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Microsoft Terminal Servers remain the most powerful and widely used implementation of server-based computing technology today. In Windows 2000 Terminal Server, Microsoft has added many new and important features. These added features make Windows 2000 Terminal Server alone a good solution for many companies' application deployment needs.

Like its predecessor, Windows 2000 Terminal Server's main purpose is to distribute Windows 2000 desktops to remote Terminal Server clients using server-based technology. By using server-based technology to distribute these desktops, Terminal Server extends the reach of your Windows applications.

Citrix MetaFrame XP is an add-on product available for either Windows NT 4.0 or 2000 Terminal Server. It adds on to and complements the existing features available in these products. Using Citrix MetaFrame XP, you can publish your applications instead of having users run them from a Terminal Server desktop. In addition, MetaFrame XP offers better printer management capabilities, a centralized management console, and support from non-Windows client connections such as UNIX, DOS, and Macintosh workstations.

For Citrix MetaFrame 1.8 administrators who are considering upgrading to Citrix MetaFrame XP, you will find MetaFrame XP's core design to be very different, but also much more scalable than that of MetaFrame 1.8.

In this book, you will learn the inner workings of both of these products and how to integrate them effectively into the diverse environments of today's enterprise networks.

Although this book focuses mainly on Citrix MetaFrame XP and 1.8 running on Windows 2000 Terminal Server, those who support Terminal Server–only solutions or Citrix MetaFrame on Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server should not feel left out. You will find plenty of material that is applicable to you. The majority of the tips, techniques, and concepts covered here apply equally well for all platform combinations.

Although Microsoft's next release of their Windows server platform, Windows .NET Terminal Server has not been released as of this writing, you will find coverage of some of the many new features that you can expect in this product when it is released.

Who This Book Is For

This book is primarily for system administrators and consultants who are responsible for implementing a Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame solution. However, there also is significant coverage for those who find that Terminal Services alone provides all the features they need.

This is a technical book written by an engineer for engineers. You will find real-world solutions, top-ten tips, command and technical article references, lists of technical resources and web sites available, and lots of technical coverage that will hopefully help you when you need it the most. It assumes a basic familiarity with Windows server and workstation administration.

Web Site for the Book

In conjunction with the material in this book, you will find a simple companion web site that provides useful links and reference material related to Citrix MetaFrame, Windows Terminal Services, and server-based computing at, which also is available from For more information about the companion web site, see the inside back cover of this book.

How This Book Is Organized

Inside Citrix MetaFrame XP is organized into five main parts. Each part covers a related set of Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame topics. Each of those parts is divided into chapters. They are organized as follows.

Part I: Planning a Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame Solution

The first part of the book provides a technical overview of Terminal Server and MetaFrame. The chapters in this part will provide the necessary introduction for those who are new to server-based computing technology or who want a better understanding of how this technology has been implemented in Terminal Server and MetaFrame. In addition, you will learn about how to best plan your Terminal Server or Citrix MetaFrame solution.

Chapter 1, “Introduction to Server-Based Computing,” introduces the server-based computing model by introducing the concept of the application pyramid. You will find out how Terminal Server works and distributes desktops using server-based computing technology. You also will learn about the different types of thin client hardware available.

Chapter 2, “Introduction to Windows Terminal Server,” is where you are introduced to the many applications that Terminal Server is best suited for and the applications for which you would want to use other solutions. You will learn all about the features in both Windows NT 4.0 and 2000 Terminal Server. In addition, you will learn about some of the features to be expected in Windows .NET Terminal Server.

Chapter 3, “Introduction to Citrix MetaFrame 1.8 and MetaFrame XP,” introduces you to all the features in both of these products. You will see the features of these products compared side-by-side. In addition, you will learn what the most important reasons are for adding Citrix MetaFrame to your Terminal Server solution.

Chapter 4, “Understanding the Costs and Benefits of a Terminal Server Solution,” covers the many benefits and also the costs of a Terminal Server solution. You can use this information to help prepare the cost/benefit analysis you might need to get your Terminal Server project approved.

Chapter 5, “Licensing Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame,” is dedicated to the complete coverage of this complex and often poorly understood topic. You will learn how licensing works with both Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame and how to license your servers correctly.

Chapter 6, “Planning a Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame XP Solution,” covers the many important steps you need to take to plan your Terminal Server solution properly, including how to set up and place your Terminal Server licensing servers. You also will learn all about the many new concepts involved in a Citrix MetaFrame XP solution such as zones, data collectors, and the data store. In addition, recommended migration techniques for both Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame version migrations are discussed.

Chapter 7, “Planning for the Installation of Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame,” covers the many important aspects of pre-installation planning such as sizing servers and configuring the hardware.

Part II: Implementing a Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame Solution

Part II is the core of the book. Here is where you will learn what you need to know to get Terminal Server and MetaFrame working on your network.

