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Normal Lab Values

Normal Lab Values

12.Serum electrolytes—It is important for you to remember these normal lab values because they might be included in questions throughout the test.
  • Sodium: 135–145 mEq/L

  • Potassium: 3.5–5.5 mEq/L

  • Calcium: 8.5–10.9 mg/L

  • Chloride: 95–105 mEq/L

  • Magnesium: 1.5–2.5 mEq/L

  • Phosphorus: 2.5–4.5 mg/dL

13.Hematology values
  • RBC: 4.5–5.0 million

  • WBC: 5,000–10,000

  • Plt.: 200,000–400,000

  • Hgb: 12–16 gms women; 14–18 gms men

14.ABG values
  • HCO3: 24–26 mEq/L

  • CO2: 35–45 mEq/L

  • PaO2: 80%–100%

  • SaO2: > 95%

15.Chemistry values
  • Glucose: 70–110 mg/dL

  • Specific gravity: 1.010–1.030

  • BUN: 7–22 mg/dL

  • Serum creatinine: 0.6–1.35 mg/dL (< 2 in older adults)

*Information included in laboratory test may vary slightly according to methods used
  • LDH: 100–190 U/L

  • CPK: 21–232 U/L

  • Uric acid: 3.5–7.5 mg/dL

  • Triglyceride: 40–50 mg/dL

  • Total cholesterol: 130–200 mg/dL

  • Bilirubin: < 1.0 mg/dL

  • Protein: 6.2–8.1 g/dL

  • Albumin: 3.4–5.0 g/dL

16.Therapeutic drug levels
  • Digoxin: 0.5–2.0 ng/ml

  • Lithium: 0.8–1.5 mEq/L

  • Dilantin: 10–20 mcg/dL

  • Theophylline: 10–20 mcg/dL

17.Vital signs (adult)
  • Heart rate: 80–100

  • Respiratory rate: 12–20

  • Blood pressure: 110–120 (systolic); 60–90 (diastolic)

  • Temperature: 98.6° ?/–1

18.Maternity normals
  • FHR: 120–160 BPM.

  • Variability: 6–10 BPM.

  • Contractions: normal frequency 2–5 minutes apart; normal duration < 90 sec.; intensity < 100 mm/hg.

  • Amniotic fluid: 500–1200 ml (nitrozine urine-litmus paper green/amniotic fluid-litmus paper blue).

  • Apgar scoring: A = appearance, P = pulses, G = grimace, A = activity, R = reflexes (Done at 1 and 5 minutes with a score of 0 for absent, 1 for decreased, and 2 for strongly positive.)

  • AVA: The umbilical cord has two arteries and one vein (Arteries carry deoxygenated blood. The vein carries oxygenated blood.)

19.FAB 9—Folic acid = B9. Hint: B stands for brain (decreases the incidence of neural tube defects); the client should begin taking B9 three months prior to becoming pregnant.
20.Abnormalities in the laboring obstetric client—Decelerations are abnormal findings on the fetal monitoring strip. Decelerations are classified as
  • Early decelerations— Begin prior to the peak of the contraction and end by the end of the contraction. They are caused by head compression. There is no need for intervention if the variability is within normal range (that is, there is a rapid return to the baseline fetal heart rate) and the fetal heart rate is within normal range.

  • Variable decelerations— Are noted as V-shaped on the monitoring strip. Variable decelerations can occur anytime during monitoring of the fetus. They are caused by cord compression. The intervention is to change the mother’s position; if pitocin is infusing, stop the infusion; apply oxygen; and increase the rate of IV fluids. Contact the doctor if the problem persists.

  • Late decelerations— Occur after the peak of the contraction and mirror the contraction in length and intensity. These are caused by uteroplacental insuffiency. The intervention is to change the mother’s position; if pitocin is infusing, stop the infusion; apply oxygen;, and increase the rate of IV fluids. Contact the doctor if the problem persists.

21.TORCHS syndrome in the neonate—This is a combination of diseases. These include toxoplasmosis, rubella (German measles), cytomegalovirus, herpes, and syphyllis. Pregnant nurses should not be assigned to care for the client with toxoplasmosis or cytomegalovirus.
22.STOP—This is the treatment for maternal hypotension after an epidural anesthesia:
  1. Stop pitocin if infusing.

  2. Turn the client on the left side.

  3. Administer oxygen.

  4. If hypovolemia is present, push IV fluids.

23.Anticoagulant therapy and monitoring
  • Coumadin (sodium warfarin) PT: 10–12 sec. (control).

  • Antidote: The antidote for Coumadin is vitamin K.

  • Heparin/Lovenox/Dalteparin PTT: 30–45 sec. (control).

  • Antidote: The antidote for Heparin is protamine sulfate.

  • Therapeutic level: It is important to maintain a bleeding time that is slightly prolonged so that clotting will not occur; therefore, the bleeding time with mediication should be 1 1/2–2 times the control.

*The control is the premedication bleeding time.
24.Rule of nines for calculating TBSA for burns
  • Head = 9%

  • Arms = 18% (9% each)

  • Back = 18%

  • Legs = 36% (18% each)

  • Genitalia = 1%



  

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