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Answers and Rationales

  1. Answer A is correct. Removal of the pituitary gland is usually done by a transphenoidal approach, through the nose. Nasal congestion further interferes with the airway. Answers B, C, and D are not correct because they are not directly associated with the pituitary gland.

  2. Answer B is correct. Hypokalemia is evident from the lab values listed. The other laboratory findings are within normal limits, making answers A, C, and D incorrect.

  3. Answer A is correct. The primary responsibility of the nurse is to take the vital signs before any surgery. The actions in answers B, C, and D are the responsibility of the doctor and, therefore, are incorrect for this question.

  4. Answer B is correct. The client with burns to the neck needs airway assessment and supplemental oxygen, so applying oxygen is the priority. The next action should be to start an IV and medicate for pain, making answers A and C incorrect. Answer D, obtaining blood gases, is ordered by the doctor.

  5. Answer C is correct. Fosamax should be taken with water only. The client should also remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking the medication. Answers A, B, and D are not applicable to taking Fosamax and, thus, are incorrect.

  6. Answer B is correct. A torque wrench is kept at the bedside to tighten and loosen the screws of crutchfield tongs. This wrench controls the amount of pressure that is placed on the screws. A pair of forceps, wire cutters, and a screwdriver, in answers A, C, and D, would not be used and, thus, are incorrect.

  7. Answer D is correct. A birth weight of 7 pounds would indicate 21 pounds in 1 year, or triple his birth weight. Answers A, B, and C therefore are incorrect.

  8. Answer D is correct. Sarcoma is a type of bone cancer; therefore, bone pain would be expected. Answers A, B, and C are not specific to this type of cancer and are incorrect.

  9. Answer C is correct. Tegretol can suppress the bone marrow and decrease the white blood cell count; thus, a lab value of WBC 2,000 per cubic millimeter indicates side effects of the drug. Answers A and D are within normal limits, and answer B is a lower limit of normal; therefore answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  10. Answer C is correct. The least-helpful questions are those describing his usual diet. A, B, and D are useful in determining the extent of disease process and, thus, are incorrect.

  11. Answer C is correct. The client with diverticulitis should avoid foods with seeds. The foods in answers A, B, and D are allowed; in fact, bran cereal and fruit will help prevent constipation.

  12. Answer D is correct. The client with a perineal resection will have a perineal incision. Drains will be used to facilitate wound drainage. This will help prevent infection of the surgical site. The client will not have an illeostomy, as in answer A; he will have some electrolyte loss, but treatment is not focused on preventing the loss, so answer B is incorrect. A high-fiber diet, in answer C, is not ordered at this time.

  13. Answer C is correct. The client with diverticulitis should avoid eating foods that are gas forming and that increase abdominal discomfort, such as cooked broccoli. Foods such as those listed in answers A, B, and D are allowed.

  14. Answer D is correct. After birth, meconium stool, loss of extracellular fluid, and initiation of breastfeeding cause the infant to lose body mass. There is no evidence to indicate dehydration, hypoglycemia, or allergy to the infant formula; thus, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.

  15. Answer C is correct. Diarrhea is not common in clients with mouth and throat cancer. All the findings in answers A, B, and D are expected findings.

  16. Answer A is correct. The client with a lung resection will have chest tubes and a drainage-collection device. He probably will not have a tracheostomy or medicastenal tube, and he will not have an order for percussion, vibration, or drainage. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  17. Answer A is correct. A swelling over the right parietal area is a cephalohematoma, an area of bleeding outside the cranium. This type of hematoma does not cross the suture line because it is outside the cranium but beneath the periosteum. Answer B, molding, is overlapping of the bones of the cranium and, thus, incorrect. In answer C, a subdural hematoma, or intracranial bleeding, is ominous and can be seen only on a CAT scan or x-ray. A caput succedaneum, in answer D, crosses the suture line and is edema.

  18. Answer C is correct. The client with an internal defibrillator should learn to use any battery-operated machinery on the opposite side. He should also take his pulse rate and report dizziness or fainting. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because the client can eat food prepared in the microwave, move his shoulder on the affected side, and fly in an airplane.

  19. Answer A is correct. Suctioning can cause a vagal response and bradycardia. Answer B is unlikely and, therefore, not most important, although it can occur. Answers C and D can occur as well, but they are less likely.

  20. Answer C is correct. The assessment that is most crucial to the client is the identification of peripheral pulses because the aorta is clamped during surgery. This decreases blood circulation to the kidneys and lower extremities. The nurse must also assess for the return of circulation to the lower extremities. Answer A is of lesser concern, answer B is not advised at this time, and answer D is of lesser concern than answer A.

  21. Answer B is correct. Portions of the exam are painful, especially when the sample is being withdrawn, so this should be included in the session with the client. Answer A is incorrect because the client will be positioned prone, not in a sitting position, for the exam. Anesthesia is not commonly given before this test, making answer C incorrect. Answer D is incorrect because the client can eat and drink following the test.

  22. Answer C is correct. A red, beefy tongue is characteristic of the client with pernicious anemia. Answer A, a weight loss of 10 pounds in 2 weeks, is abnormal but is not seen in pernicious anemia. Numbness and tingling, in answer B, can be associated with anemia but are not particular to pernicious anemia. This is more likely associated with peripheral vascular diseases involving vasculature. In answer D, the hemoglobin is low normal.

  23. Answer C is correct. The client with a fractured femur will be placed in Buck’s traction to realign the leg and to decrease spasms and pain. The Trendelenburg position is the wrong position for this client, so answer A is incorrect. Ice might be ordered after repair, but not for the entire extremity, so answer B is incorrect. An abduction pillow is ordered after a total hip replacement, not for a fractured femur; therefore, answer D is incorrect.

  24. Answer B is correct. The client having an intravenous pyelogram will have orders for laxatives or enemas, so asking the client to void before the test is in order. A full bladder or bowel can obscure the visualization of the kidney ureters and urethra. In answers A, C, and D, there is no need to force fluids before the procedure, to withhold medications, or to cover the reproductive organs.

  25. Answer B is correct. Cancer in situ means that the cancer is still localized to the primary site. Cancer is graded in terms of tumor, grade, node involvement, and mestatasis. Answer A is incorrect because it is an untrue statement. Answer C is incorrect because T indicates tumor, not node involvement. Answer D is incorrect because a tumor that is in situ is not metastasized.

  26. Answer C is correct. If the client eviscerates, the abdominal content should be covered with a sterile saline-soaked dressing. Reinserting the content should not be the action and will require that the client return to surgery; thus, answer A is incorrect. Answers B and D are incorrect because they are not appropriate to this case.

