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4. Develop module image editing > The Tone Curve panel

The Tone Curve panel

The Tone Curve controls offer a new approach to tone curve mapping, where the tone curve is modified through slider control adjustments. The reason the Tone Curve controls are presented in this way is to encourage people to make tone curve adjustments based on descriptive criteria. If you are used to working with the point-edit Curves dialog in Photoshop, the Lightroom method may appear restrictive at first, but the Tone Curve slider controls in Lightroom can often inspire you to create tone curve shapes that are quite unlike any of the curve shapes you might have applied when adjusting them using the traditional point curve method. The slider controls also recognize the fact that many photographers just don’t get how to work the point curves adjustment in Photoshop. The Tone Curve sliders will hopefully make curves adjustments accessible to everyone, but the good news is that you can still manipulate the curve graph directly by clicking on a point on the curve and dragging up or down to modify that particular section of the curve. Best of all, you can also edit the curve by targeting an area of interest in the image directly. You can also use the keyboard arrow keys: The up and down arrows can be used to increase or decrease the tone values (note that the left and right arrow keys are reserved for navigating images in the filmstrip). Holding down the Image key as you adjust the values applies larger incremental adjustments. If you enable the Target Adjustment tool button Image (Mac) or Image (PC), you can then click on any part of the image and drag the mouse up or down to make the tones there lighter or darker. When you start using the Target Adjustment tool editing method to refine the tones in an image you won’t necessarily even need to look at the Tone Curve panel. You can turn off the Target Adjustment tool by clicking the Target Adjustment tool button again, pressing Image, or using the Image (Mac) or Image (PC) shortcut.

The four main slider controls for controlling the Tone Curve are: Highlights, Lights, Darks, and Shadows. The slider controls also provide a shaded preview of the range of the shapes an individual Tone Curve slider adjustment can make. In Figure 4.48, I was in the process of adjusting the Shadows slider. The gray shaded area represents the limits of all possible tone curve shapes I could create with this particular slider in conjunction with the other current slider settings. For those who understand curves, this provides a useful visual reference of how the curve can look. Plus, you can edit it by clicking anywhere on the curve and moving the mouse up or down to make that section of the tone curve lighter or darker.

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Figure 4.48. The Tone Curve panel controls are shown here with an adjustment in progress being made to the Darks. Notice how the histogram in the Histogram panel is mirrored in the curve graph and both are updated as you edit the Tone Curve controls.

As mentioned earlier, the Basic panel is used to apply the main tone adjustments. It is important to understand that these are all applied upstream of any tone curve adjustments, so the Tone Curve is an image adjustment control that you always want to apply after you have made the initial Basic panel adjustments. The layout of the tools in both the Basic and Tone Curve panels are also influenced to some degree by the legacy constraints of the Adobe Camera Raw plug-in, and it has been necessary to ensure that the settings applied to an image via Camera Raw in Photoshop are also recognized (and made accessible) when the same image is opened via the Develop module in Lightroom. I mention all this as an explanation for the presence of the Point Curve menu at the bottom of the Tone Curve panel (Figure 4.49). In the early days of Camera Raw, some purists argued that the tone curve for processing raw files should always default to a linear mode, and if you wanted to add contrast, it was up to the user to edit the curve how they wanted. Meanwhile, almost every other raw converter program was applying a moderate amount of contrast to the curve by default. The reason for this was because most photographers tend to like their pictures having a more contrasty and film-like look as a standard setting. Consequently, the Adobe Camera Raw plug-in has evolved to offer three choices of curve contrast: Linear, Medium Contrast, and Strong Contrast. So, the Point Curve menu in the Tone Curve panel (not to be confused with the point curve editing mode discussed on pages 228 to 229) is mainly there to allow you to match up raw files that have been imported with legacy Camera Raw settings. With Process 2003/2010, the default setting for raw files was Medium Contrast. With Process 2012, the default point curve now says “Linear” and, as you would expect, presents a straight line curve. But this is in fact applying the same underlying curve setting as the previous default Process 2003/2010 “Medium Contrast” tone curve. Basically, the new Process 2012 Linear curve does exactly the same thing as the older Process 2003/2010 curve: it applies more of a kick to the shadows to make them slightly darker and lightens the highlights slightly. This also brings the benefit of compatibility of tone curve settings. Non-raw images have always defaulted to a linear tone curve shape. This remains the case in Process 2012. Consequently the starting point for both raw and nonraw images is now the same: a linear tone curve representation. The Point Curve options are therefore nothing more than a curve shape setting and these can be used as a starting point when making further edits to the tone curve.

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Figure 4.49. The Point Curve menu offers a choice of three curve settings.

Note that when you convert a 2003/2010 tone curve to Process 2012 the tone curve shape will appear adjusted (even though the parameter values will actually remain the same). Therefore, tone curve settings are now process version-specific. This means that whenever you save a develop preset that includes a Tone Curve setting you will be obliged to include saving the Process Version setting along with the Tone Curve. In fact, now whenever you choose to save a new preset, the Process Version box is checked by default and remains checked even after you click the Check None button.

The tone range split points at the bottom of the tone curve allow you to restrict or broaden the range of tones that are affected by the four Tone Curve sliders (Figure 4.50). Adjusting each of the three Tone Range Split Points enables you to further fine-tune the shape of the curve. For example, moving the dark tone range split point to the right offsets the midpoint between the Shadows and Darks adjustments. These adjustment sliders are particularly useful for those instances where you are unable to achieve the exact tone localized contrast adjustment you are after when using the Tone Curve sliders on their own (see also page 238).

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Figure 4.50. The tone range split point controls.

