. 2 (2008), pp. 362–77; and, Jeffrey D. Ford and Laurie W. Ford, "Decoding Resistance to Change," Harvard Business Review (April 2009), pp. 99–103.

[]

[] Sue Shellenbarger, "Some Employers Find Way to Ease Burden of Changing Shifts," Wall Street Journal (March 25, 1998), p. B1.

[]

[] These checkpoints are developed from Everett M. Rogers, Communication of Innovations, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1993).

[]

[] John P. Kotter and Leonard A. Schlesinger, "Choosing Strategies for Change," Harvard Business Review, vol. 57 (March–April 1979), pp. 109–12. Example from Fortune (December 1991), pp. 56–62; additional information from corporate website: www.toro.com.

[]

[] Based on an instrument developed by W. Warner Burke. Used by permission.

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—Information from "Can Business Be Cool?" Economist (June 10, 2006), pp. 59–60; and Aubrey Henretty, "A Brighter Day," Kellogg (Summer 2006), pp. 32–34; Competitive Enterprise Institute, http://www.cei.org/pages/co2.cfm (retrieved September 29, 2006); Joseph Stiglitz, Making Globalization Work (New York: Norton, 2006), p. 172; and, Jim Phillips, "Business Leaders Say 'Green' Approach Doable," Athens News (March 27, 2008), from www.athensnews.com.

Real People—Information and quotes from David Kiley, "Ford's Savior?" BusinessWeek (March 16, 2009), pp. 31–34; and Alex Taylor III, "Fixing Up Ford," Fortune (May 14, 2009).

Photo Essay Notes

Herman Miller—David Rocks, "Reinventing Herman Miller," BusinessWeek eBiz (April 2, 2000), pp. E88–E96; www.hermanmiller.com. IDEO—Information and quotes from Tim Brown, "Change by Design," BusinessWeek (October 5, 2009), pp. 54–56. See also Tim Brown, Change by Design (New York: HarperBusiness, 2009).

Chapter 12

Endnotes

[]

[] Quotes from information from workingmother.com (retrieved January 10, 2010).

[]

[] See William E. Snizek, "Hall's Professionalism Scale: An Empirical Reassessment," American Sociological Review, vol. 37 (February 1972), pp. 109–14.

[]

[] Information from "SHRM Code of Ethical and Professional Standards in Human Resource Management," retrieved from www.shrm.org/ethics/code-of-ethics.asp.

[]

[] Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1998), p. 292.

[]

[] Quote from William Bridges, "The End of the Job," Fortune (September 19, 1994), p. 68.

[]

[] Edward E. Lawler III, "The HR Department: Give It More Respect," Wall Street Journal (March 10, 2008), p. R8.

[]

[] Dictionary of Business Management (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

[]

[] T. Sekiguchi, "Person–Organization Fit and Person–Job Fit in Employee Selection: A Review of the Literature," Osaka Keidai Ronshu, vol. 54, no. 6 (2004), p. 179.

[]

[] Information from "New Face at Facebook Hopes to Map Out a Road to Growth," Wall Street Journal (April 15, 2008), pp. B1, B5.

[]

[] James N. Baron and David M. Kreps, Strategic Human Resources: Framework for General Managers (New York: Wiley, 1999).

[]

[] Quotes from Kris Maher, "Human-Resources Directors Are Assuming Strategic Roles," Wall Street Journal (June 17, 2003), p. B8.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Information from ADA National Network retrieved from www.adata.org/whatsada-definition.aspx.

[]

[] Information from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission retrieved from www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/ages.cfm.

[]

[] Information from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission retrieved from www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/pregnancy.cfm.

[]

[] The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, "Pregnancy Discrimination Charges EEOC & FEPAs Combined: FY1997-FY2009," retrieved from http://www1.eeoc.gov//eeoc/statistics/enforcement/pregnancy.cfm?renderforprint=1.

[]

[] Information from the U.S. Department of Labor, retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/whd/fmla/index.htm.

[]

[] Dr. Mary Curtis and Dr. Christine H.B. Grant, University of Iowa, retrieved from http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa/ge/aboutRE.html.

[]

[] For a discussion of affirmative action see R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr., "From 'Affirmative Action' to 'Affirming Diversity,'" Harvard Business Review (November–December 1990), pp. 107–17.

[]

[] See the discussion by David A. DeCenzo and Stephen P. Robbins, Human Resource Management, 6th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1999), pp. 66–68 and 81–83.

[]

[] Ibid., pp. 77–79.

[]

[] See Frederick S. Lane, The Naked Employee: How Technology Is Compromising Workplace Privacy (New York: AMACOM, 2003).

[]

[] Quote from George Myers, "Bookshelf," Columbus Dispatch (June 9, 2003), p. E6.

[]

[] See Ernest McCormick, "Job and Task Analysis," in Marvin Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), pp. 651–96.

[]

[] See John P. Wanous, Organizational Entry: Recruitment, Selection, and Socialization of Newcomers (Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1980), pp. 34–44.

[]

[] Theresa Feathers, Three Major Selection and Assessment Techniques, Their Popularity in Industry and Their Predictive Validity, December 2000.

[]

[] See Michael A. D. McDaniel, Deborah L. Whetzel, Frank L. Schmidt, and Steven Maurer, "The Validity of Employment Interviews: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-analysis," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 79, no. 4 (August 1994), pp. 599–616.

[]

[] Information from "Biodata: The Measure of an Applicant?" New York Law Journal (May 21, 2007).

[]

[] Information from "Google Answer to Filling Jobs Is an Algorithm," New York Times (January 3, 2007).

[]

[] Quote from Ronald Henkoff, "Finding, Training, and Keeping the Best Service Workers," Fortune (October 3, 1994), pp. 110–22.

[]

[] For a scholarly review, see John Van Maanen and Edgar H. Schein, "Toward a Theory of Socialization," in Barry M. Staw, ed., Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 1 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1979), pp. 209–64; for a practitioner's view, see Richard Pascale, "Fitting New Employees into the Company Culture," Fortune (May 28, 1984), pp. 28–42.

[]

[] This involves the social information processing concept as discussed in Gerald R. Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer, "A Social Information Processing Approach to Job Attitudes and Task Design," Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 23 (June 1978), pp. 224–53.

[]

[] Boxed material developed from Alan Fowler, "How to Decide on Training Methods," People Management, vol. 25 (1995), pp. 36–38.

[]

[] Gouri Shukla, "Job Rotation and How It Works," April 27, 2005 retrieved from http://www.rediff.com/money/2005/apr/27spec1.htm.

[]

[] See Larry L. Cummings and Donald P. Schwab, Performance in Organizations: Determinants and Appraisal (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1973).

[]

[] Dick Grote, "Performance Appraisal Reappraised," Harvard Business Review Best Practice (1999), Reprint F00105.

[]

[] See Gary P. Latham, Joan Almost, Sara Mann, and Celia Moore, "New Developments in Performance Management," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 34, no. 1 (2005), pp. 77–87.

[]

[] See Edward E. Lawler III, "Reward Practices and Performance Management System Effectiveness," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 32, no. 4 (November 2003), pp. 396–404.

[]

[] "Information from Ilana DeBare, "360 Degrees of Evaluation—More Companies Turn to Full-Circle Job Reviews," San Francisco Chronicle (May 5, 1997).

[]

[] Latham, op. cit.

[]

[] Timothy Butler and James Waldroop, "Job Sculpting: The Art of Retaining Your Best People," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1999), pp. 144–52.

[]

[] Information from "What Are the Most Effective Retention Tools?" Fortune (October 9, 2000), p. S7.

[]

[] See Betty Friedan, Beyond Gender: The New Politics of Work and the Family (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1997); and James A. Levine, Working Fathers: New Strategies for Balancing Work and Family (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997).

[]

[] Study reported in Ann Belser, "Employers Using LessCostly Ways to Retain Workers," Columbus Disptach (June 1, 2008), p. D3.

[]

[] Information from Sue Shellenbarger, "What Makes a Company a Great Place to Work Today," Wall Street Journal (October 4, 2007), p. D1.

[]

[] Examples from Amy Saunders, "A Creative Approach to Work," Columbus Dispatch (May 2, 2008), pp. C1, C9; Shellenbarger, op. cit.; and, Michelle Conlin and Jay Greene, "How to Make a Microserf Smile," BusinessWeek (September 10, 2007), pp. 57–59.

[]

[] A good overview of trends and issues is found in the special section on "Employee Benefits," Wall Street Journal (April 22, 2008), pp. A11–A17.

[]

[] See Kaja Whitehouse, "More Companies Offer Packages Pay Plans to Performance," Wall Street Journal (December 13, 2005), p. B6.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Erin White, "How to Reduce Turnover," Wall Street Journal (November 21, 2005), p. B5.

[]

[] Information from Susan Pulliam, "New Dot-Com Mantra: 'Just Pay Me in Cash, Please,'" Wall Street Journal (November 28, 2000), p. C1.

[]

[] White, op. cit.

[]

[] Information from Andrew Blackman, "You're the Boss," Wall Street Journal (April 11, 2005), p. R5.

[]

[] Information from www.intel.com and "Stock Ownership for Everyone," Hewitt Associates (November 27, 2000).

[]

[] For reviews see Richard B. Freeman and James L. Medoff, What Do Unions Do ? (New York: Basic Books, 1984); Charles C. Heckscher, The New Unionism (New York: Basic Books, 1988); and Barry T. Hirsch, Labor Unions and the Economic Performance of Firms (Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1991).

[]

[] "Verizon Labor Talks Continue, Beyond Deadline," Reuters (August 3, 2008), www.reuters.com.

[]

[] Developed in part from Robert E. Quinn, Sue R. Faerman, Michael P. Thompson, and Michael R. McGrath, Becoming a Master Manager: A Contemporary Framework (New York: Wiley, 1990), p. 187. Used by permission.

[]

[] Developed from Eugene Owens, "Upward Appraisal: An Exercise in Subordinate's Critique of Superior's Performance," Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal, vol. 3(1978), pp. 41–42.

Feature Notes

Real Peoplehttp://zappos.com; http://about.zappos.com/meet-our-monkeys/tony-hsieh-ceo; http://www.mahalo.com/tony-hsieh; and, Tony Hsieh, Delivering Happiness: A Path to Profits, Passion, and Purpose (New York: BusinessPlus, 2010).

Photo Essay Notes

Google—See Bernard Girard, The Google Way: How One Company Is Revolutionizing Management as We Know It (San Francisco: No Starch Press, 2009).

Chapter 13

Endnotes

[]

[] List developed from S. Bartholomew Craig and Gigrid B. Qustafson, "Perceived Leader Integrity Scale: An Instrument for Assessing Employee Perceptions of Leader Integrity," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 9 (1998), pp. 127–45; Drucker quotes from Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "Seeing Things As They Really Are," Forbes (March 10, 1997), retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/forbes/1997/0310/5905122a.html.