  27. Answer B is correct. It is most important to remove the contact lenses because leaving them in can lead to corneal drying, particularly with contact lenses that are not extended-wear lenses. Leaving in the hearing aid or artificial eye will not harm the client. Leaving the wedding ring on is also allowed; usually, the ring is covered with tape. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  28. Answer A is correct. It is the responsibility of the physician to explain and clarify the procedure to the client. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because they are not within the nurse’s purview.

  29. Answer A is correct. Previous radiation to the neck might have damaged the parathyroid glands, which are located on the thyroid gland, and interfered with calcium and phosphorus regulation. Answer B has no significance to this case; answers C and D are more related to calcium only, not to phosphorus regulation.

  30. Answer B is correct. The client with serum sodium of 170meq/L has hypernatremia and might exhibit manic behavior. Answers A, C, and D are not associated with hypernatremia and are, therefore, incorrect.

  31. Answer B is correct. Frequent use of laxatives can lead to diarrhea and electrolyte loss. Answers A, C, and D are not of particular significance in this case and, therefore, are incorrect.

  32. Answer D is correct. Abnormal grieving is exhibited by a lack of feeling sad; if the client’s sister appears not to grieve, it might be abnormal grieving. This family member might be suppressing feelings of grief. Answers A, B, and C are all normal expressions of grief and, therefore, incorrect.

  33. Answer A is correct. If the nurse is exposed to the client with a cough, the best item to wear is a mask. If the answer had included a mask, gloves, and a gown, all would be appropriate, but in this case, only one item is listed; therefore, answers B and C are incorrect. Shoe covers are not necessary, so answer D is incorrect.

  34. Answer B is correct. Oils can be applied to help with the dry skin and to decrease itching, so adding baby oil to bath water is soothing to the skin. Answer A is incorrect because bathing twice a day is too frequent and can cause more dryness. Answer C is incorrect because powder is also drying. Rinsing with hot water, as stated in answer D, dries out the skin as well.

  35. Answer B is correct. The client with pancreatitis frequently has nausea and vomiting. Lavage is often used to decompress the stomach and rest the bowel, so the insertion of a Levine tube should be anticipated. Answers A and C are incorrect because blood pressures are not required every 15 minutes, and cardiac monitoring might be needed, but this is individualized to the client. Answer D is incorrect because there are no dressings to change on this client.

  36. Answer B is correct. Montgomery straps are used to secure dressings that require frequent dressing changes because the client with a cholecystectomy usually has a large amount of drainage on the dressing. Montgomery straps are also used for clients who are allergic to several types of tape. This client is not at higher risk of evisceration than other clients, so answer A is incorrect. Montgomery straps are not used to secure the drains, so answer C is incorrect. Sutures or clips are used to secure the wound of the client who has had gallbladder surgery, so answer D is incorrect.

  37. Answer D is correct. Intrathecal medications are administered into the cerebrospinal fluid. This method of administering medications is reserved for the client with metastases, the client with chronic pain, or the client with cerebrospinal infections. Answers A, B, and C are incorrect because intravenous, rectal, and intramuscular injections are entirely different procedures.

  38. Answer D is correct. The best client to assign to the newly licensed nurse is the most stable client; in this case, it is the client with diverticulitis. The client receiving chemotherapy and the client with a coronary bypass both need nurses experienced in these areas, so answers A and B are incorrect. Answer D is incorrect because the client with a transurethral prostatectomy might bleed, so this client should be assigned to a nurse who knows how much bleeding is within normal limits.

  39. Answer B is correct. The best action at this time is to report the incident to the charge nurse. Further action might be needed, but it should be determined by the charge nurse. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect because notifying the police is overreacting at this time, and monitoring or ignoring the situation is an inadequate response.

  40. Answer B is correct. The best action for the nurse to take is to explore the interaction with the nursing assistant. This will allow for clarification of the situation. Changing the assignment in answer A might need to be done, but talking to the nursing assistant is the first step. Answer C is incorrect because discussing the incident with the family is not necessary at this time; it might cause more problems. Answer C is not a first step, even though initiating a group session might be a plan for the future.

  41. Answer C is correct. The client with laryngeal cancer has a potential airway alteration and should be seen first. The clients in answers A, B, and D are not in immediate danger and can be seen later in the day.

  42. Answer A is correct. Bilirubin is excreted through the kidneys, thus the need for increased fluids. Maintaining the body temperature is important but will not assist in eliminating bilirubin; therefore, answer B is incorrect. Answers C and D are incorrect because they do not relate to the question.

  43. Answer A is correct. When the cadaver client is being prepared to donate an organ, the systolic blood pressure should be maintained at 70mmHg or greater to ensure a blood supply to the donor organ. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because they are unnecssary actions for organ donation.

  44. Answer A is correct. The nurse who fails to wear gloves to remove a contaminated dressing needs further instruction. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because they indicate an understanding of the correct method of completing these tasks.

  45. Answer B is correct. The client having a mammogram should be instructed to omit deodorants or powders beforehand because powders and deodorants can be interpreted as abnormal. Answer A is incorrect because there is no need for dietary restrictions before a mammogram. Answer C is incorrect because the mammogram does not replace the need for self-breast exams. Answer D is incorrect because a mammogram does not require higher doses of radiation than an x-ray.

  46. Answer D is correct. The most suitable roommate for the client with gastric resection is the client with phlebitis because phlebitis is an inflammation of the blood vessel and is not infectious. Crohn’s disease clients, in answer A, have frequent stools that might spread infections to the surgical client. The client in answer B with pneumonia is coughing and will disturb the gastric client. The client with gastritis, in answer C, is vomiting and has diarrhea, which also will disturb the gastric client.

  47. Answer D is correct. The most critical client should be assigned to the registered nurse; in this case, that is the client 2 days post-thoracotomy. The clients in answers A and B are ready for discharge, and the client in answer C who had a splenectomy 3 days ago is stable enough to be assigned to an LPN.

  48. Answer C is correct. The client should breathe normally during a central venous pressure monitor reading. Answer A indicates understanding because the client should be placed supine if he can tolerate being in that position. Answers B and D indicate understanding because the stop-cock should be turned off to the IV fluid, and the reading should be done at the top of the meniscus.

  49. Answer A is correct. The most suitable roommate for the client with myasthenia gravis is the client with hypothyroidism because he is quiet. The client with Crohn’s disease in answer B will be up to the bathroom frequently; the client with pylonephritis in answer C has a kidney infection and will be up to urinate frequently. The client in answer D with bronchitis will be coughing and will disturb any roommate.