Point Curve editing mode

Lightroom now allows you to edit the Tone Curve the same was as you can using the point curve editor in Camera Raw (or the Curves adjustment in Photoshop). To switch to the point curve editing mode (Figure 4.51), click on the button circled in Step 1 below. In this mode you can click on the curve to add a new point and drag up or down to modify the curve shape. The before/after value of the point that’s being moved is shown in the top-left corner of the editor view as a percentage value. Note that when selecting an existing curve point to click on and move you have to be within a few pixels of a point on the curve, left or right (or you can be anywhere above or below it). It can also help here to hold down the Image key, as you make point curve mode Tone Curve adjustments. This reduces the sensitivity of mouse tracking movements and you have to move the mouse ten times as far for the same amount of change to be applied to the Tone Curve. You can also click to select the target adjustment tool Image (Mac) or Image (PC). As with the parametric editing mode, you can use up or down movements to make the selected region of the curve lighter or darker.

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Figure 4.51. The Tone Curve in Point Curve editing mode.

Unlike the Adjustment panel in Photoshop or the point curve mode for the Tone Curve panel in Camera Raw, Lightroom does not provide modal, keyboard focus when editing the tone curve points. What this means is that you can’t use the Image key to delete a selected point. To remove a point you either need to use a right-click to open the contextual menu to delete a control point, double-click a point, or drag a point off the edge of the Tone Curve graph to delete it.


Note

You can save the entire Tone Curve as a preset, including the point curve adjustments, but you can’t save out the point curve settings separately from the parametric curve settings.


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1. Here, I started with a photo to which I had applied a Linear curve. I clicked on the point curve button (circled above) to switch to the Point Curve editing mode.

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2. I then selected the target adjustment tool from the top-left corner (circled above), clicked to add new control points to the Tone Curve, and dragged up or down to modify the shape of the curve. I was also able to use the contextual menu to delete selected control points or flatten the curve.

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3. This shows the image in black-and-white mode and how it is possible to use the Point Curve editor mode to either invert the tones in an image or apply a solarized-type look to a photo. Using the Point Curve menu at the bottom you can choose Save... to save such custom curve settings.

RGB curves

In Lightroom 4 you now have the option to edit the red, green, and blue channel curves separately, just as you can in Photoshop. This is only possible though if you have updated a photo to Process 2012. Do this and in the Tone Curve panel (Figure 4.52), you will see a Channel menu, which defaults to the RGB curve editing mode. If you click to open the pop-up menu you will see the channel curve options shown in Figure 4.53. When editing an image in Photoshop, the ability to edit the individual color channels is a useful feature to have. This is because in Photoshop you need the fine level of control that Curves adjustments can offer when color-editing a rendered pixel image. In the case of Lightroom one can argue that such controls are less necessary, especially since the White Balance tool and camera profiles should provide you with all the color correction tools you need when editing photographs in Lightroom. Having RGB curves in Lightroom means that we now have extra tools to work with when adjusting color. Just be aware that there is a fair amount of overlap with the functionality of the white balance controls (which I would still advise you to use first when correcting color), as well as some of the other controls such as the Split Toning panel (see page 342). However, RGB curves do extend the color editing possibilities. They can be useful for correcting photos shot under mixed lighting conditions and, as is shown here, I found that it is possible to achieve split toning effects that are distinctly different from those that can be achieved using the regular Split Toning panel.

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Figure 4.52. This shows the Tone Curve in Point Curve editing mode in the default RGB curve mode.

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Figure 4.53. This shows the Tone Curve in Point Curve editing mode with the Green channel selected.


Tip

RGB Curves allow you to push the boundaries when editing color images. For example, you can use this feature to apply strong colored overlay effects.


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1. In this example I took one of the shots from the book cover photo shoot and opened it in the Develop module. As you can see, I had already applied some desaturation to the colors in this photo.

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2. I then desaturated the image further and went to the Tone Curve panel to apply the parametric curve adjustments shown here.

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3. Lastly, I switched the Tone Curve panel to the point curve editor mode and adjusted the red, green, and blue channel curves separately to achieve a custom split tone effect.

The Tone Curve zones

The Tone Curve zones are evenly divided between the four quadrants of the tone curve. In the following step-by-step example, I wanted to show a series of tone curve adjustments in which each of these zones is adjusted. To emphasize how the Tone Curve Zone sliders operate, I have highlighted the active quadrants with a green color to accentuate these zone regions and show which areas of the curve are being altered. If you want to reset the Tone Curve settings you can do so by double-clicking the slider names in the Tone Curve panel; plus, you can also reset the Tone Curve adjustments by double-clicking the adjusted region within the Tone Curve itself.


Tip

The Target Adjustment tool can also be activated by going to the View Image Target Adjustment submenu, or by using the following shortcuts: press Image (Mac) or Image (PC) to enable the Tone Curve Target Adjustment tool and use Image or Image (Mac) or Image (PC) to turn off the Target Adjustment tool.


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1. I began by adjusting the Highlights slider to make the brightest portion of the image lighter and set the Highlights to +31. This could be done in a number of ways: I could drag the Highlights slider in the Tone Curve panel to the right, or make the Highlights field active and use the up-arrow key to increase the value. If I wanted, I could click anywhere in the green shaded section of the Tone Curve and drag the curve upward, or click on this portion of the curve and use the up-arrow key on the keyboard to lighten the highlights. But in this instance I clicked the Target Adjustment tool button (circled above) to make it active, moved the cursor over the image, and hovered over a highlight area in the clouds. I then clicked and dragged upward to lighten the tones in this selected portion of the curve. Note that you need to drag the mouse up to lighten and down to darken.

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2. Next I wanted to concentrate on darkening the tones within the Lights zone of the curve. I placed the cursor over the monument in the foreground and this time dragged downward with the mouse.

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3. I then moved the cursor over one of the shaded area of the trees and dragged the mouse downward to darken the Darks zone.

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4. Lastly, I adjusted the Shadows, which I did by placing the cursor over the shadow area circled here and dragged the mouse downward to darken. If you compare the finished step here with where I started, you can see that the combined Tone Curve adjustments have managed to increase the image contrast, but in a more controlled way compared to using the Basic panel Contrast slider on its own.