[]

[] Quote from Marshall Loeb, "Where Leaders Come From," Fortune (September 19, 1994), pp. 241–42. For additional thoughts, see Warren Bennis, Why Leaders Can't Lead (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996).

[]

[] Barry Z. Posner, "On Leadership," BizEd (May–June 2008), pp. 26–27.

[]

[] Tom Peters, "Rule #3: Leadership Is Confusing as Hell," Fast Company (March 2001), pp. 124–40.

[]

[] See Jean Lipman-Blumen, Connective Leadership: Managing in a Changing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 3–11.

[]

[] Abraham Zaleznick, "Leaders and Managers: Are They Different?" Harvard Business Review (May–June 1977), pp. 67–78.

[]

[] Rosabeth Moss Kanter, "Power Failure in Management Circuits," Harvard Business Review (July–August 1979), pp. 65–75.

[]

[] For a good managerial discussion of power, see David C. McClelland and David H. Burnham, "Power Is the Great Motivator," Harvard Business Review (March–April 1976), pp. 100–10.

[]

[] The classic treatment of these power bases is John R. P. French Jr. and Bertram Raven, "The Bases of Social Power," in Darwin Cartwright, ed., Group Dynamics: Research and Theory (Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson, 1962), pp. 607–13. For managerial applications of this basic framework, see Gary Yukl and Tom Taber, "The Effective Use of Managerial Power," Personnel, vol. 60 (1983), pp. 37–49; and Robert C. Benfari, Harry E. Wilkinson, and Charles D. Orth, "The Effective Use of Power," Business Horizons, vol. 29 (1986), pp. 12–16; Gary A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998); includes "information" as a separate, but related, power source.

[]

[] James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, "The Leadership Challenge," Success (April 1988), p. 68. See also their books Credibility: How Leaders Gain and Lose It; Why People Demand It (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996); Encouraging the Heart: A Leader's Guide to Rewarding and Recognizing Others (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999); and The Leadership Challenge: How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations, 3rd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002).

[]

[] Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership: Creating a Compelling Sense of Vision for Your Organization (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992).

[]

[] Lorraine Monroe, "Leadership Is about Making Vision Happen—What I Call 'Vision Acts,'" Fast Company (March 2001), p. 98; School Leadership Academy website: www.lorrainemonroe.com.

[]

[] Quote from Andy Serwer, "Game Changers: Legendary Basketball Coach John Wooden and Starbucks' Howard Schultz Talk about a Common Interest—Leadership," Fortune (August 11, 2008): www.cnnmoney.com.

[]

[] Loeb, op. cit.

[]

[] A classic work is Robert K. Greenleaf and Larry C. Spears, The Power of Servant Leadership: Essays (San Francisco: BerrettKoehler, 1996).

[]

[] Jay A. Conger, "Leadership: The Art of Empowering Others," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 3 (1989), pp. 17–24.

[]

[] Greenleaf and Spears, op. cit., p. 78.

[]

[] Max DePree, Leadership Is an Art (New York: Doubleday, 1989 and 2004) and Leadership Jazz (New York: Doubleday, 1992 and 2008).

[]

[] Monroe, opcit., p. 98; School Leadership Academy website: www.lorrainemonroe.com.

[]

[] The early work on leader traits is well represented in Ralph M. Stogdill, "Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature," Journal of Psychology, vol. 25 (1948), pp. 35–71. See also Edwin E. Ghiselli, Explorations in Management Talent (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1971); and Shirley A. Kirkpatrick and Edwin A. Locke, "Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?" Academy of Management Executive (1991), pp. 48–60.

[]

[] See also John W. Gardner's article, "The Context and Attributes of Leadership," New Management, vol. 5 (1988), pp. 18–22; John P. Kotter, The Leadership Factor (New York: Free Press, 1988); and Bernard M. Bass, Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1990).

[]

[] Kirkpatrick and Locke, op. cit., 1991.

[]

[] This work traces back to classic studies by Kurt Lewin and his associates at the University of lowa. See, for example, K. Lewin and R. Lippitt, "An Experimental Approach to the Study of Autocracy and Democracy: A Preliminary Note," Sociometry, vol. 1 (1938), pp. 292–300; K. Lewin, "Field Theory and Experiment in Social Psychology: Concepts and Methods," American Journal of Sociology, vol. 44 (1939), pp. 886–96; and K. Lewin, R. Lippitt, and R. K. White, "Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created Social Climates," Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 10 (1939), pp. 271–301.

[]

[] The original research from the Ohio State studies is described in R. M. Stogdill and A. E. Coons, eds., Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement, Research Monograph No. 88 (Columbus: Ohio State University Bureau of Business Research, 1951); see also Chester A. Schreisham, Claudia C. Cogliser, and Linda L. Neider, "Is It 'Trustworthy'? A Multiple-Levels-ofAnalysis Reexamination of an Ohio State Leadership Study with Implications for Future Research," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 2 (Summer 1995), pp. 111–45. For the University of Michigan studies, see Robert Kahn and Daniel Katz, "Leadership Practices in Relation to Productivity and Morale," in Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Alexander, eds., Group Dynamics: Research and Theory, 3rd ed. (New York: Harper-Row, 1968).

[]

[] See Bass, op. cit., 1990.

[]

[] Robert R. Blake and Jane Srygley Mouton, The New Managerial Grid III (Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1985).

[]

[] See Lewin and Lippitt, op. cit., 1938.

[]

[] For a good discussion of this theory, see Fred E. Fiedler, Martin M. Chemers, and Linda Mahar, The Leadership Match Concept (New York: Wiley, 1978); Fiedler's current contingency research with the cognitive resource theory is summarized in Fred E. Fiedler and Joseph E. Garcia, New Approaches to Effective Leadership (New York: Wiley, 1987).

[]

[] See Pino Audia, "A New B-School Specialty: SelfAwareness," Forbes.com (December 4, 2009).

[]

[] Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Management and Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988). For an interview with Paul Hersey on the origins of the model, see John R. Schermerhorn Jr., "Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey," Mid-American Journal of Business (Fall 1997), pp. 5–12.

[]

[] See Claude L. Graeff, "The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View," Academy of Management Review, vol. 8 (1983), pp. 285–91; and Carmen F. Fernandez and Robert P. Vecchio, "Situational Leadership Theory Revisited: A Test of an AcrossJobs Perspective," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 8 (Summer 1997), pp. 67–84.

[]

[] See, for example, Robert J. House, "A Path–Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness," Administrative Sciences Quarterly, vol. 16 (1971), pp. 321–38; Robert J. House and Terrence R. Mitchell, "Path–Goal Theory of Leadership," Journal of Contemporary Business (Autumn 1974), pp. 81–97. The path–goal theory is reviewed by Bass, op. cit. A supportive review of research is offered in Julie Indvik, "Path–Goal Theory of Leadership: A Meta-Analysis," in John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson Jr., eds., Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings (1986), pp. 189–92. The theory is reviewed and updated in Robert J. House, "Path–Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy and a Reformulated Theory," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 7 (Autumn 1996), pp. 323–52.

[]

[] See the discussions of path–goal theory in Bernard M. Bass, "Leadership: Good, Better, Best," Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1985), pp. 26–40.

[]

[] See Steven Kerr and John Jermier, "Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 22 (1978), pp. 375–403; Jon P. Howell and Peter W. Dorfman, "Leadership and Substitutes for Leadership Among Professional and Nonprofessional Workers," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, vol. 22 (1986), pp. 29–46.

[]

[] An early presentation of the theory is F. Dansereau Jr., G. Graen, and W. J. Haga, "A Vertical Dyad Linkage Approach to Leadership Within Formal Organizations: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role-Making Process," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 13, pp. 46–78.

[]

[] This discussion is based on Yukl, op. cit., pp. 117–22.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Victor H. Vroom and Arthur G. Jago, The New Leadership: Managing Participation in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988). This is based on earlier work by Victor H. Vroom, "A New Look in Managerial Decision-Making," Organizational Dynamics (Spring 1973), pp. 66–80; and Victor H. Vroom and Phillip Yetton, Leadership and Decision-Making (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973).

[]

[] Vroom and Jago, op. cit.

[]

[] For a related discussion, see Edgar H. Schein, Process Consultation Revisited: Building the Helping Relationship (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1999).

[]

[] For a related discussion, see Schein, op. cit.

[]

[] For a review, see Yukl, op. cit.

[]

[] See the discussion by Victor H. Vroom, "Leadership and the Decision-Making Process," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28 (2000), pp. 82–94.

[]

[] The distinction was originally made by James McGregor Burns, Leadership (New York: Harper-Row, 1978), and was further developed by Bernard Bass, Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations (New York: Free Press, 1985) and Bernard M. Bass, "Leadership: Good, Better, Best," Organization Dynamics (Winter 1985), pp. 26–40.

[]

[] Among popular books are Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge (New York: Harper Business, 1997); Max DePree, Leadership Is an Art, op. cit.; Kotter, The Leadership Factor, op. cit.; Kouzes and Posner, The Leadership Challenge, op. cit., 2002.

[]

[] This list is based on Kouzes and Posner, op. cit.; Gardner, op. cit.

[]

[] Daniel Goleman, "Leadership That Gets Results," Harvard Business Review (March–April 2000), pp. 78–90. See also his books Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1995) and Working with Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1998).

[]

[] Daniel Goleman, "What Makes a Leader?" Harvard Business Review (November–December 1998), pp. 93–102.

[]

[] Goleman, op. cit., 1998.

[]

[] Information from "Women and Men, Work, and Power," Fast Company, issue 13 (1998), p. 71.

[]

[] Jane Shibley Hyde, "The Gender Similarities—Hypothesis," American Psychologist, vol. 60, no. 6 (2005), pp. 581–92.

[]

[] A. H. Eagley, S. J. Daran, and M. G. Makhijani, "Gender and the Effectiveness of Leaders: A Meta-Analysis," Psychological Bulletin, vol. 117 (1995), pp. 125–45.

[]

[] Research on gender issues in leadership is reported in Sally Helgesen, The Female Advantage: Women's Ways of Leadership (New York: Doubleday, 1990); Judith B. Rosener, "Ways Women Lead, "Harvard Business Review (November/December 1990), pp. 119–25; and Alice H. Eagley, Steven J. Karau, and Blair T. Johnson, "Gender and Leadership Style Among School Principals: A Meta Analysis," Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 27 (1992), pp. 76–102; Jean Lipman-Blumen, Connective Leadership: Managing in a Changing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); Alice H. Eagley, Mary C. Johannesen-Smith, and Marloes L. van Engen, "Transformational, Transactional and Laissez-Faire Leadership: A Meta-Analysis of Women and Men, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 124, no. 4 (2003), pp. 569–91; and Carol Hymowitz, "Too Many Women Fall for Stereotypes of Selves, Study Says," Wall Street Journal (October24, 2005), p. B.1.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Eagely et al., op cit.; Hymowitz, op cit.; Rosener, op. cit.; Vroom, op cit.; Herminia Ibarra and Otilia Obodaru, "Women and the Vision Thing," Harvard Business Review (January, 2009): Reprint R0901E.