  50. Answer B is correct. The teenager with sternal bruising might be experiencing airway and oxygenation problems and, thus, should be seen first. In answer A, the 10-year-old with lacerations might look bad but is not in distress. The client in answer C with a fractured femur should be immobilized but can be seen after the client with sternal bruising. The client in answer D with the dislocated elbow can be seen later as well.

  51. Answer B is correct. If the dialysate returns cloudy, infection might be present and must be evaluated. Documenting the finding, as stated in answer A, as not enough; straining the urine, in answer C, is incorrect; and dialysate, in answer D, is not urine at all. However, the physician might order a white blood cell count.

  52. Answer C is correct. Lactulose is administered to the client with cirrhosis to lower ammonia levels. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because this does not have an effect on the other lab values.

  53. Answer B is correct. A client with diabetes who has trouble seeing would require follow-up after discharge. The lack of visual acuity for the client preparing and injecting insulin might require help. Answers A, C, and D will not prevent the client from being able to care for himself and, thus, are incorrect.

  54. Answer C is correct. When the client is receiving TPN, the blood glucose level should be drawn. TPN is a solution that contains large amounts of glucose. Answers A, B, and D are not directly related to the question and are incorrect.

  55. Answer B is correct. The client who says he has nothing wrong is in denial about his myocardial infarction. Rationalization is making excuses for what happened, projection is projecting feeling or thoughts onto others, and conversion reaction is converting a psychological trauma into a physical illness; thus, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  56. Answer A is correct. Answer A, AST, is not specific for myocardial infarction. Troponin, CK-MB, and myoglobin, in answers B, C, and D, are more specific, although myoglobin is also elevated in burns and trauma to muscles.

  57. Answer D is correct. The mothers in answers A, B, and C all require RhoGam and, thus, are incorrect. The mother in answer D is the only one who does not require a RhoGam injection.

  58. Answer D is correct. The first exercise that should be done by the client with a mastectomy is squeezing the ball. Answers A, B, and C are incorrect as the first step; they are implemented later.

  59. Answer A is correct. Atropine sulfate is the antidote for Tensilon and is given to treat cholenergic crises. Furosemide (answer B) is a diuretic, Prostigmin (answer C) is the treatment for myasthenia gravis, and Promethazine (answer D) is an antiemetic, antianxiety medication. Thus, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  60. Answer B is correct. The client scheduled for a pericentesis should be told to empty the bladder, to prevent the risk of puncturing the bladder when the needle is inserted. A pericentesis is done to remove fluid from the peritoneal cavity. The client will be positioned sitting up or leaning over a table, making answer A incorrect. The client is usually awake during the procedure, and medications are not commonly inserted into the peritoneal cavity during this procedure; thus, answers C and D are incorrect (although this could depend on the circumstances).

  61. Answer A is correct. To protect herself, the nurse should wear gloves when applying a nitroglycerine patch or cream. Answer B is incorrect because shaving the shin might abrade the area. Answer C is incorrect because washing with hot water will vasodilate and increase absorption. The patches should be applied to areas above the waist, making answer D incorrect.

  62. Answer C is correct. Covering both eyes prevents consensual movement of the affected eye. The nurse should not attempt to remove the object from the eye because this might cause trauma, as stated in answer A. Rinsing the eye, as stated in answer B, might be ordered by the doctor, but this is not the first step for the nurse. Answer D is not correct because often when one eye moves, the other also does.

  63. Answer C is correct. Sodium warfarin is administered in the late afternoon, at approximately 1700 hours. This allows for accurate bleeding times to be drawn in the morning. Therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  64. Answer B is correct. The registered nurse is the only one of these who can legally put the client in seclusion. The only other healthcare worker who is allowed to initiate seclusion is the doctor; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  65. Answer C is correct. The client is experiencing compensated metabolic acidosis. The pH is within the normal range but is lower than 7.40, so it is on the acidic side. The CO2 level is elevated, the oxygen level is below normal, and the bicarb level is slightly elevated. In respiratory disorders, the pH will be the inverse of the CO2 and bicarb levels. This means that if the pH is low, the CO2 and bicarb levels will be elevated. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not fall into the range of symptoms.

  66. Answer B is correct. The best way to evaluate pain levels is to ask the client to rate his pain on a scale. In answer A, the blood pressure, pulse, and temperature can alter for other reasons than pain. Answers C and D are not as effective in determining pain levels.

  67. Answer C is correct. A sitz bath will help with swelling and improve healing. Ice packs, in answer D, can be used immediately after delivery. Answers A and B are not used in this instance.

  68. Answer D is correct. After surgery, the client will be placed on a clear-liquid diet and progressed to a regular diet. Stool softeners will be included in the plan of care, to avoid constipation. Later, a high-fiber diet, in answer A, is encouraged, but this is not the first diet after surgery. Answers B and C are not diets for this type of surgery.

  69. Answer D is correct. A culture for gonorrhea is taken from the genital secretions. The culture is placed in a warm environment, where it can grow nisseria gonorrhea. Answers A, B, and C are incorrect because these cultures do not test for gonorrhea.

  70. Answer A is correct. Frequent rest periods help to relax tense muscles and preserve energy. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because they are untrue statements.

  71. Answer A is correct. The client with Alzheimer’s disease is the most stable of these clients and can be assigned to the nursing assistant, who can perform duties such as feeding and assisting the client with activities of daily living. The clients in answers B, C, and D are less stable and should be attended by a registered nurse.

  72. Answer D is correct. Xerostomia is dry mouth, and offering the client a saliva substitute will help the most. Eating hard candy in answer A can further irritate the mucosa and cut the tongue and lips. Administering an analgesic might not be necessary; thus, answer B is incorrect. Splinting swollen joints, in answer C, is not associated with xerostomia.

  73. Answer B is correct. The client with congestive heart failure who is complaining of nighttime dyspnea should be seen first because airway is no. 1 in nursing care. In answers A, C, and D, the clients are more stable.

  74. Answer D is correct. The fresh peach is the lowest in sodium of these choices. Answers A, B, and C have much higher amounts of sodium.

  75. Answer B is correct. The best client to transport to the postpartum unit is the 40-year-old female with a hysterectomy. The nurses on the postpartum unit will be aware of normal amounts of bleeding and will be equipped to care for this client. The clients in answers A and D will be best cared for on a medical-surgical unit. The client with depression in answer C should be transported to the psychiatric unit.