Combining Basic and Tone Curve adjustments

So far, I have shown how Tone Curve adjustments can be applied in isolation. But you would more typically work using a combination of both Basic and Tone Curve adjustments. Over the next few pages, I have provided a step-by-step example in which the Basic panel adjustments were applied first in order to correct the white balance, recover lost highlight detail, and improve the overall contrast in the photograph. This was then followed by Tone Curve adjustments to fine-tune the tonal balance and bring out more detail in the highlights and shadows. You can do a lot to improve the appearance of a photograph by making just a few Basic and Tone Curve adjustments. Through careful use of these adjustment controls, it is possible to edit the tones in a picture so that you won’t always have to apply localized adjustments in order to achieve a good-looking final image.

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1. Here is a raw image where just the default Lightroom Develop settings had been applied. I first corrected the As Shot white balance by selecting the White Balance tool and rolled the cursor over an area that I wanted to make neutral.

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2. I clicked with the White Balance tool to achieve a warmer color in the image. I then proceeded to lighten with the Exposure slider and add more contrast.

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3. Next, I adjusted the Highlights slider to bring out more detail in the clouds. Here, I applied a –82 adjustment.

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4. I then adjusted the Shadows slider to lighten the shadow detail, applying a +29 adjustment.

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5. This next step was all about fine-tuning the Basic panel settings. I used the Whites slider to adjust the white clipping and the Blacks slider to adjust the blacks clipping. I also adjusted the Clarity and Vibrance.

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6. Finally, I expanded the Tone Curve panel and adjusted the parametric sliders to adjust the tone contrast.

Tone range split point adjustments

Tip

You can double-click the tone range split points if you need to reset them to their default settings.


The tone range split points are located at the bottom of the Tone Curve panel. Note that in Figures 4.54, 4.55, and 4.56 I have shaded green the areas of the tone curve that are being targeted and added guide lines to indicate how the split points have been set.

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Figure 4.54. The screenshot on the left shows an S-shaped tone curve with the tone range split points in their normal positions with equal spacing for the Shadows, Darks, Lights, and Highlights zones. The middle example shows the Shadows zone set to its widest extent, compressing the other three zones. The example on the right shows the Highlights zone set to the widest point, compressing the other three zones.

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Figure 4.55. By moving the two outer tone range split points in closer you can increase the midtone contrast; you can reduce the contrast by moving them farther apart.

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Figure 4.56. These two screenshots show a photograph where the Tone Curve zone settings had been adjusted to fine-tune the Tone Curve contrast. In the top screenshot, the tone range split points are in their default positions and the Tone Curve zones are evenly divided. In the lower screenshot I moved the middle and outer right sliders to the right, which compressed the width of the Lights zone and thereby increased the contrast in the Lights zone area and revealed more tone detail in the face.

HSL / Color / B&W panel

The HSL / Color / B&W panel is an all-in-one panel for making fine-tuned color adjustments and black-and-white conversions. The HSL component (see Figure 4.57) is kind of equivalent to the Hue/Saturation dialog found in Photoshop, except in Lightroom you can apply these types of adjustments to raw photos as well as rendered images. It should be considered a color adjustment tool for those situations where you need to target specific colors in order to fine-tune the color adjustments. Essentially, you have three color adjustment sections (with a Target Adjustment tool mode for each) that allow you to control the Hue, Saturation, and Luminance over eight color band ranges. The Color section of this panel (see Figure 4.58) provides a more simplified version of the HSL controls with button selectors at the top for choosing the desired color band to edit, with Hue, Saturation, and Luminance sliders below. The B&W section is for carrying out monochrome conversions, which I’ll discuss separately in the following chapter.

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Figure 4.57. The HSL / Color / Grayscale panel with the HSL mode selected.

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Figure 4.58. The HSL / Color / Grayscale panel with the Color mode selected.

The sliders in the Hue section control the hue color balance and these allow you to make subtle (or not so subtle) hue color shifts in each of the eight color band ranges. For example, if you adjust the Green Hue slider, dragging to the right makes the greens more cyan, while dragging to the left makes the greens more yellow. The sliders in the Saturation section control the color saturation. Dragging a slider to the right increases the saturation, while dragging to the left decreases the saturation to the point where if all the Saturation sliders were dragged to the left, you could convert the whole of the image to black and white. The Saturation slider controls apply a nonlinear saturation-type adjustment (similar to what the Vibrance slider does). This means that as you increase the saturation, lower saturated pixel values are increased relative to the already higher saturated pixel values in an image. The sliders in the Luminance section can be used to darken or lighten colors in the selected color ranges, and do so in a way that manages to preserve the hue and saturation. If you click the All button, the panel expands to give you access to all the sliders at once. Also, clicking on the Hue, Saturation, or Luminance buttons after you have clicked to select one of these modes toggles showing the controls for those parameters or showing All sliders.


Note

Mark Hamburg and Thomas Knoll decided here to break with the traditional additive and subtractive primary color slider controls. The colors chosen here provide a more practical range of color hues to work with. They are the ones that more usefully match the colors that people most often want to adjust.


As with the Tone Curve panel, the HSL controls can be applied using a Target Adjustment mode. Select Hue, Saturation, or Luminance and click the Target Adjustment tool button to activate it. You can then click on an image and drag up or down with the mouse to adjust the colors targeted by the cursor. You can also use the following shortcuts to enable the different HSL Target Adjustment modes: Hue: Image (Mac) or Image (PC); Saturation: Image (Mac) or Image (PC); and Luminance: Image (Mac) or Image (PC). You can turn off the Target Adjustment tool by clicking the Target Adjustment button again, pressing Image, or using the Image (Mac) or Image (PC) shortcut. Also bear in mind the new Target Adjustment tool behavior since Lightroom 3 means that the Target Adjustment tool is deactivated whenever you switch to working in a new panel.

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1. If you shoot a lot of skin tones, you might consider creating a custom camera calibration for such work (see “Camera profiles” on page 260). But if you shoot a mixture of subjects with the same camera profile, you can also use the HSL panel Hue section to compensate for reddish skin tone colors.

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2. In this example, I went to the Hue section and activated the Target Adjustment tool. I then clicked on a skin tone area in the picture and dragged the mouse upward to make the skin tones less red and more yellow.

