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8.6. Localization

In many situations of practical interest, sensor nodes are strewn randomly over the deployment area. Consequently, the position of each sensor node is not known a priori. Position information, however, is crucial in many situations; e.g., to report where an event has occurred. Moreover, knowledge of node positions can be exploited in routing also, as in geographic routing. Hence, localization is an important problem in sensor networks.

Let us consider several sensors distributed over an area. A small fraction of these are anchor devices that know their own positions. They could be GPS-enabled, or they could have been placed precisely at particular positions, with the position information being programmed into them. The problem is to localize the other sensors with help from these anchors.


  

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