  76. Answer B is correct. The first action the nurse should take is to report the finding to the nurse supervisor and follow the chain of command. If it is found that the pharmacy is in error, it should be notified, as stated in answer A. Answers C and D, notifying the director of nursing and the Board of Nursing, might be necessary if theft is found, but not as a first step; thus, these are incorrect answers.

  77. Answer B is correct. The client with the appendectomy is the most stable of these clients and can be assigned to a nursing assistant. The client with bronchiolitis has an alteration in the airway, the client with periorbital cellulitis has an infection, and the client with a fracture might be an abused child. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  78. Answer A is correct. Identifying oneself as a nurse without a license defrauds the public and can be prosecuted. A tort is a wrongful act; malpractice is failing to act appropriately as a nurse or acting in a way that harm comes to the client; and negligence is failing to perform care. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  79. Answer D is correct. Because the client is immune-suppressed, foods should be served in sealed containers, to avoid food contaminants. Answer B is incorrect because of possible infection from visitors. Answer A is not necessary, but the utensils should be cleaned thoroughly and rinsed in hot water. Answer C might be a good idea, but alcohol can be drying and can cause the skin to break down.

  80. Answer A is correct. The client with unilateral neglect will neglect one side of the body. Answers B, C, and D are not associated with unilateral neglect.

  81. Answer C is correct. The client taking antabuse should not eat or drink anything containing alcohol or vinegar. The other foods in answers A, B, and D are allowed.

  82. Answer D is correct. Cyanocolamine is a B12 medication that is used for pernicious anemia, and a reticulocyte count of 1% indicates that it is having the desired effect. Answers A, B, and C are white blood cells and have nothing to do with this medication.

  83. Answer A is correct. The first client to be seen is the one who recently returned from surgery. The other clients in answers B, C, and D are more stable and can be seen later.

  84. Answer B is correct. Out of all of these clients, it is best to hold the pregnant client and the client with a broken arm and facial lacerations in the same room. The clients in answer A need to be placed in separate rooms because these clients are disruptive or have infections. In the case of answer C, the child is terminal and should be in a private room with his parents.

  85. Answer D is correct. The priority client is the one with multiple sclerosis who is being treated with cortisone via the central line. This client is at highest risk for complications. MRSA, in answer C, is methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureas. Vancomycin is the drug of choice and can be administered later, but its use must be scheduled at specific times of the day to maintain a therapeutic level. Answers A and B are incorrect because these clients are more stable.

  86. Answer B is correct. The action after discussing the problem with the nurse is to document the incident and file a formal reprimand. If the behavior continues or if harm has resulted to the client, the nurse may be terminated and reported to the Board of Nursing, but this is not the first step. A tort is a wrongful act committed against a client or his belongings. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  87. Answer B is correct. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals will probably be interested in the problems in answers A and C. The failure of the nursing assistant to assist the client with hepatitis should be reported to the charge nurse. If the behavior continues, termination may result. Answer D is incorrect because failure to feed and bathe the client should be reported to the superior, not the Board of Nursing.

  88. Answer B is correct. The nurse in answer B has the most experience with possible complications involved with preeclampsia. The nurse in answer A is a new nurse to this unit and should not be assigned to this client; the nurses in answers C and D have no experience with the postpartal client and also should not be assigned to this client.

  89. Answer B is correct. The vital signs are abnormal and should be reported to the doctor immediately. Answer A, continuing to monitor the vital signs, can result in deterioration of the client’s condition. Answer C, asking the client how he feels, would supply only subjective data. Involving the LPN, in answer D, is not the best solution to help this client because he is unstable.

  90. Answer D is correct. A licensed practical nurse should not be assigned to initiate a blood transfusion. The LPN can assist with the transfusion and check ID numbers for the RN. The licensed practical nurse can be assigned to insert Foley and French urinary catheters, discontinue Levine and Gavage gastric tubes, and obtain all types of specimens, so answers A, B, and C are incorrect.

  91. Answer C is correct. Assault is defined as striking or touching the client inappropriately, so a nurse assistant striking a client could be charged with assault. Answer A, negligence, is failing to perform care for the client. Answer B, a tort, is a wrongful act committed on the client or their belongings. Answer D, malpractice, is failure to perform an act that the nursing assistant knows should be done, or the act of doing something wrong that results in harm to the client.

  92. Answer A is correct. The client with Cushing’s disease has adrenocortical hypersecretion. This increase in the level of cortisone causes the client to be immune suppressed. In answer B, the client with diabetes poses no risk to other clients. The client in answer C has an increase in growth hormone and poses no risk to himself or others. The client in answer D has hyperthyroidism or myxedema, and poses no risk to others or himself.

  93. Answer A is correct. The pregnant nurse should not be assigned to any client with radioactivity present. Therefore, the client receiving linear accelerator therapy is correct because this client travels to the radium department for therapy, and the radiation stays in the department; the client is not radioactive. The client in answer B does pose a risk to the pregnant client. The client in answer C is radioactive in very small doses. For approximately 72 hours, the client should dispose of urine and feces in special containers and use plastic spoons and forks. The client in answer D is also radioactive in small amounts, especially upon return from the procedure.

  94. Answer B is correct. The antidote for heparin is protamine sulfate. Cyanocobalamine is B12, Streptokinase is a thrombolytic, and sodium warfarin is an anticoagulant. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  95. Answer A is correct. Lasix should be given approximately 1mL per minute to prevent hypotension. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because it is not necessary to be given in an IV piggyback, with saline, or through a venous access device (VAD).

  96. Answer B is correct. A persistent cough might be related to an adverse reaction to Captoten. Answers A and D are incorrect because tinnitus and diarrhea are not associated with the medication. Muscle weakness might occur when beginning the treatment but is not an adverse effect; thus, answer C is incorrect.

  97. Answer A is correct. Sites for the application of nitroglycerin should be rotated, to prevent skin irritation. It can be applied to the back and upper arms, not to the lower extremities, making answer B incorrect. Answer C is contraindicated to the question, and answer D is incorrect because the medication should be covered with a prepared dressing made of a thin paper substance, not gauze.

  98. Answer B is correct. Lidocaine is used to treat ventricular tachycardia. This medication slowly exerts an antiarrhythmic effect by increasing the electric stimulation threshold of the ventricles without depressing the force of ventricular contractions. It is not used for atrial arrhythmias; thus, answer A is incorrect. Answers C and D are incorrect because it slows the heart rate, so it is not used for heart block or brachycardia.