Selective color darkening

At first glance, the HSL controls in Lightroom appear to work the same as those used in Photoshop’s Hue/Saturation dialog, but if you experiment a little further you will notice some distinct differences. For example, the Lightroom Hue slider adjustments are somewhat tamer than their Photoshop cousins. The Saturation sliders respond more or less the same as they do in Photoshop, but the most marked differences are revealed when working with the Luminance controls. You may have noticed that when you adjust the Lightness slider in the Photoshop Hue/Saturation dialog, the adjusted colors tend to lose their saturation. To selectively darken a color in Photoshop, you generally have to search for a magic combination of Saturation and Lightness in order to achieve the desired result. But the Lightroom sliders really do respond the way you would expect them to and these provide you with complete control over the luminance of any color range, as shown in the accompanying steps.

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1. The challenge here was to simulate the effect of a polarizing lens filter and darken the blue sky without affecting the tonal balance of the other colors. If working in Photoshop, it would have been tricky to find the exact Saturation and Lightness values that would have made the blue sky go darker.

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2. To darken the blue sky colors in Lightroom, I enabled the Target Adjustment mode in the Luminance section of the HSL panel, clicked on an area of blue sky, and dragged downward. As you can see, this mainly reduced the Blue slider luminance and successfully added more contrast between the sky and the clouds. I also adjusted the Yellow slider here to lighten the flowers.

False color hue adjustments

There is still some room to go crazy and do things like turn blue skies purple, but the hue adjustments in Lightroom are definitely more constrained. To create more extreme hue shifts, you will want to shift more than one Hue slider at a time. For example, you could create a series of develop settings in which all the Hue sliders are shifted by equal amounts. On my computer I have created a series of hue shifted develop settings. In the first, all the Hue sliders are shifted +30, in the second they are shifted to +60, and so on. I suggest this as one way to create creative hue shift coloring effects (see Figure 4.59 on the next page).

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Figure 4.59. This shows a before and after example of an even –90 Hue color shift applied across all the hue values.

Using the HSL controls to reduce gamut clipping

The camera you are shooting with is almost certainly capable of capturing a greater range of colors than can be shown on the display or in print. So just because you can’t see these colors it doesn’t mean they’re not there!

In the Figure 4.60 example you can see a photograph taken of one of the mittens at Monument Valley, Utah. This was shot at sunset when the rocks appeared at their reddest. At first sight there doesn’t appear to be much detail in the rocks, but this is only because the computer display is unable to show all the information that is actually there in the image. By using the HSL panel Luminance controls to darken the red and orange colors, I was able to bring these colors more into the gamut of the computer display so that they no longer appear clipped. Of course, the real test is how these colors would print.? If you are working with a standard LCD, it will probably have a color gamut similar to an sRGB space. In fact, many photographers are viewing their photos on displays with a color gamut that’s smaller than most modern inkjet printers. The display I work with has a gamut that matches 98% of the Adobe RGB color space and is therefore capable of displaying more colors than a typical LCD display. In this respect, a good quality professional display can allow you to see more color detail and this can certainly help when making evaluative adjustments such as in the example shown here. The downside is that having more colors to view on your display means that you can end up seeing more colors than an inkjet printer can print. This is where soft proofing can help you accurately pre-visualize what the final print should look like (see Chapter 8).

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Figure 4.60. This shows an example of a Luminance HSL adjustment being used to selectively darken the red and orange colors that initially appeared clipped.

Lens Corrections panel

The Lens Corrections panel consists of two sections: Profile and Manual. We’ll start here by looking at the manual corrections controls first.

Perspective transform corrections

In the Manual tab section of the Lens Corrections panel we have at the top the Transform controls (Figure 4.61). The Distortion slider can be used to apply geometric distortions independent of the Distortion slider in the Profile tab section. The Vertical slider can be used to apply a keystone correction to the converging verticals in a photograph, such as when the camera has been pointed upward to photograph a tall building. The Horizontal slider can similarly be used to correct for horizontal shifts in perspective, such as when a photo has been captured from a viewpoint that is not completely “front on” to a subject. The Rotate slider allows you to adjust the rotation of the transform adjustment (which is not quite the same as rotating the image). While it is possible to use the Rotate slider here to straighten a photo, you should mainly use the straighten tool in the Crop Overlay mode (Image) to do this. However, in the step-by-step example shown on pages 250 to 251, I did end up using a combination of a normal Crop Overlay rotate and Lens Corrections panel Rotate adjustment to achieve the ideal combined rotation. Finally, the Scale slider allows you to adjust the image scale so that you can zoom in or out. As you reduce the Scale amount the outer image area will appear as an undefined gray padded area (see Step 3 on page 251). Although Lightroom does not offer any options for filling in this border (as you have with the Lens Corrections filter in Photoshop), there are still ways you can do this in Photoshop itself when retouching a rendered pixel image that’s been exported from Lightroom.

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Figure 4.61. The Lens Corrections panel showing the Manual tab options and with Transform adjustments applied to an image. Note that if you click the Constrain Crop check box, the image is automatically cropped to fit the frame.

Lens vignetting

The Lens Vignetting section contains the Amount and Midpoint sliders. By adjusting these two controls, you can usually find an optimum setting that will correct for the light fall-off in a photograph, such as in the snow scene photograph example shown on the next page. Lens vignetting is a problem that’s commonly encountered with wide-angle lenses and is particularly noticeable if the subject you are photographing contains what should be an even shade of tone or color. For example, you’ll become more aware of such lens vignetting problems when you are photographing a landscape with a large expanse of clear blue sky or you are photographing a subject against a plain, light colored backdrop. It is in these types of situations that you are more likely to notice a darkening of the image toward the corners. Most of the correction can be done by adjusting the Amount slider, followed by a fine-tuning adjustment using the Midpoint slider to balance the vignette adjustment from the center to the edges. With these two slider controls, you should be able to precisely correct for unwanted lens vignetting in almost any photograph.

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1. Vignetting is always more noticeable in photographs where there is a large area of flat continuous color or tone, such as a deep blue sky. The increase in darkness toward the corner edges is quite noticeable here.