Chapter 8, “Installing Windows 2000 Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame XP,” guides you through installing Windows 2000 Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame XP. You will learn the specific steps you need to follow during the installation and how the installation differs from that of standard Windows 2000 Servers. Citrix MetaFrame XP administrators also will learn how to set up the data store for MetaFrame XP, how to install MetaFrame XP on your Terminal Servers, and how to activate the licenses for the product.

Chapter 9, “Setting Up Terminal Server Users,” discusses the special Terminal Server user properties that you can set for both Windows NT 4.0 and 2000 domain users. You will then learn how to properly set up your Terminal Server users and groups. You also will learn about how to set up logon scripts for your users in this chapter.

Chapter 10, “Setting Up Terminal Server Connections,” shows how to create and manage the connections used by both Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame clients to connect to the server.

Chapter 11, “Installing RDP Clients for Windows,” guides you through installing the Windows Terminal Services Client (RDP) software on Windows-based operating systems. In addition, you will learn some of the many techniques available for helping automate the installation of the clients.

Chapter 12, “Installing and Deploying ICA Clients,” is dedicated to explaining how to best install and deploy the client software for Citrix MetaFrame servers.

Chapter 13, “Installing Applications,” gives you guidance on the technically challenging topic of how to integrate your applications into Terminal Server's multiuser environment. You will learn the technical details of how applications use the Registry and how to troubleshoot common application problems.

Chapter 14, “Policies and Desktop Management,” looks at the important aspects of administering Terminal Server desktops, such as how to lock them down properly using profiles and policies. You will learn about the difference between policies in Windows NT 4.0 and Group Policy objects in Windows 2000, and recommend policies to implement for Windows 2000.

Chapter 15, “Application Publishing and Load Management with Citrix MetaFrame,” covers how to publish your applications using Citrix MetaFrame XP. For administrators who are using MetaFrame XPa and XPe, you also will learn how to load balance your published applications using Citrix's load-management capabilities.

Chapter 16, “Dial-In and VPN Access,” covers how to provide remote access to your Terminal Server or Citrix MetaFrame solution using dial-in and VPN access.

Part III: Deploying Applications on the Internet

In Part III you will learn about how to create your own web sites for access to applications on either Terminal Server alone or Terminal Server with Citrix MetaFrame. In addition, you will learn what it takes to provide access to those web sites through firewalls and proxy servers.

Chapter 17, “Firewalls and SSL Relay,” covers how to set up your firewall and proxy servers correctly for access to both Terminal Servers and Terminal Servers with Citrix MetaFrame. You will learn the ports that you need to open on your firewall and the many different design options you have.

Chapter 18, “Running Applications on the Web Using the Terminal Services Advanced Client,” will show you how you can set up Microsoft's freely available Terminal Services Advanced Client to provide web access to your Terminal Server.

Chapter 19, “Deploying Applications over the Web Using NFuse and Wireless Technologies,” covers how to use Citrix's freely available NFuse product to set up an application web portal. Your users will be able to log on to this portal from their web browser and run their applications through Citrix.

Part IV: Advanced Terminal Server and MetaFrame Topics

The final chapters in this book make up a solutions guide for Terminal Server and MetaFrame. Each of these chapters covers a specific advanced topic of Terminal Server or MetaFrame solution in detail.

Chapter 20, “Advanced Printing Techniques,” covers what you need to know to effectively set up and troubleshoot printer auto-creation. Citrix MetaFrame XP administrators also will learn all about the new printer management capabilities built into that product.

Chapter 21, “Performance Tuning and Resource Management,” is a very important chapter that will help you ensure that your Terminal Server hardware is adequate for its intended purpose. It also will help you establish a performance baseline to measure against for future needs.

Chapter 22, “Securing Your Server,” is another important chapter that covers what you need to do to lock down your server properly.

Chapter 23, “Advanced Application Installation and Installation Management,” covers advanced techniques for automating the installation of your server applications. Citrix MetaFrame XPe administrators will learn the specifics of how to deploy applications across the server farm using Installation Manager.

Chapter 24, “Advanced Network Management and Monitoring,” discusses how you can setup a network monitoring system for your Terminal Server solution. In addition, Citrix MetaFrame XPe administrators will learn about how to set up SNMP monitoring of their Citrix server farm using XPe Network Manager software.

Chapter 25, “Terminal Server and NetWare,” is for the many administrators who need to integrate their Terminal Server solution with Novell NetWare. You will learn about Netware-related topics, such as using the IPX/SPX protocol with Citrix, installing the NetWare client, and integrating your solution with ZENworks.

Chapter 26, “Disaster Recovery Techniques and Enhancing Reliability,” is a very important chapter that will help you design your Terminal Server solution to be as reliable as possible. You will learn how you can set up your solution for quick recovery in case of disaster.

Chapter 27, “Network Load Balancing for NFuse and Terminal Servers,” shows you how to use other third-party software and features built into Microsoft Windows 2000 to make the most of your Terminal Server solution, without having to purchase Citrix MetaFrame. You will learn about such things as how to setup load sharing using Microsoft's Network Load Balancing.

Part V: Appendixes

The appendixes cover some additional topics of interest beyond the scope of the main material.