[]

[] Ibarra and Obodaru, op. cit.

[]

[] Rosener, op. cit.

[]

[] For debate on whether some transformational leadership qualities tend to be associated more with female than male leaders, see "Debate: Ways Women and Men Lead," Harvard Business Review (January–February 1991), pp. 150–60.

[]

[] Quote from "As Leaders, Women Rule," BusinessWeek (November 2, 2000), pp. 75–84. Rosabeth Moss Kanter is the author of Men and Women of the Corporation, 2nd ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1993).

[]

[] Hyde, op. cit.; Hymowitz, op. cit.

[]

[] Julie Bennett, "Women Get a Boost Up that Tall Leadership Ladder," Wall Street Journal (June 10, 2008), p. D6.

[]

[] Based on the discussion by John W. Dienhart and Terry Thomas, "Ethical Leadership: A Primer on Ethical Responsibility," in John R. Schermerhorn Jr., Management, 7th ed. (New York: Wiley, 2003).

[]

[] Schein, op. cit.

[]

[] Vroom and Jago, op. cit.

[]

[] James MacGregor Burns, Transforming Leadership: A New Pursuit of Happiness (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003); information from Christopher Caldwell, book review, International Herald Tribune (April 29, 2003), p. 18.

[]

[] Fred Luthans and Bruce Avolio, "Authentic Leadership: A Positive Development Approach," in K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, and R. E. Quinn, eds., Positive Organizational Scholarship (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2003), pp. 241–58.

[]

[] Doug May, Adrian Chan, Timothy Hodges, and Bruce Avolio, "Developing the Moral Component of Authentic Leadership," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 32 (2003), pp. 247–60.

[]

[] Peter F. Drucker, "Leadership: More Doing than Dash," Wall Street Journal (January 6, 1988), p. 16. For a compendium of writings on leadership, sponsored by the Drucker Foundation, see Frances Hesselbein, Marshall Goldsmith, and Richard Beckhard, Leader of the Future (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997).

[]

[] Quotes from ibid.

[]

[] Fred E. Fiedler and Martin M. Chemers, Improving Leadership Effectiveness: The Leader Match Concept, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1984). Used by permission.

[]

[] Victor H. Vroom and Arthur G. Jago, The New Leadership (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988). Used by permission.

Feature Notes

Opener—Information and quotes from Irene Rosenfeld, "Irene Rosenfeld Drives Change with 'Rules of the Road'," Wall Street Journal, Special Advertising Section (October 6, 2009), p. A17; David Kesmodel and Ceceilie Rohwedder, "Sugar and Spice: A Clash of Two Change Agents," Wall Street Journal (September 8, 2009), p. A17; Ilan Brat, "A Jar of New Vegmite, a Window into Kraft," Wall Street Journal (September 30, 2009), pp. B1, B2; and Susan Verfield and Michael Arndt, "Kraft's Sugar Rush," BusinessWeek (January 25, 2010), pp. 37–39.

Real People—Information and quotes from Lorraine Monroe, "Leadership is about Making Vision Happen—What I Call 'Vision Acts,'" Fast Company (March 2001), p. 98; Lorraine Monroe Leadership Institute website: www.lorrainemonroe.com. See also, Lorraine Monroe, Nothing's Impossible: Leadership Lessons from Inside and Outside the Classroom (New York: PublicAffairs Books, 1999), and The Monroe Doctrine: An ABC Guide to What Great Bosses Do (New York: PublicAffairs Books, 2003).

Photo Essay Notes

César Conde—Information and quotes from Laur Wides-Muñoz, "Miami-born César Conde to Take Over Univisión Networks, The Miami Herald (September 29, 2009): www.miamiherald.com; and, David Adams, "César Conde: Univision's Big Bet," www.news.newamericamedia.org (September 17, 2009), accessed May 11, 2010. Martin Luther King, Jr.—Full texts of the I Have a Dream speech are available online; see for example, www.usconstitution.net/dream.html. Mahatma Gandhi— Information from "140 Years Ago: Civil but Disobedient," Smithsonian (October 2009), p. 20; and data from "Many U.S. Employees Have Negative Attitudes to Their Jobs, Employers and Top Managers," Harris Poll #38 (May 6, 2005), retrieved from www.harrisinteractive.com.

Chapter 14

Endnotes

[]

[] Information from Andrew Ward, "Spanx Queen Firms Up the Bottom Line," Financial Times (November 30, 2006), p. 7; and Simona Covel, "A Dated Industry Gets a Modern Makeover," Wall Street Journal (August 7, 2008), p. B9.

[]

[] See, for example, Ram Charan, Know-How: The 8 Skills that Separate People Who Perform from Those that Don't (New York: Crown Business, 2007); and Ram Charan, "Six Personality Traits of a Leader," www.career-advice.monster.com (accessed August 6, 2008).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Quotes from Charan, op. cit., 2008.

[]

[] Max DePree, "An Old Pro's Wisdom: It Begins with a Belief in People," New York Times (September 10, 1989), p. F2; Max DePree, Leadership Is an Art (New York: Doubleday, 1989); David Woodruff, "Herman Miller: How Green Is My Factory," BusinessWeek (September 16, 1991), pp. 54–56; and Max DePree, Leadership Jazz (New York: Doubleday, 1992); quote from www.depree.org/html/maxdepree.html.

[]

[] This example is reported in Esquire (December 1986), p. 243. Emphasis is added to the quotation. Note: Nussbaum became director of the Labor Department's Women's Bureau during the Clinton administration and subsequently moved to the AFL–CIO as head of the Women's Bureau.

[]

[] degree.org, op. cit.

[]

[] See H. R. Schiffman, Sensation and Perception: An Integrated Approach, 3d ed. (New York: Wiley, 1990).

[]

[] John P. Kotter, "The Psychological Contract: Managing the Joining Up Process," California Management Review, vol. 15 (Spring 1973), pp. 91–99; Denise Rousseau, ed., Psychological Contracts in Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995); Denise Rousseau, "Changing the Deal While Keeping the People," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 10 (1996), pp. 50–59; and Denise Rousseau and Rene Schalk, eds., Psychological Contracts in Employment: Cross-Cultural Perspectives (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000).

[]

[] A good review is E. L. Jones, ed., Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior (Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press, 1972). See also John H. Harvey and Gifford Weary, "Current Issues in Attribution Theory and Research," Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 35 (1984), pp. 427–59.

[]

[] See, for example, Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom, America in Black and White (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997); and David A. Thomas and Suzy Wetlaufer, "A Question of Color: A Debate on Race in the U.S. Workplace," Harvard Business Review (September–October 1997), pp. 118–32.

[]

[] Information from "Misconceptions about Women in the Global Arena Keep Their Numbers Low," Catalyst Study: www.catalystwomen.org/home.html.

[]

[] These examples are from Natasha Josefowitz, Paths to Power (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980), p. 60. For more on gender issues, see Gray N. Powell, ed., Handbook of Gender and Work (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999).

[]

[] Survey reported in Kelly Greene, "Age Is Still More Than a Number," Wall Street Journal (April 10, 2003), p. D2.

[]

[] The classic work is Dewitt C. Dearborn and Herbert A. Simon, "Selective Perception: A Note on the Departmental Identification of Executives," Sociometry, vol. 21 (1958), pp. 140–44. See also J. P. Walsh, "Selectivity and Selective Perception: Belief Structures and Information Processing, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 24 (1988), pp. 453–70.

[]

[] Quotation from Sheila O'Flanagan, "Underestimate Casual Dressers at Your Peril," Irish Times (July 22, 2005). See also Christina Binkley, "How to Pull Off 'CEO Casual'," Wall Street Journal (August 7, 2008), pp. D1–D8.

[]

[] See William L. Gardner and Mark J. Martinko, "Impression Management in Organizations," Journal of Management (June 1988), p. 332.

[]

[] Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden, "Effects of Impression Management on Performance Ratings," Academy of Management Journal (February 2005), pp. 232–52.

[]

[] See M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount, "The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis," Personnel Psychology, vol. 44 (1991), pp. 1–26.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] For a good summary see Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, Organizational Behavior, 12th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall). 2007, p. 112.

[]

[] Adrienne Carter, "Leading Indicators: Doug Conant," STERNbusiness (Spring/Summer 2008). pp. 22–24.

[]

[] Carl G. Jung, Psychological Types, H. G. Baynes trans. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971).

[]

[] I. Briggs-Myers, Introduction to Type (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980).

[]

[] See, for example, William L. Gardner and Mark J. Martinko, "Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Study Managers: A Literature Review and Research Agenda," Journal of Management, vol. 22 (1996), pp. 45–83; Naomi L. Quenk, Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessment (New York: Wiley, 2000).

[]

[] See the discussion in John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., James G. Hunt, Richard N. Osborn, and Mary UhlBlen, Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2010), pp. 31–37.

[]

[] J. B. Rotter, "Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement," Psychological Monographs, vol. 80 (1966), pp. 1–28; see also Thomas W. Ng, Kelly L. Sorensen, and Lillian T. Eby, "Cocos of Control at Work: A Meta-Analysis," Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2006).

[]

[] T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswick, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: HarperRow, 1950).

[]

[] Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. George Bull (Middlesex, UK: Penguin, 1961).

[]

[] Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis, Studies in Machiavellianism (New York: Academic Press, 1970).

[]

[] See M. Snyder, Public Appearances/Private Realities: The Psychology of Self-Monitoring (New York: Freeman, 1987).

[]

[] The classic work is Meyer Friedman and Ray Roseman, Type A Behavior and Your Heart (New York: Knopf, 1974).

[]

[] Information and quote from Joann S. Lublin, "How One Black Woman Lands Her Top Jobs: Risks and Networking," Wall Street Journal (March 4, 2003), p. B1.

[]

[] Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1973).

[]

[] See Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1957).

[]

[] Timothy A. Judge and Allan H. Church, "Job Satisfaction: Research and Practice," Chapter 7 in Cary L. Cooper and Edwin A. Locke, eds., Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory with Practice (Malden, MA: Blackwell Business, 2000); and Timothy A. Judge, "Promote Job Satisfaction through Mental Challenge," Chapter 6 in Edwin A. Locke, ed., The Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004).

[]

[] The Job Descriptive Index was developed by Dr. Patricia C. Smith, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green University. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was developed at the Industrial Relations Center and Vocational Psychology Research Center, University of Minnesota.

