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Urinary Calculi

Urinary calculi (urolithiasis, kidney stones) can result from immobility, cancer, increased intake of vitamin D, or overactivity of the parathyroid. Urinary calculi are more common in men, particularly in those 30–50 years of age, and occur in all age groups with greater frequency in the spring and summer months. Kidney stones are more commonly made up of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, or oxalate.

Symptoms associated with kidney stones include


  

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