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2. Here I applied some Lens Vignetting adjustments via the Lens Corrections panel, in which I used a positive Amount setting to lighten the corners and fine-tuned this anti-vignetting adjustment by tweaking the Midpoint slider.

The Lens Vignetting Amount and Midpoint sliders can also be used to compensate for the light falloff in studio lighting setups. In Figure 4.62 you can see an example of a studio shot in which the model was photographed against a white background using a wide-angle lens. Although I tried to light the background as evenly as I could, there was inevitably some light fall-off toward the edges of the frame. Here, it can be useful to adjust the Lens Vignetting sliders so that the darker corner edges of the frame are lightened slightly. In a situation like this I would adjust the first photo in a series to get the Lens vignetting balance right and then copy this Lens Corrections setting across all the remaining photos that were shot using this particular lighting setup.

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Figure 4.62. The vignette controls can also be used to compensate for light fall-off in a studio shot.

Just as you can use the Lens Vignetting sliders to remove a vignette, you can use them to apply a vignette as well. This is also something that you can also achieve using the Post-Crop vignettes in the Effects panel. I’ll be discussing these controls a little later in the Effects panel section.

Lens profile corrections

I began this section by showing you how to use the manual correction sliders because this seemed the best way to introduce you to what these controls do and why you would need to use them. In Lightroom 3 and 4 you will notice that the Lens Corrections panel normally defaults to showing you the Profile tab mode shown in Figure 4.63, which allows you to apply instant auto lens correction adjustments. This can be done to any image, providing it contains lens information in the EXIF data and there is a matching lens profile in the Lightroom lens profile database. If the lens you are using is not included in the camera lens profile database, you will need to use a custom lens profile. I’ll come on to this shortly, but assuming there are lens profiles available in Lightroom for the lenses you are shooting with, it should be a simple matter of clicking the “Enable Profile Corrections” box to apply an auto lens correction to any selected photo. When you do this you should see the “Make” of the lens manufacturer, the specific lens “Model,” and lens “Profile” (which will most likely be the installed “Adobe” profile) appear in the boxes below. If these don’t respond, then you may need to first select the lens manufacturer brand from the “Make” menu, then the lens “Model” and lastly, the preferred lens from the “Profile” menu. It is important to appreciate here that some camera systems capture a full-frame image (therefore making full use of the usable lens coverage area for many lenses), while compact SLR range cameras mostly have smaller-sized sensors that capture the image using a smaller area of the lens’s total coverage area. The Adobe lens profiles have all been built using a camera that has a full-frame sensor, meaning that from a single lens profile it is possible to automatically calculate the appropriate lens correction adjustments to make for all other types of cameras where the sensor size is smaller. Also note that Lightroom and Camera Raw should use lens profiles that have been generated from raw capture files. This is because the vignette estimation and removal has to be measured directly from the raw linear sensor data rather than from a gamma-corrected JPEG or TIFF image.

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Figure 4.63. The Lens Corrections panel showing the Profile tab options, with the “Enable Profile Corrections” box checked.


Tip

Images that are missing their EXIF metadata cannot be processed using the “Enable Profile Corrections” feature. However, by saving Lens Profile Corrections settings as Develop presets, it is kind of possible to apply such adjustments that are missing the EXIF metadata.


Auto lens corrections consist of two components: a “Distortion” correction to correct for the barrel or pin-cushion geometric distortion, along with a “Vignetting” correction. The Amount sliders you see here allow you to fine-tune an auto lens correction. So for example, if you wanted to allow an automatic lens correction to automatically correct for the lens vignetting, but not correct for say, a fisheye lens distortion, you could set the Distortion slider to zero (dragging it all the way to the left). On the other hand, if you believe an auto lens correction to be too strong or not strong enough, you can easily apply a compensation to the correction amount by dragging either of these sliders left or right.

The default option for the Setup menu is “Default.” This instructs Lightroom to automatically work out what is the correct lens profile to use based on the available EXIF metadata contained in the image file, or use whatever might have been assigned as a “default” Lens Corrections to use with this particular lens (see below). The “Custom” option only appears if you choose to override the auto-selected default setting, or you have to manually apply the appropriate lens profile. As you work with the automatic lens corrections feature on specific images you will also have the option to customize the Lens Corrections settings and use the Setup menu to select the “Save new Defaults...” option. This allows you to set new Lens Corrections settings as the default to use when an image with identical camera EXIF lens data settings is selected. As I mentioned above, the Setup menu will also show “Default” as the selected option in the Setup menu in these instances.


Note

Custom lens profiles created via Adobe Lens Profile Creator 1.0 should be saved to the following shared locations.

Mac OS X: Library/Application Support/Adobe/CameraRaw/Lens Profiles/1.0

Windows 7 or Vista : C:\Program Data\Adobe\Camera Raw\Lens Profiles\1.0.


Accessing and creating custom camera lens profiles

If you don’t see any lens profiles listed for a particular lens you will have two choices. You can either make one yourself using the Adobe Lens Profile Creator program, or locate a custom profile that someone else has made. The Adobe Lens Profile Creator program is available free from the labs.adobe.com website, along with full documentation that explains how you should go about photographing one of the supplied Adobe Lens Calibration charts and generate custom lens profiles for your own lenses. It isn’t too difficult to do yourself once you have mastered the basic principles. If you are familiar with Photoshop CS5, you will be aware that Photoshop also has the auto lens correction feature included within the updated Lens Corrections filter and how it is very easy to access shared custom lens profiles that have been created by other Photoshop customers (using the Adobe Lens Profile Creator program). Unfortunately, the Lens Corrections panel in Lightroom doesn’t provide a shared user lens profile option, so whether you are creating lens profiles for yourself or wish to install a custom lens profiles, you will need to reference the directory path lists shown in the sidebar opposite. Once you have added a new lens profile to the Lens Corrections or Lens Profiles folder, you will need to quit Lightroom and restart before any newly-added lens profiles appear listed in the Automatic Lens Corrections panel profile list.