  99. Answer D is correct. Quinidine can cause widened Q-T intervals and heart block. Other signs of myocardial toxicity are notched P waves and widened QRS complexes. The most common side effects are diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The client might experience tinnitus, vertigo, headache, visual disturbances, and confusion. Answers A, B, and C are not related to the use of quinidine.

  100. Answer A is correct. If the client eats foods high in tyramine, he might experience malignant hypertension. Tyramine is found in cheese, sour cream, Chianti wine, sherry, beer, pickled herring, liver, canned figs, raisins, bananas, avocados, chocolate, soy sauce, fava beans, and yeast. These episodes are treated with Regitine, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent. Answers B, C, and D are not related to the question.

  101. Answer C is correct. Hyperplasia of the gums is associated with Dilantin therapy. Answer A is not related to the therapy; answer B is a side effect, and answer D is not related to the question.

  102. Answer D is correct. A complication of a tonsillectomy is bleeding, and constant swallowing may indicate bleeding. Decreased appetite is expected after a tonsillectomy, as is a low-grade temperature; thus, answers A and B are incorrect. In answer C, chest congestion is not normal but is not associated with the tonsillectomy.

  103. Answer B is correct. Children at 18 months of age like push-pull toys. Children at approximately 3 years of age begin to dress themselves and build a tower of eight blocks. At age four, children can copy a horizontal or vertical line. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  104. Answer B is correct. The diagnosis of meningitis at age 6 months correlates to a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy, a neurological disorder, is often associated with birth trauma or infections of the brain or spinal column. Answers A, C and D are not related to the question.

  105. Answer C is correct. Theodur is a bronchodilator, and a side effect of bronchodilators is tachycardia, so checking the pulse is important. Extreme tachycardia should be reported to the doctor. Answers A, B, and D are not necessary.

  106. Answer A is correct. Crystals in the solution are not normal and should not be administered to the client. Discard the bad solution immediately. Answer B is incorrect because warming the solution will not help. Answer C is incorrect, and answer D requires a doctor’s order.

  107. Answer D is correct. Cytoxan can cause hemorrhagic cystitis, so the client should drink at least eight glasses of water a day. Answers A and B are not necessary and, so, are incorrect. Nausea often occurs with chemotherapy, so answer C is incorrect.

  108. Answer B is correct. Rifampin can change the color of the urine and body fluid. Teaching the client about these changes is best because he might think this is a complication. Answer A is not necessary, answer C is not true, and answer D is not true because this medication should be taken regularly during the course of the treatment.

  109. Answer D is correct. Taking corticosteroids in the morning mimics the body’s natural release of cortisol. Answers A is not necessarily true, and answers B and C are not true.

  110. Answer D is correct. Taking antibiotics and oral contraceptives together decreases the effectiveness of the oral contraceptives. Answers A, B, and C are not necessarily true.

  111. Answer C is correct. The client should be taught to eat his meals even if he is not hungry, to prevent a hypoglycemic reaction. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because they indicate an understanding of the nurse’s teaching.

  112. Answer C is correct. The time of onset for regular insulin is 30–60 minutes; therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  113. Answer C is correct. Histamine blockers are frequently ordered for clients who are hospitalized for prolonged periods and who are in a stressful situation. They are not used to treat discomfort, correct electrolytes, or treat nausea; therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  114. Answer D is correct. Cyclosporin is an immunosuppressant, and the client with a liver transplant will be on immunosuppressants for the rest of his life. Answers A, B, and C, therefore, are incorrect.

  115. Answer A is correct. Methergine is a drug that causes uterine contractions. It is used for postpartal bleeding that is not controlled by Pitocin. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect: Stadol is an analgesic; magnesium sulfate is used for preeclampsia; and phenergan is an antiemetic.

  116. Answer A is correct. Clients having dye procedures should be assessed for allergies to iodine or shellfish. Answers B and D are incorrect because there is no need for the client to be assessed for reactions to blood or eggs. Because an IV cholangiogram is done to detect gallbladder disease, there is no need to ask about answer C.

  117. Answer A is correct. Regular insulin should be drawn up before the NPH. They can be given together, so there is no need for two injections, making answer D incorrect. Answer B is obviously incorrect, and answer C is incorrect because it does matter which is drawn first: Contamination of NPH into regular insulin will result in a hypoglycemic reaction at unexpected times.

  118. Answer B is correct. Trough levels are the lowest blood levels and should be done 30 minutes before the third IV dose or 30 minutes before the fourth IM dose. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  119. Answer C is correct. Viokase is a pancreatic enzyme that is used to facilitate digestion. It should be given with meals and snacks, and it works well in foods such as applesauce. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect times to administer this medication.

  120. Answer A is correct. The expected time for contact to tuberculosis is 1 year. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  121. Answer B is correct. Pitocin is used to cause the uterus to contract and decrease bleeding. A uterus deviated to the left, as stated in answer A, indicates a full bladder. It is not desirable to have a boggy uterus, making answer C incorrect. This lack of muscle tone will increase bleeding. Answer D is incorrect because the position of the uterus is not related to the use of Pitocin.

  122. Answer C is correct. Before chemotherapy, an antiemetic should be given because most chemotherapy agents cause nausea. It is not necessary to give a bolus of IV fluids, medicate for pain, or allow the client to eat; therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  123. Answer D is correct. The vital signs should be taken before any chemotherapy agent. If it is an IV infusion of chemotherapy, the nurse should check the IV site as well. Answers B and C are incorrect because it is not necessary to check the electrolytes or blood gasses.

  124. Answer D is correct. Vitamin K is given after delivery because the newborn’s intestinal tract is sterile and lacks vitamin K needed for clotting. Answer A is incorrect because vitamin K is not directly given to prevent dehydration, but will facilitate clotting. Answers B and C are incorrect because vitamin K does not prevent infection or replace electrolytes.

  125. Answer C is correct. The best protector for the client with an ileostomy to use is stomahesive. Answer A is not correct because the bag will not seal if the client uses Karaya powder. Answer B is incorrect because there is no need to irrigate an ileostomy. Neosporin, answer D, is not used to protect the skin because it is an antibiotic.

  126. Answer C is correct. FeSO4 or iron should be given with ascorbic acid (vitamin C). This helps with the absorption. It should not be given with meals or milk because this decreases the absorption; thus, answers A and B are incorrect. Giving it undiluted, as stated in answer D, is not good because it tastes bad.