[]

[] See ibid; Timothy A. Judge, "Promote Job Satisfaction through Mental Challenge," Chapter 6 in Edwin A. Locke, ed., The Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004); "U.S. Employees More Dissatisfied with Their Jobs," Associated Press (February 28, 2005), retrieved from www.msnbc.com; and "U.S. Job Satisfaction Keeps Falling, The Conference Board Reports Today," The Conference Board (February 28, 2005), retrieved from www.conference-board.org.

[]

[] Data reported in Jeannine Aversa, "Happy Workers Harder to Find," Columbus Dispatch (January 5, 2010), pp. A1, A4. Data from "U.S. Job Satisfaction the Lowest in Two Decades," press release, The Conference Board (January 5, 2010), retrieved January 6, 2010 from: http://www.conference-board.org.

[]

[] The Conference Board, op. cit.

[]

[] Judge and Church, op. cit., 2000; Judge, op. cit., 2004.

[]

[] Reported in "When Loyalty Erodes, So Do Profits," BusinessWeek (August 13, 2001), p. 8.

[]

[] Data reported in "When Loyalty Erodes, So Do Profits," BusinessWeek (August 13, 2001), p. 8.

[]

[] Tony DiRomualdo, "The High Cost of Employee Disengagement" (July 7, 2004): www.wistechnology.com.

[]

[] See "The Things They Do for Love," Harvard Business Review (December 2004), pp. 19–20.

[]

[] Information from Sue Shellenbarger, "Employers Are Finding It Doesn't Cost Much to Make a Staff Happy," Wall Street Journal (November 19, 1997), p. B1. See also "Job Satisfaction on the Decline," The Conference Board (July 2002).

[]

[] See Mark C. Bolino and William H. Turnley, "Going the Extra Mile: Cultivating and Managing Employee Citizenship Behavior," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 17 (August 2003), pp. 60–67.

[]

[] Dennis W. Organ, Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988).

[]

[] These relationships are discussed in Charles N. Greene, "The Satisfaction-Performance Controversy," Business Horizons, vol. 15 (1982), p. 31. Michelle T. Iaffaldano and Paul M. Muchinsky, "Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A MetaAnalysis," Psychological Bulletin, vol. 97 (1985), pp. 251–73; Judge, op. cit., 2004; and, Michael Riketta, "The Causal Relation between Job Attitudes and Performance: A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 93, no. 2 (March, 2008), pp. 472–81.

[]

[] This discussion follows conclusions in Judge, op. cit., 2004.

[]

[] Damon Darlin and Matt Richtel, "Chairwoman Leaves Hewlett in Spying Furor," Wall Street Journal (September 23, 2006), pp. A1, A9.

[]

[] Daniel Goleman, "Leadership That Gets Results," Harvard Business Review (March–April 2000), pp. 78–90. See also his books Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1995) and Working with Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1998).

[]

[] Goleman, op. cit., 1998.

[]

[] See Robert G. Lord, Richard J. Klimoski, and Ruth Knafer (eds.), Emotions in the Workplace; Understanding the Structure and Role of Emotions in Organizational Behavior (San Francisco: Jossey–Bass, 2002); and Roy L. Payne and Cary L. Cooper (eds.), Emotions at Work: Theory Research and Applications for Management (Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2004); and, Daniel Goleman and Richard Boyatzis, "Social Intelligence and the Biology of Leadership," Harvard Business Review (September 2008), Reprint R0809E.

[]

[] Joyce E. Bono and Remus Ilies, "Charisma, Positive Emotions and Mood Contagion," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 17 (2006), pp. 317–34; and Goleman and Boyatzis, op. cit.

[]

[] Bono and Ilies, op. cit.

[]

[] See "Charm Offensive: Why America's CEOs Are So Eager to Be Loved," BusinessWeek (June 26, 2006): retrieved from businessweek.com (September 20, 2008).

[]

[] See Arthur P. Brief, Randall S. Schuler, and Mary Van Sell, Managing Job Stress (Boston: Little, Brown, 1981), pp. 7, 8.

[]

[] Robert B. Reich, The Future of Success (New York: Knopf, 2000), p. 8.

[]

[] Data from Michael Mandel, "The Real Reasons You're Working So Hard," BusinessWeek (October 3, 2005), pp. 60–70; "Many U.S. Employees Have Negative Attitudes to Their Jobs, Employers and Top Managers," The Harris Poll #38 (May 6, 2005), retrieved from www.harrisinteractive.com.

[]

[] Data from Sue Shellenbarger, "If You Need to Work Better, Maybe Try Working Less," Wall Street Journal (September 23, 2009), p. D1.

[]

[] Sue Shellenbarger, "Do We Work More or Not? Either Way, We Feel Frazzled," Wall Street Journal (July 30, 1997), p. B1.

[]

[] Michael Mandel, "The Real Reasons You're Working So Hard," BusinessWeek (October 3, 2005), pp. 60–70; "Many U.S. Employees Have Negative Attitudes to Their Jobs, Employers and Top Managers," The Harris Poll #38 (May 6, 2005), retrieved from www.harrisinteractive.com.

[]

[] Carol Hymowitz, "Impossible Expectations and Unfulfilling Work Stress Managers, Too," Wall Street Journal (January 16, 2001), p. B1.

[]

[] Hans Selye, Stress in Health and Disease (Boston: Butterworth, 1976).

[]

[] Carol Hymowitz, "Can Workplace Stress Get Worse?" Wall Street Journal (January 16, 2001), pp. B1, B3.

[]

[] See Steve M. Jex, Stress and Job Performance (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998).

[]

[] See "workplace violence" discussed by Richard V. Denenberg and Mark Braverman, The Violence-Prone Workplace (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999).

[]

[] See Daniel C. Ganster and Larry Murphy, "Workplace Interventions to Prevent Stress-Related Illness: Lessons from Research and Practice," Chapter 2 in Cooper and Locke (eds.), op. cit., 2000; Long working hours linked to high blood pressure," www.Gn.com/2006/Health (retrieved August 29, 2006).

[]

[] Quote from Shellenbarger, op. cit., 2009.

[]

[] Reported in Sue Shellenbarger, "Finding Ways to Keep a Partner's Job Stress from Hitting Home," Wall Street Journal, (November 29, 2000), p. B1.

[]

[] Information and quote from Shellenbarger, op. cit., 2009.

[]

[] Instrument from Julian P. Rotter, "External Control and Internal Control," Psychology Today (June 1971), p. 42. Used by permission.

[]

[] Adapted from Roy J. Lewicki, Donald D. Bowen, Douglas T. Hall, and Francine S. Hall, "What Do You Value in Work?" Experiences in Management and Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1988), pp. 23–26. Used by permission.

Feature Notes

Real People—Information from Leigh Buchanan, "Life Lessons," Inc. (June 6, 2006): retrieved from www.inc.com/magazine; "A Fortune Coined from Cheerfulness Entrepreneurship," Financial Times (May 20, 2009); and, www.lifeisgood.com/about.

Real Ethics—Information from Victoria Knight, "Personality Tests as Hiring Tools," Wall Street Journal (March 15, 2006), p. B3C.

Photo Essay Notes

BakBone Software—Information and quotes from "When Three Generations Can Work Better than One," Financial Times (September 16, 2009). Root Learning—Information and quote from Kelly K. Spors, "Top Small Workplaces 2009," Wall Street Journal (September 28, 2009), p. R7. Violins—Data from Michael Mandel, "The Real Reasons You're Working So Hard," BusinessWeek (October 3, 2005), pp. 60–70; "Many U.S. Employees Have Negative Attitudes to Their Jobs, Employers and Top Managers," The Harris Poll #38 (May 6, 2005), retrieved from www.harrisinteractive.com.

Chapter 15

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from David A. Kaplan, "#1 SAS: The Best Company to Work For," Fortune (January 26, 2010), Kindle edition.

[]

[] Conference Board research reported in Patricia Soldati, "Employee Engagement: What Exactly Is It?" Management Issues (March 8, 2007): www.managementissues.com (retrieved August 10, 2008). Yum Brands information from Erin White, "How Surveying Workers Can Pay Off," Wall Street Journal (June 18, 2007), p. B3.

[]

[] Information from "Executive Briefing: A New Approach for Airlines," Wall Street Journal (May 12, 2008), p. R3. See also Greg J. Bamber, Jody Hoffer Gittel, Thomas A. Kochan, and Andrew Von Nordenflycht, Up in the Air: How the Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging Their Employees (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009).

[]

[] See Philip Delves Broughton, "More Thank a Paycheck," Wall Street Journal (February 2, 2010), p. A17; and Daniel Pink, Drive; The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us (New York: Riverhead Books, 2009).

[]

[] Information from Melinda Beck, "If at First You Don't Succeed, You're in Excellent Company," Wall Street Journal (April 29, 2008), p. D1.

[]

[] Information from Jerry Krueger and Emily Killham, "At Work, Feeling Good Matters," Gallup Management Journal (December 8, 2005): gmj.gallup.com; and, Ellen Wulfhorst, "Morale Is Low, Say Quarter of Employers in Poll," Reuters Bulletin (November 17, 2009): reuters.com.

[]

[] See Paul Glader, "Firms Move Gingerly to Remove Salary Cuts," The Wall Street Journal (March 1, 2010), pp. B, B7.

[]

[] See Abraham H. Maslow, Eupsychian Management (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1965); Abraham H. Maslow, Motivation and Personality, 2d ed. (New York: Harper-Row, 1970). For a research perspective, see Mahmoud A. Wahba and Lawrence G. Bridwell, "Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 16 (1976), pp. 212–40.

[]

[] Teresa M. McAleavy, "Worker Dissatisfaction Up, Survey Finds," Columbus Dispatch (September 3, 2006), p. F2.

[]

[] See Clayton P. Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (New York: Free Press, 1972).

[]

[] Examples and quotes from Jane Hodges, "A Virtual Matchmaker for Volunteers," Wall Street Journal (February 12, 2009), p. D3; Dana Mattioli, "The Laid-Off Can Do Well Doing Good," Wall Street Journal (March 17, 2009), p. D1; Elizabeth Garone, "Paying It Forward Is a Full-Time Job," Wall Street Journal (March 17, 2009), p. D4.

[]

[] The two-factor theory is in Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Block Synderman, The Motivation to Work, 2d ed. (New York: Wiley, 1967); Frederick Herzberg, "One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?" Harvard Business Review (January–February 1968), pp. 53–62, and reprinted as an HBR classic (September–October 1987), pp. 109–20.

[]

[] Critical reviews are provided by Robert J. House and Lawrence A. Wigdor, "Herzberg's Dual-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction and Motivation: A Review of the Evidence and a Criticism," Personnel Psychology, vol. 20 (Winter 1967), pp. 369–89; Steven Kerr, Anne Harlan, and Ralph Stogdill, "Preference for Motivator and Hygiene Factors in a Hypothetical Interview Situation," Personnel Psychology, vol. 27 (Winter 1974), pp. 109–24.

[]

[] Frederick Herzberg, "Workers' Needs: The Same around the World," Industry Week (September 21, 1987), pp. 29–32.