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1. In this initial step you can see an example of a photograph that was shot using a 15mm fisheye lens, where there is a noticeable curvature in the image.

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2. In the Lens Corrections panel I simply checked the Enable Profile Corrections box to apply an auto lens correction to the photograph. In this instance I left the two Amount sliders at their default 100% settings. If I wanted to, I could have adjusted these sliders to apply more, less, or no adjustment. For example, I could have chosen to apply a 50% amount Distortion correction with a 0% vignetting correction.

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3. Next, I clicked on the Manual tab in the Lens Corrections panel so that I could adjust the Vertical transform slider to correct for some of the keystone distortion in this photo. I also adjusted the Horizontal slider to center the two overhead poles. I also rotated the transform adjustment –3 clockwise and adjusted the Scale slider in order to zoom out slightly and reveal more of the image content.


Note

If you click the Constrain Crop option (circled in Step 3) the image will automatically crop to fit the frame.


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4. Finally, I opened the photo in Photoshop CS5 and used the Content-Aware Fill feature to fill in the gray space at the bottom. If you are interested in seeing how this was done, I suggest watching the movie that’s on the book’s website.


Image Downloadable Content: www.thelightroombook.com


Removing chromatic aberrations

Chromatic aberrations are caused by an inability to focus the red, green, and blue light wavelengths at the same position toward the edges of the frame, which is correctly known as lateral or latitudinal chromatic aberration. The sensors in the latest digital SLRs and medium-format camera backs are able to resolve a much finer level of detail than was possible with film. As a consequence, any deficiencies in the lens optics can be made even more apparent. Therefore, where some color wavelengths are focused at different points, you may see color fringes around the high contrast edges of a picture. This can be particularly noticeable when shooting with wide-angle lenses (especially when they are being used at wider apertures), and here you may well see signs of color fringing toward the edges of the frame. There is also another type of chromatic aberration known as axial or longitudinal chromatic aberration, which describes the inability of lenses to focus different colors at the exact same distance—this is much harder to correct. Fortunately, most of the color fringing problems we see are due to lateral chromatic aberration and this is easy enough to fix. Where lens aberrations are a problem, the “Remove Chromatic Aberration” option in the Profile tab section of the Lens Corrections panel is able to address and correct for such optical lens deficiencies. Basically, the chromatic aberration sliders that were once in the Manual tab and the Chromatic Aberration slider for lens profile corrections have been removed and the new Remove Chromatic Aberration option is now used in place to carry out an automatic correction whether you have a lens profile correction enabled or not. You can now correct for chromatic aberrations even where there is no suitable lens profile available. It also means you can correct for chromatic aberrations with decentered lenses, such as tilt/shift lenses.


Note

Some of the latest digital cameras, such as the Panasonic DMC-LX3 are capable of storing lens corrected linear raw data that can be read and used to optically correct for things like geometric distortion. Ever since version 2.5, Lightroom has been able to read this data and use what are referred to in the latest DNG specification as “opcodes.” These allow the lens correction processing to be applied at the raw processing stage rather than in-camera. In fact the camera manufacturers were not willing to allow Adobe to provide Camera Raw Support for their cameras unless Adobe could respect this data and apply the lens corrections in Camera Raw.

It should also be mentioned here that the independent lens manufacturer Sigma was helpful in that it willingly shared its lens data with Adobe in order to help Adobe produce better lens correction profiles for the entire Sigma range of lenses.


The Defringe controls

The Manual tab section of the Lens Corrections panel offers a Defringe menu (Figure 4.64). This allows you to correct for “Highlight Edges” and “All Edges.” The Highlight Edges correction can correct for the color fringing you sometimes see in extreme burned-out highlight areas. This can be caused by extreme light exposure hitting the camera sensors, resulting in too many photons overloading the individual photosites. This, in turn, may create problems in the demosaic process. When enabled, the Highlight Edges Defringe option carries out a different kind of calculation in order to correct the magenta fringing that is sometimes seen around the highlight edges. The impact of this option was more significant in earlier versions of Lightroom and since the introduction of Process 2010 and 2012, and now the latest Remove Chromatic Aberration, you are less likely to experience such problems. But it’s there for legacy reasons and those who need (or prefer) to use Process 2003 still. The All Edges correction offers a rather subtle auto correction. Here again, it is hard to find examples of where it continues to be needed. However, if you ever experience problems trying to remove chromatic aberration you may need this option to further clean up the edges.

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Figure 4.64. The Lens Corrections panel showing the Defringe menu options.

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1. Here is a typical example of color fringing caused by lateral chromatic aberration toward the edges of the frame of a wide-angle zoom lens. Here you see the uncorrected version with the Remove Chromatic Aberration box unchecked.

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2. This was resolved by checking the Remove Chromatic Aberration option in the Lens Corrections panel Profile tab section.

Effects panel

Post-Crop vignettes

The Post-Crop vignette controls in the Effects panel (see Figure 4.65) can do more or less the same thing as the Lens Corrections sliders, except these adjustments are applied relative to the proportions of the cropped photograph. But note that whenever you use the Crop Overlay mode to edit a crop setting, the vignette effect is temporarily disabled. The Amount and Midpoint sliders work the same as those found in the Lens Corrections panel, while the Roundness slider allows you to adjust the shape of the vignette relative to the proportions of the image (see Figure 4.65). Meanwhile, the Feather slider allows you to soften or harden the vignette edge. For example, in Figure 4.65 I applied a zero Feather amount to the vignette, which applied a hard edge to the vignette.

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Figure 4.65. This shows the Effects panel controls. At zero Roundness, the vignette shape matches the proportions of the cropped image. At +100, the Roundness slider makes the post-crop vignette more circular. At a zero setting the Feather slider allows you to apply a harsh edge to the vignette edge.