  127. Answer A is correct. Hyphema is blood in the anterior chamber of the eye and around the eye. The client should have the head of the bed elevated and ice applied. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect and do not treat the problem.

  128. Answer C is correct. The most stable client is the client with the thyroidectomy 4 days ago. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because the other clients are less stable and require a registered nurse.

  129. Answer A is correct. The “bull’s eye” rash is indicative of Lyme’s disease, a disease spread by ticks. The signs and symptoms include elevated temp-erature, headache, nausea, and the rash. Although answers B and D are important, the question asks which would be best. Answer C has no significance.

  130. Answer C is correct. The most definitive diagnostic tool for HIV is the Western Blot. The white blood cell count, as stated in answer A, is not the best indicator, but a white blood cell count of less than 3,500 requires investigation. The ELISA test, answer B, is a screening exam. Answer D is not specific enough.

  131. Answer B is correct. Gentamycin is a drug from the aminoglycocide classification. These drugs are toxic to the auditory nerve and the kidneys. The hematocrit is not of significant consideration in this client; therefore, answer A is incorrect. Answer C is incorrect because we would expect the white blood cell count to be elevated in this client because gentamycin is an antibiotic. Answer D is incorrect because the erythrocyte count is also particularly significant to check.

  132. Answer A is correct. The nurse should not take the blood pressure on the affected side. Also, venopunctures and IVs should not be used in the affected area. Answers B, C, and D are all indicated for caring for the client. The arm should be elevated to decrease edema. It is best to position the client on the unaffected side and perform a dextrostix on the unaffected side.

  133. Answer D is correct. The nurse who has had the chickenpox has immunity to the illness. Answer A is incorrect because more information is needed to determine whether a change in assignment is necessary. Answer B is incorrect because there could be a risk to the immune-suppressed client. Answer C is incorrect because the client who is immune-suppressed could still be at risk from the nurse’s exposure to the chickenpox, even if scabs are present.

  134. Answer C is correct. The nurse should explore the cause for the lack of motivation. The client might be anemic and lack energy, might be in pain, or might be depressed. Alternating staff, as stated in answer A, will prevent a bond from being formed with the nurse. Answer B is not enough, and answer D is not necessary.

  135. Answer A is correct. Contacting organ retrieval to talk to the family member is the best choice because a trained specialist has the knowledge to assist the wife with making the decision to donate or not to donate the client’s organs. The hospital will certainly honor the wishes of family members even if the patient has signed a donor card. Answer B is incorrect; answer C might be done, but there might not be time; and answer D is not good nursing etiquette and, therefore, is incorrect.

  136. Answer A is correct. The nurse should inspect first, then auscultate, and finally palpate. If the nurse palpates first the assessment might be unreliable. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  137. Answer B is correct. Many medications can irritate the stomach and contribute to abdominal pain. For answer A, the primary reason for asking about medications is not to identify interactions between medication. Although this might provide an opportunity for teaching, this is not the best time to teach. Therefore, answers C and D are incorrect.

  138. Answer D is correct. H. pylori bacteria and stress are directly related to peptic ulcers. Answers A and B are incorrect because peptic ulcers are not caused by overeating or always caused by continued stress. Answer C is incorrect because peptic ulcers are related to but not directly caused by stress.

  139. Answer C is correct. The new diabetic has a knowledge deficit. Answers A, B, and D are not supported within the stem and so are incorrect.

  140. Answer A is correct. The best diagnostic tool for cancer is the biopsy. Other assessment includes checking the lymph nodes. Answers B, C, and D will not confirm a diagnosis of oral cancer.

  141. Answer D is correct. The use of a sitz bath will help with the pain and swelling associated with a hemorroidectomy. The client should eat foods high in fiber, so answer A is incorrect. Ice packs, as stated in answer B, are ordered immediately after surgery only. Answer C, a stool softener, can be ordered, but only by the doctor.

  142. Answer A is correct. The client with a colostomy can swim and carry on activities as before the colostomy; therefore, answers B and C are incorrect. Answer D shows a lack of empathy.

  143. Answer C is correct. Antacids should be administered within 1–2 hours of other medications. If antacids are taken with many medications, they render the other medications inactive. All other answers are incorrect.

  144. Answer A is correct. Before beginning feedings, an x-ray is often obtained to check for placement. Aspirating stomach content and checking the pH for acidity is the best method of checking for placement. Other methods include placing the end in water and checking for bubbling, and injecting air and listening over the epigastric area. Answers B and C are not correct. Answer D is incorrect because warming in the microwave is contraindicated.

  145. Answer D is correct. Alcohol will cause extreme nausea if consumed with Flagyl. Answer A is incorrect because the full course of treatment should be taken. The medication should be taken with a full 8oz. of water, with meals, and the client should avoid direct sunlight because he will most likely be photosensitive; therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.

  146. Answer C is correct. Fluid volume deficit can lead to metabolic acidosis and electrolyte loss. The other nursing diagnoses in answers A, B, and D might be applicable but are of lesser priority.

  147. Answer A is correct. The nurse should reinforce the need for a diet balanced in all nutrients and fiber. Foods that often cause diarrhea and bloating associated with irritable bowel syndrome include fried foods, caffeinated beverages, alcohol, and spicy foods. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  148. Answer A is correct. Clients with celiac disease should refrain from eating foods containing gluten. Foods with gluten include wheat barley, oats, and rye. The other foods are allowed.

  149. Answer B is correct. A barium enema is contraindicated in the client with diverticulitis because it can cause bowel perforation. Answers A, C, and D are appropriate diagnostic studies for the client with diverticulitis.

  150. Answer B is correct. Individuals with ulcers within the duodenum typically complain of pain occurring 2–3 hours after a meal, as well as at night. The pain is usually relieved by eating. The pain associated with gastric ulcers, answer A, occurs 30 minutes after eating. Answer C is too vague and does not distinguish the type of ulcer. Answer D is associated with stress.

  151. Answer C is correct. H. pylori bacteria has been linked to peptic ulcers. Answers A, B, and D are not typically cultured within the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus, and are not related to the development of peptic ulcers.

  152. Answer A is correct. Maintaining a patient’s airway is paramount in the post-operative period. This is the priority of nursing care. Answers B, C, and D are applicable but are not the priority. The nurse should instruct the client to perform mouth care using a soft sponge toothette or irrigate the mouth with normal saline. The incision should be kept as dry as possible, and pain should be treated. Pain medications should be administered PRN.

  153. Answer D is correct. Low hemoglobin and hematocrit might indicate intestinal bleeding. Answers A, B, and C are normal lab values.