[]

[] For a collection of McClelland's work, see David C. McClelland, The Achieving Society (New York: Van Nostrand, 1961); "Business Drive and National Achievement," Harvard Business Review, vol. 40 (July–August 1962), pp. 99–112; David C. McClelland and David H. Burnham, "Power Is the Great Motivator," Harvard Business Review (March–April 1976), pp. 100–10; David C. McClelland, Human Motivation (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1985); David C. McClelland and Richard E. Boyatsis, "The Leadership Motive Pattern and Long-Term Success in Management," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 67 (1982), pp. 737–43.

[]

[] Information from Nanette Byrnes and Jena McGregor, "CEO Pay: Is It Still Out of Synch?" BusinessWeek (September 7, 2009), pp. 22–24.

[]

[] Jeanne Sahadi, "CEO Pay: 364 Times More than Workers," CNNMoney (August 29, 2007): money.cnn.com/2007/08/28 (retrieved August 10, 2008); "2007 Trends in CEO Pay," AFL-CIO: aflcio.org/corporatewatch (retrieved August 10, 2008).

[]

[] See, for example, J. Stacy Adams, "Toward an Understanding of Inequity," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 67 (1963), pp. 422–36; J. Stacy Adams, "Inequity in Social Exchange," in L. Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 2 (New York: Academic Press, 1965), pp. 267–300.

[]

[] See, for example, J. W. Harder, "Play for Pay: Effects of Inequity in a Pay-for-Performance Context," Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 37 (1992), pp. 321–35.

[]

[] Victor H. Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: Wiley, 1964; republished by Jossey-Bass, 1994).

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] The work on goal-setting theory is well summarized in Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham, Goal Setting: A Motivational Technique That Works! (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984). See also Edwin A. Locke, Kenneth N. Shaw, Lisa A. Saari, and Gary P. Latham, "Goal Setting and Task Performance 1969–1980," Psychological Bulletin, vol. 90 (1981), pp. 125–52; Mark E. Tubbs, "Goal Setting: A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Empirical Evidence," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71 (1986), pp. 474–83; Gary P. Latham and Edwin A. Locke, "SelfRegulation Through Goal Setting," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 50 (1991), pp. 212–47; and Terence R. Mitchell, Kenneth R. Thompson, and Jane George-Falvy, "Goal Setting: Theory and Practice," Chapter 9 in Cary L. Cooper and Edwin A. Locke (eds), Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory with Practice (Malden, MA: Blackwell Business, 2000), pp. 211–49.

[]

[] Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977); and Albert Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1997).

[]

[] Quote from www.des.emory.edu/mfp/self--efficacy.html.

[]

[] Beck, op. cit.

[]

[] Bandura, op. cit., 1977 and 1997.

[]

[] E. L. Thorndike, Animal Intelligence (New York: Macmillan, 1911), p. 244.

[]

[] See B. F. Skinner, Walden Two (New York: Macmillan, 1948); Science and Human Behavior (New York: Macmillan, 1953); Contingencies of Reinforcement (New York: Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 1969).

[]

[] Fred Luthans and Robert Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1975); and Fred Luthans and Robert Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1985); see also Fred Luthans and Alexander D. Stajkovic, "Reinforce for Performance: The Need to Go Beyond Pay and Even Rewards," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13 (1999), pp. 49–57.

[]

[] Knowledge@Wharton, "The Importance of Being Richard Branson," Wharton School Publishing (June 3, 2005): www.whartonsp.com.

[]

[] Information and quote from Frederik Broden, "Motivate Without Spending Millions," Fortune, Kindle edition (April 13, 2010).

[]

[] Richard Gibson, "Pitchman in the Corner Office," Wall Street Journal (October 24, 2007), p. D10. See also David Novak, The Education of an Accidental CEO: Lessons Learned from the Trailer Park to the Corner Office (New York: Crown Business, 2007).

[]

[] Broden, op cit.

[]

[] For a review, see Arne L. Kalleberg, "The Mismatched Worker: When People Don't Fit their Jobs," Academy of Management Perspectives (February 2008), pp. 24–40.

[]

[] See Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: W.W. Norton, 1967), originally published by Harper-Brothers in 1911; and, Robert Kanigel, The One Best Way (New York: Viking, 1997).

[]

[] Greg R. Oldham and J. Richard Hackman, "Not What It Was and Not What It Will Be: The Future of Job Design Research," Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 31 (2010), pp. 463–479.

[]

[] See Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Block Synderman, The Motivation to Work, 2d ed. (New York: Wiley, 1967). The quotation is from Frederick Herzberg, "One More Time: Employees?" Harvard Business Review (January–February 1968), pp. 53–62, and reprinted as an HBR Classic in September–October 1987, pp. 109–20.

[]

[] For a complete description of the core characteristics model, see J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980). See also, Oldham and Hackman, op. cit. (2010).

[]

[] See Allen R. Cohen and Herman Gadon, Alternative Work Schedules: Integrating Individual and Organizational Needs (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978), p. 125; Simcha Ronen and Sophia B. Primps, "The Compressed Work Week as Organizational Change: Behavioral and Attitudinal Outcomes," Academy of Management Review, vol. 6 (1981), pp. 61–74.

[]

[] Sue Shellenbarger, "What Makes a Company a Great Place to Work," Wall Street Journal (October 4, 2007), p. D1.

[]

[] Information from Lesli Hicks, "Workers, Employers Praise Their Four-Day Workweek," Columbus Dispatch (August 22, 1994), p. 6; and Walsh, op. cit., 2001.

[]

[] For a review, see Wayne F. Cascio, "Managing a Virtual Workplace," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 14 (2000), pp. 81–90.

[]

[] Quote from Phil Porter, "Telecommuting Mom Is Part of a National Trend," Columbus Dispatch (November 29, 2000), pp. H1, H2.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Sudeep Reddy, "Wary Companies Rely on Temporary Workers," The Wall Street Journal (March 6–7, 2010), p. A. 4; and, Peter Coy, Michelle Conlin, and Moira Herbst, "The Disposable Worker," BusinessWeek (January 18, 2010), pp. 33–39.

[]

[] Kris Maher, "Slack U.S. Demand Spurs Cut in Work Hours," Wall Street Journal (January 8, 2008), Career Journal, p. 29.

[]

[] Michael Orey, "They're Employees, No, They're Not," BusinessWeek (November 16, 2009), pp. 73–74.

[]

[] This survey was developed from a set of "Gallup Engagement Questions" presented in John Thackray, "Feedback for Real ," Gallup Management Journal (March 15, 2001), retrieved from http://gmj.gallup.com/management_articles/employee_engagement/article.asp?i=238&p=1, June 5, 2003; data reported from James K. Harter, "The Cost of Disengaged Workers," Gallup Poll (March 13, 2001).

[]

[] Developed from Brian Dumaine, "Why Do We Work?" Fortune (December 26, 1994), pp. 196–204.

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—Information from Jared Sandberg, "Why You May Regret Looking at Papers Left on the Office Copier," Wall Street Journal (June 20, 2006), p. B1.

Real People—Information from "HopeLab Video Games for Health," Fast Company (December 2008/January 2009), p. 116; Oliver J. Chang, "Apps and Videogames to Keep You Healthy," www.forbes.com/2010/01/20 (accessed February 6, 2010); and www.hopelab.org.

Photo Essays

Rockwell Collins—Information and quotes from Dana Mattioli, "Rewards for Extra Work Come Cheap in Lean Times," Columbus Dispatch (January 4, 2010), p. B7. Quarterback Coach— Information and quotes from Tim May, "Life's Calling for Siciliano," Columbus Dispatch, Game Day (October 24, 2009), pp. 12–14. Pitney Bowes—Information and quote from Samantha Critchell, "Change Likely to Be Incremental as New Year Unfolds," Columbus Dispatch (January 2, 2010), p. D1.

Chapter 16

Endnotes

[]

[] Information and quotes from Allen St. John, "Racing's Fastest Pit Crew," Wall Street Journal (May 9, 2008), p. W4; and, Bonnie Berkowitz, "Pit Crews Keep NASCAR Racers on Track," Columbus Dispatch (May 28, 2008), p. D6.

[]

[] Information from Scott Thurm, "Teamwork Raises Everyone's Game," Wall Street Journal (November 7, 2005), p. B7.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Chambers quote from Charles O'Reilly III and Jeffrey Pfeffer, Hidden Value: How Great Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results through Ordinary People (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2000), p. 4; other quotes from www.quotegarden.com.

[]

[] For a discussion, see Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High Performance Organization (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1993).

[]

[] Lynda C. McDermott, Nolan Brawley, and William A. Waite, World-Class Teams: Working across Borders (New York: Wiley, 1998), p. 5; "White Collar Workers Shoulder Together—Like It or Not," BusinessWeek (April 28, 2008), p. 58.

[]

[] See, for example, Edward E. Lawler III, Susan Albers Mohrman, and Gerald E. Ledford Jr., Employee Involvement and Total Quality Management: Practices and Results in Fortune 1000 Companies (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992); Susan A. Mohrman, Susan A. Cohen, and Monty A. Mohrman, Designing Team-based Organizations: New Forms for Knowledge Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995).

[]

[] Katzenbach and Smith, op. cit.

[]

[] Joe Lindsey, "Nine Riders, and Nearly as Many Jobs." Wall Street Journal (July 9, 2008): www.online.wsj.com.

[]

[] Harold J. Leavitt, "Suppose We Took Groups More Seriously," in Eugene L. Cass and Frederick G. Zimmer (Eds.), Man and Work in Society (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975), pp. 67–77.

[]

[] A classic work is Bib Latané, Kipling Williams, and Stephen Harkins, "Many Hands Make Light the Work: The Causes and Consequences of Social Loafing," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 37 (1978), pp. 822–32.

[]

[] John M. George, "Extrinsic and Intrinsic Origins of Perceived Social Loafing in Organizations," Academy of Management Journal (March 1992), pp. 191–202; and W. Jack Duncan, "Why Some People Loaf in Groups While Others Loaf Alone," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 8 (1994), pp. 79–80.

[]

[] See Marvin E. Shaw, Group Dynamics: The Psychology of Small Group Behavior, 2d ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976); Harold J. Leavitt, "Suppose We Took Groups More Seriously," in Eugene L. Cass and Frederick G. Zimmer, eds., Man and Work in Society (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975), pp. 67–77.

[]

[] For insights on how to conduct effective meetings, see Mary A. De Vries, How to Run a Meeting (New York: Penguin, 1994).

[]

[] Developed from Eric Matson, "The Seven Sins of Deadly Meetings," Fast Company (April/May 1996).

[]

[] Survey reported in "Meetings among Top Ten Time Wasters," San Francisco Business Times (April 7, 2003): www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/stories/2003/04/07/daily21.html.

[]

[] Matson, op. cit., p. 122.