Since version 3 of Lightroom you now have access to the new Post-Crop Vignetting options plus a Highlights slider, which I’ll cover shortly. To inspire you I have applied four different Post-Crop Vignetting settings to the photograph shown here (Figure 4.66). The main thing to point out here is that the Post-Crop Vignetting sliders work just as well on uncropped images and the ability to apply both a lens correction and a post-crop vignette means that you can also experiment using different combinations of these two settings when editing a cropped photograph. For example, in the bottom-right image in Figure 4.66, I combined a maximum +100 global Lens Vignetting Amount correction with a maximum +100 Post-Crop Vignetting Amount correction in Paint Overlay mode.

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Figure 4.66. Examples of different post-crop settings applied to the image shown in Figure 4.65.

Post-Crop vignette options

I have so far shown just the Paint Overlay setting in use, which is the name now given to the standard post crop vignette that was incorporated into earlier versions of Lightroom. When first introduced, some people were quick to point out that this post-crop vignetting wasn’t exactly the same as a Lens Correction vignette effect. You can see for yourself in the Figure 4.66 examples how the Paint Overlay vignette applies a soft-contrast, hazy kind of effect. This wasn’t to everyone’s taste (although for some images I quite liked the look it created). Consequently, Lightroom offers additional post-crop editing modes that do closely match the normal Lens Correction edit mode yet offer extra scope for adjustment. Where people were once inclined to use the Lens Correction sliders as a creative tool (because the Post-crop effects were a bit wishy-washy), they should now think of the Lens Correction sliders as being for lens corrections only and the Post-Crop Vignetting sliders as being designed for adding different kinds of vignette effects.

In the Paint Overlay example below (see Figure 4.67), the post-crop effect blends either a black or white color into the edges of the frame depending on which direction you drag the Amount slider. With the two additional vignette styles the effect produced is much more similar to a Lens Correction effect since the darkening or lightening is created by varying the exposure at the edges. Figure 4.68 shows an example of the two new vignettes in use where a positive Amount setting was used to lighten the corners of a photo. Of the two, the Color Priority is usually the more gentle as this applies the post-crop vignette after the Basic panel Exposure adjustments, but before the Tone Curve stage. This minimizes color shifts in the darkened areas, but it can’t perform any highlight recovery. The Highlight Priority mode tends to produce more dramatic results. It applies the post-crop vignette prior to the Exposure adjustment, has the benefit of allowing better highlight recovery, but can lead to color shifts in the darkened areas.

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Figure 4.67. Here you can see two examples of a maximum lightening post-crop vignette adjustment in which the Color Priority mode was used (top) and the Highlight Priority mode was used (bottom).

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Figure 4.68. In this example I took an image that had been shot with a 12mm wide-angle lens and initially applied a profile Lens Correction adjustment to correct for the lens vignetting and cropped the bottom of the photograph (left). I then applied a darkening Paint Overlay Post-Crop vignette using the settings shown here (right).

Figure 4.69 shows examples of these two new vignette effects being used to apply darkening vignettes. You will notice there is also a new Highlights slider that can further modify the effect. But note that the Highlights slider is only active when applying a negative Amount setting—as soon as you increase the Amount to apply a lightening vignette, the Highlights slider is disabled. As you can see in the right-hand example in Figure 4.69, increasing the Highlights allows you to boost the contrast in the vignetted areas and the effect is only really noticeable in subjects that feature bright highlights. Here it had the effect of lightening the clouds in the corners of the image, taking them more back to their original exposure value. In these examples the difference is quite subtle, but I find that the Highlights slider usually has the greatest impact when editing a Color Priority post-crop vignette.

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Figure 4.69. Here I have shown further examples of the same image processed using the two new Post-Crop vignette settings. On the left is an example of a Highlight Priority vignette, in the middle, a Color Priority vignette and on the right, a Color Priority vignette with the Highlights slider set to +100%.

Adding Grain to images

The Effects panel also contains Grain effects sliders, which can be used to give your photos a traditional film-like look. However, you may need to apply quite strong settings if you want the grain effect to be noticeable in print. The thing is, if you apply the grain effect to a typical digital camera capture image to look good at a 1:1 view and you then make a 8” x 10” print, the effect will mostly be lost due to the downsizing of the image data. If such images are downsized to appear on the Web then I doubt you’ll notice the grain effect at all. Figure 4.70 shows a photograph where I added a heavy grain effect and Figure 4.71 shows a 1:1 close-up of the same image where you can compare the before and after views. As you can see, the grain sliders can be effective at simulating film grain, but doing so will also soften the image detail. I therefore can’t help wondering what is the point of adding a grain effect to a digital photo? Isn’t the lack of grain the main reason why most of us prefer to shoot digitally?

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Figure 4.70. This shows a full frame view of a photo where I applied a grain effect.

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Figure 4.71. This shows a before and after close-up view of the photo shown in Figure 4.76.


Tip

Actually, it can be useful to add small amounts of grain when treating heavily noise reduced images. An example is shown on page 378 in Chapter 6.


However, if you have a photo that suffers from noticeable image artifacts, you use the Grain effects sliders to add small amounts of grain to help hide these so that a final print can withstand close scrutiny. As my friend and late colleague Bruce Fraser used to say, “In the case of photographers, the optimum viewing distance is limited only by the length of the photographer’s nose.” Having said that, it is worth pointing out that photographers often have false expectations when it comes to what they see on the screen being an accurate representation of what they’ll see in print. It is certainly possible to fret needlessly about what you see on screen at a 1:1 or a 200% view when the micro detail you are analyzing is about to become lost during the print process. Therefore, any tiny artifacts you see at a 100% view or higher aren’t really worth stressing over. Yet it still troubles people when they see this. So having the ability to dial in some added grain does allow you to add a fine amount of micro detail noise to a photo and blend the problem artifacts with the rest of the image. But in all honesty, while adding a subtle grain effect can indeed make your photos look better at 1:1 and help hide any residual luminance noise, you are still only creating the illusion that the image has been improved and this won’t actually have much bearing on the sharpness of the final print, unless, of course, the problem is so severe that it is an absolute necessity.