Appendix A,“Thin Client Hardware Solutions,” lists some of the many manufacturers of thin client hardware solutions, including manufacturers of thin client terminals, handheld devices, and low-end desktops.

Appendix B,“Third-Party Software and Utilities for Terminal Server and MetaFrame,” describes some of the many incredibly useful third-party software packages and utilities that you can use with your Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame solution.

Appendix C,“Web Sites, Newsgroups, and Other Resources,” lists the many web sites and newsgroups that contain valuable information on Terminal Server and MetaFrame. In addition, you will learn about some of the other technical support resources that are available for these two products.

Appendix D,“History of Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame,” provides an interesting historical perspective on these two products.

Appendix E,“Terminal Server and MetaFrame Command Reference,” is a thumb-tabbed reference of the many commands included with Terminal Server and MetaFrame. Important Terminal Server–related commands that you can use by purchasing the Windows 2000 Resource Kit or by downloading freely available utilities are covered as well.

Appendix F,“Citrix and Microsoft Technical Article Reference,” is an easy-to-use index of the most important Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame–related technical articles on both Microsoft's and Citrix's web site. This is a good reference to go to check first to find articles on resolutions to common problems and also technical articles that provide detailed information on particular Citrix and Terminal Server issues.

Conventions Used

Throughout this book, certain conventions are used to convey the material in a standard and understandable fashion.

Terminology Used

It is important that this book covers a wide range of different versions of both Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame so that the information provided is as useful and relevant as possible for your environment. However, covering this wide range of topics means that it is also important that consistent terminology is used throughout the book. Using consistent terminology helps ensure that it is clear what version is being referred to in a particular sentence. The following is the list of terminology used in this book:

  • Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server Refers specifically to Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server Edition.

  • Windows 2000 Terminal Server Refers specifically to a Windows 2000 Server with Terminal Services installed.

  • Windows 2000 Terminal Services Refers to the Terminal Services themselves.

  • Terminal Server Shorthand reference that refers in general to either Windows 2000 Terminal Server or Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server. Normally is shorthand for Windows 2000 Terminal Server because that is the focus of the book.

  • Windows .NET Terminal Server Refers to the next release of Windows 2000 Server. You will learn about some of the many new features projected to be released in this version. The Windows .NET Terminal Server line should be available within a few months after the release of this book.

  • Citrix MetaFrame General reference to Citrix MetaFrame 1.8 or XP

  • MetaFrame XP or 1.8 Specific reference to that version of Citrix MetaFrame.

  • MetaFrame XPs, XPa or XPe Used when discussing a feature specific to a particular subversion of MetaFrame XP. For example, “You need to install Terminal Services on a Windows 2000 Server for it to be a Windows 2000 Terminal Server.”

    This terminology usage also makes is simpler when referring to multiple products in the same sentence. For instance, “You will find this feature in both Windows NT 4.0 and 2000 Terminal Server” or “Citrix MetaFrame enables you to publish applications to your users.”

Author's Notes and Sidebars

There are two types of “notes” in this book: Author's Notes and Sidebars. The examples that follow show what they look like and what they contain:

Author's Note

Author's notes are short notes that cover information related to the topic at hand or exceptions to the information being presented.

[Sidebar Topic Name]

Throughout the book you will find numerous sidebars. These sidebars provide you with important information that applies to the topic at hand and is taken from real-world experiences.

Typographical Conventions

This book follows a few typographical conventions:

  • A new term is set in italics the first time it is introduced.

  • Program text, functions, variables, and other “computer language” are set in a fixed-pitch font—for example, setwallpaper ("").

  • Many times a particular value will need to be supplied by you for a command or file path. This is indicated by enclosing a short description of the value in brackets (for example, [Value Description]). You should replace the brackets and value description with the appropriate value needed for the command or path. If this value is an optional value, it will be indicated as such in the text.

  • Often in the book, there is reference to a particular file or folders on your server or on a product CD. Because the drive letters used for servers and the CD drive vary by machine, the following terms are used instead to indicate particular locations. The variables enclosed in percent signs (%) are actual environment variables on the system. You can view a list of these variables by going to the command prompt on the machine and entering SET.

    • %systemdrive% The system drive of the server or workstation. Normally, the C: drive or M: drive if your server drives have been remapped.

    • %systemroot%\ The root of the Windows NT or 2000 operating system on the machine. Normally this location is c:\winnt or c:\windows.

    • %programfiles%\ The default location for the installation of programs on a Windows NT or 2000 machine. Normally this location is c:\program files.

    • %userprofile%\ The location for a particular user's profile folder (on Windows 2000).

    • [cd]:\ The CD drive on the machine. There is no environment variable for this particular value, so it is indicated in brackets instead. Normally this value is actually either d:\ or e:\.

    • %homedrive% The drive letter for a user's home directory. You can arbitrarily assign this drive letter during user creation.

    • %homepath% The path for the home directory for the user. The combination of %homedrive% and %homepath% make up the full pathname for the user's home directory.

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