[]

[] The "linking pin" concept is introduced in Rensis Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962).

[]

[] See Susan D. Van Raalte, "Preparing the Task Force to Get Good Results," S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, vol. 47 (Winter 1982), pp. 11–16; Walter Kiechel III, "The Art of the Corporate Task Force," Fortune (January 28, 1991), pp. 104–6.

[]

[] Information from Jenny C. McCune, "Making Lemonade," Management Review (June 1997), pp. 49–53.

[]

[] Matt Golosinski, "With Teamwork, Gregg Steinhafel Hits the Bulls Eye at Target," Kellogg (Summer 2007), p. 32.

[]

[] For a good discussion of quality circles, see Edward E. Lawler III and Susan A. Mohrman, "Quality Circles after the Fad," Harvard Business Review, vol. 63 (January/February 1985), pp. 65–71.

[]

[] See Wayne F. Cascio, "Managing a Virtual Workplace," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 14 (2000), pp. 81–90; Sheila Simsarian Webber, "Virtual Teams: A Meta-Analysis," http://www.shrm.org/foundation/findings.asp; Stacie A. Furst, Martha Reeves, Benson Rosen, and Richard S. Blackburn, "Managing the Life Cycle of Virtual Teams," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 18 (2004), pp. 6–20; and, J. Richard Hackman and Nancy Katz, "Group Behavior and Performance," Chapter 32 (pp. 1208-1251) in Susan T. Fiske, Daniel T. Gilbert, and Gardner Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, Fifth Edition (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010).

[]

[] Example from Phred Dvorak, "How Teams Can Work Well Together from Far Apart," Wall Street Journal (September 17, 2007), p. B4.

[]

[] William M. Bulkeley, "Computerizing Dull Meetings Is Touted as an Antidote to the Mouth That Bored," Wall Street Journal (January 28, 1992), pp. B1, B2.

[]

[] R. Brent Gallupe and William H. Cooper, "Brainstorming Electronically," Sloan Management Review (Winter 1997), pp. 11–21; Cascio, op. cit; Hackman and Katz, op. cit.

[]

[] Cascio, op. cit.; Furst et al., op. cit.

[]

[] See, for example, Paul S. Goodman, Rukmini Devadas, and Terri L. Griffith Hughson, "Groups and Productivity: Analyzing the Effectiveness of Self-Managing Teams," Chapter 11 in John R. Campbell and Richard J. Campbell, Productivity in Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988); Jack Orsbrun, Linda Moran, Ed Musslewhite, and John H. Zenger, with Craig Perrin, Self-Directed Work Teams: The New American Challenge (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1990); Dale E. Yeatts and Cloyd Hyten, High Performing Self-Managed Work Teams (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997).

[]

[] Bradley L. Kirkman and Debra L. Shapiro, "The Impact of Cultural Values on Employee Resistance to Teams: Toward a Model of Globalized Self-Managing Work Team Effectiveness," Academy of Management Review, vol. 22 (1997), pp. 730–57.

[]

[] Edgar Schein, Process Consultation (Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1988), pp. 69–75.

[]

[] A good overview is William D. Dyer, Team-Building (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977).

[]

[] Dennis Berman, "Zap! Pow! Splat!" BusinessWeek, Enterprise issue (February 9, 1998), p. ENT22.

[]

[] For a discussion of effectiveness in the context of top management teams, see Edward E. Lawler III, David Finegold, and Jay A. Conger, "Corporate Boards: Developing Effectiveness at the Top," in Mohrman, op. cit. (1998), pp. 23–50.

[]

[] Quote from Alex Markels, "Money & Business," U.S. News online (October 22, 2006).

[]

[] For a review of research on group effectiveness, see J. Richard Hackman, "The Design of Work Teams," in Jay W. Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987), pp. 315–42; and J. Richard Hackman, Ruth Wageman, Thomas M. Ruddy, and Charles L. Ray, "Team Effectiveness in Theory and Practice," Chapter 5 in Cary L. Cooper and Edwin A. Locke, Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory with Practice (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000).

[]

[] Ibid; Lawler et al., op. cit., 1998; Linda Hill and Michel J. Anteby, "Analyzing Work Groups," Harvard Business School, 9-407-032 (August 2007).

[]

[] Example from "Designed for Interaction," Fortune (January 8, 2001), p. 150.

[]

[] See, for example, Lynda Gratton and Tamara J. Erickson, "Eight Ways to Build Collaborative Teams," Harvard Business Review, Reprint R0711F (November 2007).

[]

[] Information from Susan Carey, "Racing to Improve," Wall Street Journal (March 24, 2006). pp. B1, B6.

[]

[] Robert D. Hof, "Amazon's Risky Bet," BusinessWeek (November 13, 2006), p. 52.

[]

[] Information from Carol Hymowitz, "Managers Err If They Limit Their Hiring to People Just Like Them," Wall Street Journal (October 12, 2004), p. B1.

[]

[] Casey Stengel, www.quotegarden.com.

[]

[] Shaw, op. cit.

[]

[] See Warren Watson, "Cultural Diversity's Impact on Interaction Process and Performance," Academy of Management Journal, vol. 16 (1993); Christopher Earley and Elaine Mosakowski, "Creating Hybrid Team Structures: An Empirical Test of Transnational Team Functioning," Academy of Management Journal, vol. 5 (February 2000), pp. 26–49; Jeanne Brett, Kristin Behfar, and Mary C. Kern, "Managing Multicultural Teams," Harvard Business Review (November 2006), pp. 84–91.

[]

[] J. Steven Heinen and Eugene Jacobson, "A Model of Task Group Development in Complex Organizations and a Strategy of Implementation," Academy of Management Review, vol. 1 (1976), pp. 98–111; Bruce W. Tuckman, "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups," Psychological Bulletin, vol. 63 (1965), pp. 384–99; Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, "Stages of SmallGroup Development Revisited," Group Organization Studies, vol. 2 (1977), pp. 419–27.

[]

[] See, for example, Edgar Schein, Process Consultation (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1988); and Linda C. McDermott, Nolan Brawley, and William A. Waite, World-Class Teams: Working across Borders (New York: Wiley, 1998).

[]

[] For a good discussion, see Robert F. Allen and Saul Pilnick, "Confronting the Shadow Organization: How to Detect and Defeat Negative Norms," Organizational Dynamics (Spring 1973), pp. 13–16.

[]

[] See Schein, op. cit., pp. 76–79.

[]

[] Ibid.; Shaw, op. cit.

[]

[] A classic work in this area is K. Benne and P. Sheets, "Functional Roles of Group Members," Journal of Social Issues, vol. 2 (1948), pp. 42–47; see also Likert, op. cit., pp. 166–69; Schein, op. cit., pp. 49–56.

[]

[] Based on John R. Schermerhorn Jr., James G. Hunt, and Richard N. Osborn, Organizational Behavior, 9th ed. (New York: Wiley, 2005).

[]

[] Research on communication networks is found in Alex Bavelas, "Communication Patterns in Task-Oriented Groups," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 22 (1950), pp. 725–30; Shaw, op. cit.

[]

[] See Victor H. Vroom and Arthur G. Jago, The New Leadership: Managing Participation in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988); Victor H. Vroom, "A New Look in Managerial Decision-Making," Organizational Dynamics (Spring 1973), pp. 66–80; Victor H. Vroom and Phillip Yetton, Leadership and Decision-Making (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973).

[]

[] Norman F. Maier, "Assets and Liabilities in Group Problem Solving," Psychological Review, vol. 74 (1967), pp. 239–49.

[]

[] Schein, op. cit.

[]

[] See Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, Jean L. Kahwajy, and L. J. Bourgeois III, "How Management Teams Can Have a Good Fight," Harvard Business Review (July–August 1997), pp. 77–85.

[]

[] Consensus box developed from a classic article by Jay Hall, "Decisions, Decisions, Decisions," Psychology Today (November 1971), pp. 55–56.

[]

[] See Maier, op. cit.

[]

[] See Irving L. Janis, "Groupthink," Psychology Today (November 1971), pp. 43–46; Victims of Groupthink, 2d ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982).

[]

[] These techniques are well described in Andre L. Delbecq, Andrew H. Van de Ven, and David H. Gustafson, Group Techniques for Program Planning (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1975).

[]

[] Information and quote from Emily Maltby, "Boring Meetings? Get Out the Water Guns," Wall Street Journal (January 7, 2010), p. B5.

[]

[] Information from Kelly K. Spors, "Productive Brainstorms Take the Right Mix of Elements," Wall Street Journal (July 28, 2008): www.wsj.online.com.

[]

[] Delbecq et al., op. cit.

[]

[] Developed from Lynda McDermott, Nolan Brawley, and William Waite, World-Class Teams: Working across Borders (New York: Wiley, 1998).

[]

[] Adapted from William Dyer, Team Building, 2nd ed. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1987), pp. 123–25.

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—For research see Bib Latané, Kipling Williams, and Stephen Harkins, "Many Hands Make Light the Work: The Causes and Consequences of Social Loafing," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 37 (1978), pp. 822–32; and W. Jack Duncan, "Why Some People Loaf in Groups and Others Loaf Alone," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 8 (1994), pp. 79–80.

Photo Essay Notes

Teamwork and Productivity—Survey data reported in "Two Wasted Days at Work," CNNMoney.com (March 16, 2005): www.cnnmoney.com. Reality Team Building—Information from Reena Jana, "Real Life Imitates Real World," BusinessWeek (March 23 & 30, 2009), p. 42. Amazon.com—Information and quotes from Robert D. Hof, "Amazon's Risky Bet," BusinessWeek (November 13, 2006), p. 52; Jon Neale, "Jeff Bezos," BusinessWings (February 16, 2007): www.businesswings.com.uk;" Alan Deutschman, "Inside the Mind of Jeff Bezos," Fast Company (December 19, 2007); www.fastcompany.com/magazine/85.

Chapter 17

Endnotes

[]

[] Information from American Management Association. "The Passionate Organization Fast-Response Survey," September 25–29, 2000, and organization website: http://www.amanct.org/aboutama/index.htm.

[]

[] Data from "Is the Workplace Getting Raunchier?" BusinessWeek (March 17, 2008), p. 19.

[]

[] "Cultivating Personal Awareness," Bi z Ed (May/June 2009), p. 26.

[]

[] "Ranking the Attributes," Wall Street Journal (September 20, 2006), p. R3.

[]

[] "Relationships Are the Most Powerful Form of Media," Fast Company (March 2001), p. 100.

[]

[] Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper-Row, 1973).

[]

[] John P. Kotter, "What Effective General Managers Really Do," Harvard Business Review, vol. 60 (November–December 1982), pp. 156–57; and The General Managers (New York: Macmillan, 1986).

[]

[] Examples and quotes from BusinessWeek (July 8, 1991), pp. 60–61; www.ccl.org/leadership/programs/profiles/lisaDitullio. aspx (retrieved August 12, 2008); and, Joe Walker, "Executives Learn New Skills to Improve their Communication," The Wall Street Journal (May 6, 2010), p. B3.