  154. Answer C is correct. Pain is a late sign of oral cancer. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because a feeling of warmth, odor, and a flat ulcer in the mouth are all early occurrences of oral cancer.

  155. Answer C is correct. Epidural anesthesia involves injecting an anesthetic into the epidural space. If the anesthetic rises above the respiratory center, the client will have impaired breathing; thus, monitoring for respiratory depression is necessary. Answer A, seizure activity, is not likely after an epidural. Answer B, orthostatic hypotension, occurs when the client stands up but is not a monitoring action. The client with an epidural anesthesia must remain flat on her back and should not stand up for 24 hours. Answer D, hematuria, is not related to epidural anesthesia.

  156. Answer D is correct. Facial grimace is an indication of pain. The blood pressure in answer A is within normal limits. The client’s inability to concentrate, along with dilated pupils, as stated in answers B and C, may be related to the anesthesia that he received during surgery.

  157. Answer B is correct. To decrease the potential for soreness of the nipples, the client should be taught to break the suction before removing the baby from the breast. Answer A is incorrect because feeding the baby during the first 48 hours after delivery will provide colostrum but will not help the soreness of the nipples. Answers C and D are incorrect because applying warm, moist soaks and wearing a support bra will help with engorgement but will not help the nipples.

  158. Answer B is correct. An advanced directive allows the client to make known his wishes regarding care if he becomes unable to act on his own. Much confusion regarding life-saving measures can occur if the client does not have an advanced directive. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect because the nurse doesn’t need to know about funeral plans and cannot make decisions for the client, and active euthanasia is illegal in most states in the United States.

  159. Answer B is correct. Skin irritation can occur if the TENS unit is used for prolonged periods of time. To prevent skin irritations, the client should change the location of the electrodes often. Electrocution is not a risk because it uses a battery pack; thus, answer A is incorrect. Answer C is incorrect because the unit should not be used on sensitive areas of the body. Answer D is incorrect because no creams are to be used with the device.

  160. Answer B is correct. The client is concerned about overdosing himself. The machine will deliver a set amount as ordered and allow the client to self-administer a small amount of medication. PCA pumps usually are set to lock out the amount of medication that the client can give himself at 5- to 15-minute intervals. Answer A does not address the client’s concerns, answer C is incorrect, and answer D does not address the client’s concerns.

  161. Answer A is correct. Narcan is the antidote for the opoid analgesics. Toradol (answer B) is a nonopoid analgesic; aspirin (answer C) is an analgesic, anticoagulant, and antipyretic; and atropine (answer D) is an anticholengergic.

  162. Answer B is correct. The fifth vital sign is pain. Nurses should assess and record pain just as they would temperature, respirations, pulse, and blood pressure. Answers A, C, and D are included in the charting but are not considered to be the fifth vital sign and are, therefore, incorrect.

  163. Answer C is correct. Acupuncture uses needles, and because HIV is transmitted by blood and body fluids, the nurse should question this treatment. Answer A describes acupressure, and answers B and D describe massage therapy with the use of oils.

  164. Answer D is correct. After administering any subcutaneous anticoagulant, the nurse should check the site for bleeding. Answers A and C are incorrect because aspirating and massaging the site are not done. Checking the pulse is not necessary, as in answer B.

  165. Answer A is correct. An occult blood test should be done periodically to detect any intestinal bleeding on the client with coumadin therapy. Answers B, C, and D are not directly related to the question.

  166. Answer D is correct. The potassium level of 2.5meq/L is extremely low. The normal is 3.5–5.5meq/L. Lasix (furosemide) is a nonpotassium sparing diuretic, so answer A is incorrect. The nurse cannot alter the doctor’s order, as stated in answer B, and answer C will not help with this situation.

  167. Answer B is correct. The client should be asked to perform Valsalva maneuver while the chest tube is being removed. This prevents changes in pressure until an occlusive dressing can be applied. Answers A and C are not recommended, and sneezing is difficult to perform on command.

  168. Answer C is correct. The treatment for ventricular tachycardia is lidocaine. A precordial thump is sometimes successful in slowing the rate, but this should be done only if a defibrillator is available. In answer A, atropine sulfate will speed the rate further; in answer B, checking the potassium is indicated but is not the priority; and in answer D, defibrillation is used for pulseless ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Also, defibrillation should begin at 200 joules and be increased to 360 joules.

  169. Answer A is correct. The normal central venous pressure is 5–10cm of water. A reading of 2cm is low and should be reported. Answers B, C, and D indicate that the nurse believes that the reading is too high and is incorrect.

  170. Answer B is correct. The pulmonary artery pressure will measure the pressure during systole, diastole, and the mean pressure in the pulmonary artery. It will not measure the pressure in the left ventricle, the pressure in the pulmonary veins, or the pressure in the right ventricle. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  171. Answer B is correct. If the doctor orders 0.4mgm IM and the drug is available in 0.8/1mL, the nurse should make the calculation: ?mL = 1mL / 0.8mgm; × 0.4mg / 1 = 0.5m:. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  172. Answer A is correct. If the nurse cannot elicit the patella reflex (knee jerk), the client should be asked to pull against the palms. This helps the client to relax the legs and makes it easier to get an objective reading. Answers B, C, and D will not help with the test.

  173. Answer A is correct. The elevated white blood cell count should be reported because this indicates infection. A bruit will be heard if the client has an aneurysm, and a negative Babinski is normal in the adult, as are pupils that are equal and reactive to light and accommodation; thus, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  174. Answer B is correct. The child with nephotic syndrome will exhibit extreme edema. Elevating the scrotum on a small pillow will help with the edema. Applying ice is contraindicated; heat will increase the edema. Administering a diuretic might be ordered, but it will not directly help the scrotal edema. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  175. Answer A is correct. If the blood pressure cuff is too small, the result will be a blood pressure that is a false elevation. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect. If the blood pressure cuff is too large, a false low will result. Answers C and D have basically the same meaning.

  176. Answer B is correct. To safely administer heparin, the nurse should obtain an infusion controller. Too rapid infusion of heparin can result in hemorrhage. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect. It is not necessary to have a buretrol, an infusion filter, or a three-way stop-cock.

  177. Answer A is correct. A low-protein diet is required because protein breaks down into nitrogenous waste and causes an increased workload on the kidneys. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

  178. Answer A is correct. Damage to the hypothalamus can result in an elevated temperature because this portion of the brain helps to regulate body temperature. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because there is no data to support the possibility of an infection, a cooling blanket might not be required, and the frontal lobe is not responsible for regulation of the body temperature.

