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11.5. Connection Setup

For two processes to pass information between them, an association must be established. The steps involved in creating an association (socket, connect, listen, accept, etc.) were described in Section 11.1. In this section, we shall study the operation of the socket layer in establishing associations. As the state associated with a connectionless transfer of data is fully encapsulated in each message that is sent, our discussion will focus on connection-based associations established with the connect, listen, and accept system calls.

Connection establishment in the client–server model is asymmetric. A client process actively initiates a connection to obtain service, whereas a server process passively accepts connections to provide service. Fig. 11.8 shows the state-transition diagram for a socket used to initiate or accept connections. State transitions are initiated either by user actions (i.e., system calls) or by protocol actions that result from receiving network messages or servicing timers that expire.


  

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