[]

[] Jay A. Conger, Winning 'Em Over: A New Model for Managing in the Age of Persuasion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), pp. 24–79.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] BusinessWeek (February 10, 1992), pp. 102–8.

[]

[] Information and quotes from "Undercover Boss Gets the Communication Message," Financial Times (June 9, 2009).

[]

[] Tom Peters and Nancy Austin, A Passion for Excellence (New York: Random House, 1985); and, "Epigrams and Insights from the original Modern Guru," Financial Times, Kindle Edition (March 4, 2010). See also Tom Peters, The Little Big Things: 163 Ways to Pursue EXCELLENCE (New York: HarperStudio, 2010).

[]

[] See Robert H. Lengel and Richard L. Daft, "The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 2 (August 1988), pp. 225–32.

[]

[] Information from Sam Dillon, "What Corporate America Can't Build: A Sentence," New York Times (December 7, 2004).

[]

[] See Eric Matson, "Now That We Have Your Complete Attention," Fast Company (February–March 1997), pp. 124–32.

[]

[] Martin J. Gannon, Paradoxes of Culture and Globalization (Los Angeles: Sage, 2008), p. 76.

[]

[] David McNeill, Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).

[]

[] Adapted from Richard V. Farace, Peter R. Monge, and Hamish M. Russell, Communicating and Organizing (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977), pp. 97–98.

[]

[] Information from Carol Hymowitz, "More American Chiefs Are Taking Top Posts at Overseas Concerns," Wall Street Journal (October 17, 2005), p. B1.

[]

[] Examples reported in Martin J. Gannon, Paradoxes of Culture and Globalization (Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2008), p. 80.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Information from Ben Brown, "Atlanta Out to Mind Its Manners," USA Today (March 14, 1996), p. 7.

[]

[] See Edward T. Hall, The Silent Language (New York: Doubleday, 1973).

[]

[] Information and quotes from Adam Bryant, "Creating Trust by Destroying Hierarchy," The Global Edition of the New York Times (Febraury 15, 2010), p. 19.

[]

[] Nanette Byrnes, "A Steely Resolve," BusinessWeek (April 6, 2009), p. 54.

[]

[] Information and quote from Kelly K. Spors, "Top Small Workplaces 2009," Wall Street Journal (September 28, 2009), pp. R1–R4.

[]

[] See for example John Freeman, The Tyranny of E-mail (New York: Scribner, 2009).

[]

[] See Lengel and Daft, op. cit. (1988).

[]

[] Information and quotes from Sarah E. Needleman, "Thnx for the IView! I Wud Luv to Work 4 U!!)," Wall Street Journal Online (July 31, 2008).

[]

[] For a review of legal aspects of e-mail privacy, see William P. Smith and Filiz Tabak, "Monitoring Employee E-mails: Is There Any Room for Privacy?" Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 23 (November 2009), pp. 33–48.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Michelle Conlin and Douglas MacMillan, "Managing the Tweets," BusinessWeek (June 1, 2009), pp. 20–21.

[]

[] "Tread: Rethinking the Workplace," BusinessWeek (September 25, 2006), p. IN.

[]

[] Information from "'Roberts' Quits Rumor Only a Class Exercise," The Columbus Dispatch (March 6, 2010), p. A5.

[]

[] Conlin and MacMillan, op. cit.

[]

[] Stephanie Clifford, "Video Prank at Domino's Taints Brand," New York Times (April 16, 2009): www.nytimes.com; and, Deborah Stead, "An Unwelcome Delivery," BusinessWeek (May 4, 2009), p. 15.

[]

[] This discussion is based on Carl R. Rogers and Richard E. Farson, "Active Listening" (Chicago: Industrial Relations Center of the University of Chicago, n.d.); see also Carl R. Rogers and Fritz J. Roethlisberger, "Barriers and Gateways to Communication," Harvard Business Review (November–December 2001), Reprint 91610.

[]

[] Ibid.

[]

[] Sue de Wine, The Consultant's Craft (Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's Press, 2001), pp. 307–14.

[]

[] A useful source of guidelines is John J. Gabarro and Linda A. Hill, "Managing Performance," Note 996022 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, n.d.).

[]

[] Carol Hymowitz, "Managers See Feedback from Their Staffers as Most Valuable," Wall Street Journal (August 22, 2000), p. B1.

[]

[] Developed from John Anderson, "Giving and Receiving Feedback," in Paul R. Lawrence, Louis B. Barnes, and Jay W. Lorsch, eds., Organizational Behavior and Administration, 3rd ed. (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1976), p. 109.

[]

[] A classic work on proxemics is Edward T. Hall's book, The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1986).

[]

[] Information from Rachel Metz, "Office Décor First Change by New AOI Executive," Columbus Dispatch (May 25, 2009), p. A7.

[]

[] Mirand Weill, "Alternative Spaces Spawning Desk-Free Zones," Columbus Dispatch (May 18, 1998), pp. 10–11.

[]

[] "Tread: Rethinking the Workplace."

[]

[] Amy Saunders, "A Creative Approach to Work," Columbus Dispatch (May 2, 2008), pp. C1, C9.

[]

[] Richard E. Walton, Interpersonal Peacemaking: Confrontations and Third-Party Consultation (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1969), p. 2.

[]

[] See Robert R. Blake and Jane Strygley Mouton, "The Fifth Achievement," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, vol. 6 (1970), pp. 413–27; Alan C. Filley, Interpersonal Conflict Resolution (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1975).

[]

[] Developed from Alan C. Filley, Interpersonal Conflict Resolution (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1975).

[]

[] See Kenneth W. Thomas, "Conflict and Conflict Management," in M. D. Dunnett, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Behavior (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), pp. 889–935.

[]

[] See, for example, Robert Moskowitz, "How to Negotiate and Increase," www.worktree.com (retrieved March 8, 2007); Mark Gordon, "Negotiating What You're Worth," Harvard Management Communication Letter, vol. 2, no. 1 (Winter 2005); and Dona DeZube, "Salary Negotiation Know-How," www.monster.com (retrieved March 8, 2007).

[]

[] Portions of this treatment of negotiation originally adapted from John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., James G. Hunt, and Richard N. Osborn, Managing Organizational Behavior, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1991), pp. 382–87. Used by permission.

[]

[] See Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes: NegotiatingAgreement Without Giving In (New York: Penguin, 1983); James A. Wall, Jr., Negotiation: Theory and Practice (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1985); William L. Ury, Jeanne M. Brett, and Stephen B. Goldberg, Getting Disputes Resolved (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997).

[]

[] Fisher and Ury, op. cit.

[]

[] Matson, op. cit.

[]

[] Example from Bert Spector, "An Interview with Roger Fisher and William Ury," Academy of Management Executive, vol. 18 (2004), pp. 101–12.

[]

[] Fisher and Ury, op. cit..

[]

[] Developed from Max H. Bazerman, Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1998), Chapter 7.

[]

[] Fisher and Ury, op. cit.

[]

[] "A Classes Grapher's Care," Kellogg (Summer 2006), p. 40.

[]

[] Roy J. Lewicki and Joseph A. Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1985).

[]

[] This instrument is described in Carsten K. W. De Drew, Arne Evers, Bianca Beersma, Esther S. Kluwer, and Aukje Nauta, "A Theory-Based Measure of Conflict Management Strategies in the Workplace," Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 22 (2001), pp. 645–68. Used by permission.

[]

[] Feedback questionnaire is from Judith R. Gordon, A Diagnostic Approach to Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991), p. 298. Used by permission.

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—Information from Bridget Jones, Blogger Fire Fury, CNN.com (July 19, 2006).

Real People—Information and quotes from Anya Kamenetz, "Will NPR Save the News?" Fast Company (March 18, 2009): www.Fastcompany.com.

Photo Essay Notes

Sam Walton—Quotations from John Huey, "America's Most Successful Merchant," Fortune (September 23, 1991), pp. 46–59; see also Sam Walton and John Huey, Sam Walton: Made in America: My Story (New York: Bantam Books, 1993). Hammond's Candies—Information and quotes from Teri Evans, "Entrepreneurs Seek to Elicit Workers' Ideas," Wall Street Journal (December 29, 2009), p. B7.

Electronic Privacy—Information from American Management Association, "Electronic Monitoring & Surveillance Survey" (February 8, 2008): www.press.amanet.org/press-releases; and Liz Wolgemuth, "Why Web Surfing is a Nonproblem, U.S. News & World Report (August 22, 2008): www.usnews.com/blogs.

Chapter 18

Endnotes

[]

[] Quotes from, "Chick-fil-A Reaches 20,000th Scholarship Milestone" (July 28, 2005), Chick-fil-A press release: www.csrwire.com; Daniel Yee, "Chick-fil-A Recipe Winning Customers," Columbus Dispatch (September 9, 2006), p. D1; Tom Murphy, "Chick-fil-A plans aggressive product rollout initiatives," Rocky Mount Telegram (May 28, 2008), retrieved from: www.rockymounttelegram.com; and Robert D. Reid, "Ethical Business Leadership in Action," BGS International Exchange, Vol. 7 (Summer, 2008), pp. 14, 15.

[]

[] Information from Beth Howard, "The Secrets of Resilient People," AARP (November–December 2009), pp. 26, 37; Resiliency Quick Test developed from "How Resilient Are You?" AARP (November–December 2009), p. 37.

[]

[] The problems with quality and product recalls with Toyota were widely described in the news media during January/ February 2010. See, for example, Sharon Terlep and Josh Mitchell, "U.S. Widens Toyota Probe to Electronics," Wall Street Journal (February 4, 2010), pp. B1, B12.

[]

[] Quote from "An Open Letter to Toyota Customers," Columbus Dispatch (February 4, 2010), p. A12.

[]

[] Quote from Gary Hamel, "Today's Companies Won't Make It, and Why?" Fortune (September 4, 2000), p. 386.

[]

[] "The Renewal Factor: Friendly Fact, Congenial Controls," BusinessWeek (September 14, 1987), p. 105.

[]

[] Rob Cross and Lloyd Baird, "Technology Is Not Enough: Improving Performance by Building Institutional Memory," Sloan Management Review (Spring 2000), p. 73.

[]

[] Information from Pep Sappal, "Integrated Inclusion Initiative," Wall Street Journal (October 3, 2006), p. A2.

[]

[] Based on discussion by Harold Koontz and Cryril O'Donnell, Essentials of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974), pp. 362–65; see also Cross and Baird, op. cit.

[]

[] See John F. Love, McDonald's: Behind the Arches (New York: Bantam Books, 1986); Ray Kroc and Robert Anderson, Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990).

[]

[] Information and quote from Gregg Segal, "Hyundai Smokes the Competition," Financial Times (January 5, 2010).