  179. Answer C is correct. The temporal lobe is responsible for taste, smell, and hearing. The occipital lobe is responsible for vision. The frontal lobe is responsible for judgment, foresight, and behavior. The parietal lobe is responsible for ideation, sensory functions, and language. Therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  180. Answer B is correct. To correctly measure the client for crutches, the nurse should measure approximately 3 inches under the axilla. Answer A allows for too much distance under the arm. The elbows should be flexed approximately 35°, not 10°, as stated in answer C. The crutches should be approximately 6 inches from the side of the foot, not 20 inches, as stated in answer D.

  181. Answer D is correct. When assisting the client with bowel and bladder training, the least helpful factor is the sexual function. Dietary history, mobility, and fluid intake are important factors; these must be taken into consideration because they relate to constipation, urinary function, and the ability to use the urinal or bedpan. Therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.

  182. Answer B is correct. Because the aorta is clamped during surgery, the blood supply to the kidneys is impaired. This can result in renal damage. A urinary output of 20mL is oliguria. In answer A, the pedal pulses that are thready and regular are within normal limits. For answer C, it is desirable for the client’s blood pressure to be slightly low after surgical repair of an aneurysm. The oxygen saturation of 97% in answer D is within normal limits and, therefore, incorrect.

  183. Answer C is correct. The client taking an anticoagulant should not take aspirin because it will further thin the blood. He should return to have a Protime drawn for bleeding time, report a rash, and use an electric razor. Therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  184. Answer A is correct. The best roommate for the post-surgical client is the client with hypothyroidism. This client is sleepy and has no infectious process. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because the client with a diabetic ulcer, ulcerative colitis, or pneumonia can transmit infection to the post-surgical client.

  185. Answer C is correct. The client admitted 1 hour ago with shortness of breath should be seen first because this client might require oxygen therapy. The client in answer A with a low-grade temperature can be assessed after the client with shortness of breath. The client in answer B can also be seen later. This client will have some inflammatory process after surgery, so a temperature of 100.2°F is not unusual. The low-grade temperature should be re-evaluated in 1 hour. The client in answer D can be reserved for later.

  186. Answer A is correct. The best time to apply antithrombolytic stockings is in the morning before rising. If the doctor orders them later in the day, the client should return to bed, wait 30 minutes, and apply the stockings. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because there is likely to be more peripheral edema if the client is standing or has just taken a bath; before retiring in the evening is wrong because, late in the evening, more peripheral edema will be present.

  187. Answer C is correct. The client with a femoral popliteal bypass graft should avoid activities that can occlude the femoral artery graft. Sitting in the straight chair and wearing tight clothes are prohibited for this reason. Resting in a supine position, resting in a recliner, or sleeping in right Sim’s are allowed, as stated in answers A, B, and D.

  188. Answer A is correct. The client is exhibiting a widened pulse pressure, tachycardia, and tachypnea. The next action after obtaining these vital signs is to notify the doctor for additional orders. Rechecking the vitals signs, as in answer B, is wasting time. It is the doctor’s call to order arterial blood gases and an ECG.

  189. Answer C is correct. If the finger cannot be used, the next best place to apply the oxygen monitor is to the earlobe. It can also be placed on the forehead, but the choices in answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

  190. Answer C is correct. It is necessary to check the PTT as well as administer in the abdomen, as stated in answer C. It is not necessary to administer this medication before meals; thus, answer A is incorrect. Answer D is incorrect because the nurse should not aspirate after the injection.

  191. Answer A is correct. The client taking calcium preparations will frequently develop constipation so the client should be assessed for any problems related to bowel elimination. Answers B, C, and D are not problems related to the use of calcium carbonate.

  192. Answer D is correct. Urokinase is a thrombolytic used to destroy a clot following a myocardial infraction. If the client exhibits overt signs of bleeding, the nurse should stop the medication, call the doctor immediately, and prepare the antidote, which is Amicar. Answer B is not correct because simply stopping the urokinase is not enough. In answer A, vitamin K is not the antidote for urokinase, and reducing the urokinase, as stated in answer B, is not enough.

  193. Answer C is correct. Children at age 2 can reach for objects that they desire and use simple words such as cookie to express what they want. They already understand “yes” and “no,” so answer A is incorrect. Simple language patterns begin to develop after this age, even though children at this age might understand some words; therefore, answer B is not a good choice. Later, at about age 3 or 4, they begin to ask “Why?,” making answer D incorrect.

  194. Answer B is correct. A 2-year-old is expected only to use magical thinking, such as believing that a toy bear is a real bear. Answers A, C, and D are not expected until the child is much older. Abstract thinking, conservation of matter, and the ability to look at things from the perspective of others are not skills for small children.

  195. Answer B is correct. The first action that the nurse should take when beginning to examine the infant is to listen to the heart and lungs. If the nurse elicits the Babinski reflex, palpates the abdomen, or looks in the child’s ear first, the child will begin to cry and it will be difficult to obtain an objective finding while listening to the heart and lungs. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

  196. Answer B is correct. Parallel play is play that is demonstrated by two children playing side by side but not together. The play in answers A and C is participative play because the children are playing together. The play in answer D is solitary play because the mother is not playing with Mary.

  197. Answer B is correct. The 4-year-old is more prone to accidental poisoning because children at this age are much more mobile and this makes them more likely to ingest poisons than the other children. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect because the 6-month-old is still too small to be extremely mobile, the 10-year-old has begun to understand risk, and the 13-year-old is also aware of the risks of poisoning and is less likely to ingest poisons than the 4-year-old.

  198. Answer C is correct. To prevent the client from inducing vomiting after eating, the client should be observed for 1–2 hours after meals. Allowing privacy as stated in answer A will only give the client time to vomit. Praising the client for eating all of a meal does not correct the psychological aspects of the disease; thus, answer B is incorrect. Encouraging the client to choose favorite foods might increase stress and the chance of choosing foods that are low in calories and fats.

  199. Answer A is correct. Clients with antisocial personality disorder must have limits set on their behavior because they are artful in manipulating others. Answer B is not correct because they do express feelings and remorse. Answers C and D are incorrect because it is unnecessary to minimize interactions with others or encourage them to act out rage more than they already do.

  200. Answer B is correct. The client with passive-aggressive personality disorder often has underlying hostility that is exhibited as acting-out behavior. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect. Although these individuals might have a high IQ, it cannot be said that they have superior intelligence. They also do not necessarily have dependence on others or an inability to share feelings.


  

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