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Part I: Exam Preparation > Care of the Client with Immunological Disorders

Chapter 12. Care of the Client with Immunological Disorders

A number of body systems serve to protect the body against pathogens. These include the skin, mucous membrane, cilia in the lungs, saliva, hydrochloric acid in the stomach, flushing action of urinary flow in the renal system, and lower pH in the reproductive system. When there is a threat to the normal cellular function, the immune system responds. Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated immune response by an otherwise normal immune system that is caused by exposure to medications, pet dander, foods, or other allergens. When exposure occurs, the body responds with bronchial spasms, wheezing, rhinorrhea, and urticaria. Treatment of allergies includes the use of antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), cetirizine hcl (Zyrtec), Loratidine (Claritin), steroid preparations, and others. Immunoglobulin titers and skin testing can be done to determine the degree of response and the allergen responsible for the reaction.

There are other types of reactions. The Gell and Coombs Classification of Hypersensitivity Reactions is a method of classifying allergic response into four types of reactions:


  

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