[]

[] Information from Jay Miller, "Toyota Halts Sales," Wall Street Journal (January 27, 2010), p. B2.

[]

[] This distinction is made in William G. Ouchi, "Markets, Bureaucracies and Clans," Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 25 (1980), pp. 129–41.

[]

[] Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960).

[]

[] See Sue Shellenbarger, "If You Need to Work Better, Maybe Try Working Less," Wall Street Journal (Septermber 23, 2009), p. D1.

[]

[] Examples from Alan Cane, "Are Virtual Offices a Benefit or Burden? Irish Times (July 14, 2006), p. 12.

[]

[] For an overview, see www.soxlaw.com

[]

[] Martin LaMonica, "Wal-Mart Readies Long-Term Move Into Solar Power," CNET News.com (January 3, 2007).

[]

[] Information from Leon E. Wynter, "Allstate Rates Managers on Handling Diversity," Wall Street Journal (October 1, 1997), p. B1.

[]

[] Information from Kathryn Kranhold, "U.S. Firms Raise Ethics Focus," Wall Street Journal (November 28, 2005), p. B4.

[]

[] Example from George Anders, "Management Guru Turns Focus to Orchestras, Hospitals," Wall Street Journal (November 21, 2005), pp. B1, B5.

[]

[] Information from Raju Narisetti, "For IBM, a Groundbreaking Sales Chief," Wall Street Journal (January 19, 1998), pp. B1, B5.

[]

[] The "hot stove rules" are developed from R. Bruce McAfee and William Poffenberger, Productivity Strategies: Enhancing Employee Job Performance (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982), pp. 54–55. They are originally attributed to Douglas McGregor, "Hot Stove Rules of Discipline," in G. Strauss and L. Sayles, eds., Personnel: The Human Problems of Management (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967).

[]

[] Information from Karen Carney, "Successful Performance Measurement: A Checklist," Harvard Management Update (No. U9911B), 1999.

[]

[] Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, "The Balanced Scorecard: Measures That Drive Performance," Harvard Business Review (July–August 2005); see also Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, The Balanced Scorecard (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996).

[]

[] Developed from Roy J. Lewicki, Donald D. Bowen, Douglas T. Hall, and Francine S. Hall, Experiences in Management and Organizational Behavior, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1997), pp. 195–97.

Feature Notes

Real People—Information and quotes from "Who's Who on Obama's New Economic Advisory Board," LATimesBlog (February 6, 2009): www.latimesblogs.latimes.com; "'Diversify' Isn't Just Smart Financial Advice," BlackMBA (Winter, 2008/2009), p. 54; "Black Enterprise Announces 100 Most Powerful African Americans in Corporate America," Press Release (February 5, 2009): TIAA-CREF CEO Roger Ferguson Outlines Measures to Improve Retirement Security, www.tiaa-cref.org (February 3, 2010): accessed May 8, 2010.

Real Ethics—Paul Davidson, "'Climate Has Changed' for Data Privacy," USA Today (May 12, 2006), p. B1; Ben Elgin, "The Great Firewall of China," BusinessWeek (January 23, 2006), pp. 32–34; Alison Maitland, "Skype Says Text Messages Censored by Partner in China," Financial Times (April 19, 2006), p. 15; and, "Web Firms Criticized Over China," CNN.com (July 20, 2006).

Photo Essay Notes

Elsewhere Class—Information from Dalton Conley, "Welcome to Elsewhere," Newsweek (January 26, 2009), pp. 25–26. Wikipedia—Information and quotes from Richard Waters, "Fact and Friction," Financial Times (January 2, 2010). See also Andrew Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobody's Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia (New York: Hyperion, 2009).

Employee Fraud—Information from Sarah E. Needleman, "Businesses Say Theft by Their Workers Is Up," Wall Street Journal (December 11, 2008), p. B8; Michelle Conlin, "To Catch a Corporate Thief," Business Week (February 16, 2009), p. 52; and Simona Covel, "Small Businesses Face More Fraud in Downturn," Wall Street Journal (February 19, 2009), p. B5.

Chapter 19

Endnotes

[]

[] Christina Passariello, "Louis Vuitton Tries Modern Methods on Assembly Line," Wall Street Journal (October 9, 2006).

[]

[] Mayo Clinic information from "Work–Life Balance: Ways to Restore Harmony and Reduce Stress," www.mayoclinic.com/heal/work-lifebalance (retrieved August 14, 2008).

[]

[] Examples from Gail Edmondson, "BMW's Dream Factory," BusinessWeek (October 16, 2006), pp. 68–80. Amy Merrick, "Asking 'What Would Ann Do?'" Wall Street Journal (September 16, 2006), pp. B1, B2.

[]

[] Information and quotes from Mark Yost, "At Ford Racing, Quality (Control) Is Job One," Wall Street Journal (February 4, 2010), p. D8.

[]

[] Good overviews are available in R. Dan Reid and Nada R. Sanders, Operations Management: An Integrated Approach, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wileys, 2006); and Roberta S. Russell and Bernard W. Taylor III, Operations Management: Quality and Competitiveness in a Global Environment (Hoboken, N J: Wiley, 2005).

[]

[] "Survey Finds Workers Average Only Three Productive Days Per Week," www.microsoft.com/press/2005/mar05 (retrieved October 20, 2006).

[]

[] See Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (New York: Free Press, 1998) and Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (New York: Free Press, 1990); see also Richard A. D'Aveni, Hyper-Competition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Maneuvering (New York: Free Press, 1994).

[]

[] Information from ibid.

[]

[] Information and quote from Jonathan Wheatley, "Promise of Growth Lures Carmakers," Financial Times (January 21, 2010). Kindle Edition.

[]

[] Joan Woodward, Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice (London: Oxford University Press, 1965; republished by Oxford University Press, 1994).

[]

[] Ian Rowley and Makiko Kitamura, "Autos: Why Japan's B-Team Is Hot," BusinessWeek (December 28, 2009 and January 4, 2010), p. 33.

[]

[] Brian Hindo, "Everything Old Is New Again," BusinessWeek (September 25, 2006), p. 70.

[]

[] See for example, Kenji Hall, "No One Does Lean Like the Japanese," BusinessWeek (July 10, 2006), pp. 40–41.

[]

[] This treatment is from James D. Thompson, Organizations in Action (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).

[]

[] Porter, op. cit., 1998.

[]

[] See, for example, Daniel Michaels and Peter Sanders, "Dreamliner Production Gets Closer Monitoring," Wall Street Journal (October 7, 2009), pp. B1, B2; and Peter Sanders, "Boeing Settles in for a Bumpy Ride," Wall Street Journal (October 7, 2009), p. B1.

[]

[] See Michael Hugos, Essentials of Supply Chain Management, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006).

[]

[] "Gauging the Wal-Mart Effect," Wall Street Journal (December 3–4, 2005), pp. Al, A9.

[]

[] See Joseph M. Juran, Quality Control Handbook, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979) and "The Quality Trilogy: A Universal Approach to Managing for Quality," in Total Quality Management, H. Costin, ed. (New York: Dryden, 1994); W. Edwards Deming, Out of Crisis (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986) and "Deming's Quality Manifesto," Best of Business Quarterly, vol. 12 (Winter 1990–1991), pp. 6–10. See also Howard S. Gitlow and Shelly J. Gitlow, The Deming Guide to Quality and Competitive Position (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987), and Juran, op. cit. (1993).

[]

[] Rosabeth Moss Kanter, "Transcending Business Boundaries: 12,000 World Managers View Change," Harvard Business Review (May–June 1991), pp. 151–64.

[]

[] Dale Dauten, "Which One Would You Rather Be?" St. Louis Dispatch (October 8, 2006), p. C2.

[]

[] Information from Brian Hindo, "Satisfaction Not Guaranteed," BusinessWeek (June 19, 2006), pp. 32–38.

[]

[] See C. K. Prahalad, Patricia B. Ramaswamy, Jon R. Katzenbach, Chris Lederer, and Sam Hill, Harvard Business Review on Customer Relationship Management (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1998–2001).

[]

[] Information from "How Marriott Never Forgets a Guest," BusinessWeek (February 21, 2000), p. 74.

[]

[] Example and quote from Jena McGregor, "Customer Service Champs," BusinessWeek (March 3, 2008), pp. 37–42.

[]

[] For the classics, see W. Edwards Deming, Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982) and Juran, op. cit., 1979.

[]

[] http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/factsheet/baldfaqs.htm.

[]

[] See Edward E. Lawler III, Susan Albers Mohrman, and Gerald E. Ledford Jr., Employee Involvement and Total Quality Management: Practices and Results in Fortune 1000 Companies (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992).

[]

[] Rafael Aguay, Dr. Deming: The American Who Taught the Japanese about Quality (New York: Free Press, 1997); W. Edwards Deming, op. cit. (1986).

[]

[] For the pros and cons of this approach see "Six Sigma: So Yesterday?" BusinessWeek (June 2007), Special Edition, p. IN 11.

[]

[] Michael Hammer, Beyond Reengineering (New York: Harper Business, 1997).

[]

[] Michael Hammer and James Champy, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution, rev. ed. (New York: Harper Business, 1999).

[]

[] Hammer, op. cit., p. 5; see also the discussion of processes in Gary Hamel, Leading the Revolution (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000).

[]

[] Thomas M. Koulopoulos, The Workflow Imperative (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995); Hammer, op. cit.

[]

[] Ronni T. Marshak, "Workflow Business Process Reengineering," special advertising section, Fortune (1997).

[]

[] A similar example is found in Hammer, op. cit., pp. 9, 10.

[]

[] Developed in part from "Quiz: How's Your Maths?" BBC News: newsvote.bbc.co.uk (retrieved August 15, 2008).

[]

[] Adapted from Bonnie McNeely, "Using the Tinker Toy Exercise to Teach the Four Functions of Management, Journal of Management Education, vol. 18, no. 4 (November 1994), pp. 468–72.

Feature Notes

Real Ethics—Information and quotes from Susan Chandler, "'Fair Trade' Label Enters Retail Market," Columbus Dispatch (October 16, 2006), p. G6; www.fairindigo.com/about.

Real People—Information and quotes from Dan Gearino, "Managing Change," Columbus Dispatch (January 24, 2010), p. D1; http://www.allpar.com/corporate/cerberus/kidder.html (accessed January 26, 2010).

Photo Essay Notes

Racing Engines—Information and quotes from Mark Yost, "At Ford Racing, Quality (Control) Is Job One," Wall Street Journal (February 4, 2010), p. D8. Dr. Devi Shetty—Information and quote from Geeta Anand, "The Henry Ford of Heart Surgery," Wall Street Journal (November 21-22, 2009), pp. A1, A12. Ryanair—Information from Daniel Michaels, "O'Leary Pilots Ryanair into Lead with 'Mad' Ideas for Cost Cuts," Wall Street Journal (December 9, 2009), p. B1.

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