The same can be said about the quest for perfect noise reduction. Although some camera reviewers talk about the noise they’ve seen in the high ISO captures, it’s not always possible to see this noise reproduced in print, except where the photos have been printed blown up. So much has been done to improve the quality of high ISO capture, especially with the latest Nikon and Canon digital SLR cameras. Plus, the work of third-party software products (and now Adobe) have also allowed us to keep digital capture noise to a minimum. The main point I am trying to make here is not to over-obsess about trying to remove every single trace of noise when analyzing your images in close-up. The Grain sliders may appear as if they can do some good, but they won’t always be strictly necessary.

Camera Calibration panel

The Camera Calibration panel (Figure 4.72) allows you to select the most appropriate camera profile to use as a starting point for subsequent Develop module adjustments. To start with, you’ll notice there is a menu that allows you to choose which Process Version to apply to the images (you can also do this via the Settings Image Process menu). Below this is a Profile menu from which you can choose a suitable camera profile to use as a starting point for your subsequent Develop module adjustments.

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Figure 4.72. The Camera Calibration panel controls showing the Process options (top) and the camera Profile options (bottom).

Camera profiles

Since the release of Lightroom 2, the camera profiles have been updated for most makes of camera, and Lightroom ships with a collection of custom Camera Profiles for most of the cameras that are supported by the Camera Raw database. These are mainly for Canon, Nikon, and a few Pentax and Leica models. The Adobe Standard profile (shown selected in Figure 4.72) is now the recommended default, being more color accurate than previous camera profiles such as the ACR 4.4 profile or older. You can still access these other profiles, of course, since they need to be kept for legacy compatibility reasons (see sidebar note).

One of the things that bugged Lightroom users in the early days of the program was the way the initial previews for raw files would change appearance as soon as the previews were updated in the program. This was due to the fact that the embedded preview for a raw file would be based on a standard camera JPEG-processed image. In other words, the JPEG previews that appeared when you first imported raw photos from a card showed a color rendering that was identical to a JPEG captured with the same camera. A lot of photographers were inclined to think, “Hey, I quite like the way those photos look,” only to find that Lightroom would proceed to redraw the previews using its own interpretation of the images. If you happen to be fond of the JPEG look and would prefer Lightroom to keep the colors the same on import, you can do so by selecting the Camera Standard profile from the Profile list shown in Figure 4.72. This will allow you to match the default camera JPEG look. The alternative profiles you see listed here are designed to match the color response for the other specific JPEG camera looks that may be associated with a particular camera. If you were editing a photo shot with a Nikon camera the alternative profile options would probably show: Mode 1, Mode 2, and Mode 3. The thing to stress here is that there is no right or wrong way to process an image at this stage, since any color interpretation is really just a starting point, but if you want your raw photos to match the “look” of one of the camera JPEG settings, you can now do so (see Figure 4.73).

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Figure 4.73. Here you can see examples of different camera profiles applied to the same image. The top-left image shows the Adobe Standard profile being used, while the bottom-right version uses the Camera Standard profile. This would be the one to choose if you wanted to match exactly the appearance of the camera JPEG. Note: Adobe Standard is available for all supported cameras. The others are only available for Canon, Nikon, and a couple of Pentax and Leica models.


Note

The ACR Profile version numbers indicate which version of the ACR plug-in was used to create the profile associated with the camera that shot the image and is there mainly for informational purposes only. There were a few cases in which Adobe had decided that the profiles created for some specific cameras in earlier versions of the Adobe Camera Raw plug-in could have been improved upon, and this is why you may see extra ACR profile options listed. As I mentioned in the main text, Adobe Standard is now the best one to select, but for legacy reasons, the older versions are still made available.


The Camera Raw conversions in Lightroom are the result of many years of painstaking work. For each camera that is supported by Camera Raw, two sets of profile measurements are used to record the camera sensor’s color response under controlled daylight-balanced and tungsten-balanced lighting conditions. Using this data, it is possible to extrapolate what the color response should be for all white balance lighting conditions that fall between these two setups and beyond. Over 350 different cameras are supported by Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) and Lightroom, and in some instances several camera samples were tested to obtain a representative average set of measurements. Other times only one camera model was actually used. But in all cases it is clear that the measurements made by the Camera Raw team can only ever be as good as the camera or cameras from which the measurements were made (and how representative these were of other cameras of the same make). At the same time, the sensors in some cameras can vary a lot in color response from camera to camera, and this variance means that although a raw file from your camera may be supported by Lightroom, there is no guarantee it will be exactly similar in color response to the raw files from the cameras that the Adobe team evaluated.


Tip

Try using the Develop Presets panel to save “Calibration only” presets for each of the available camera profiles. You can then either roll the mouse over the presets to preview the outcome in the navigator or click through the list to quickly compare the different camera profile renderings.


How to create a custom calibration with DNG Profile Editor

In the quest to produce improved Adobe Standard profiles, Lightroom engineer Eric Chan used a special utility program called DNG Profile Editor 1.0 to help reevaluate the camera profiles supplied with Camera Raw and with this produced the revised Adobe Standard profiles. You can get hold of a copy of this program by going to the labs.adobe.com website and doing a search for DNG Profiles. At the time of writing it is currently in version beta 3 and can be downloaded for free (see Figure 4.74). There are a number of things you can do with this utility, but I think its main strength is that you can use it to create custom calibration profiles for the sensor in your camera. As I just mentioned, while the default camera profiles may be quite accurate for different individual cameras, there may still be a slight difference in color response between your particular camera and the one Adobe evaluated. For this reason you may like to run through the following steps to create a custom calibration for your camera sensor.

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Figure 4.74. The DNG Profile Editor 1.0 program can be downloaded for free from the labs.adobe.com website.


Note

The X-Rite Gretag Macbeth ColorChecker chart is available as the full-size version or as a slightly cheaper mini version. Both are well suited for creating custom camera profiles.



Tip

If you want to produce a super-accurate camera profile to match those created by Adobe, you can do so by photographing the target ColorChecker target twice: once using 6500 K balanced lighting and again using 2850 K balanced lighting. DNG Profile Editor allows you to read both captures independently (see Step 3) and thereby build a camera profile that can adapt to subjects shot between these two measured whitepoints and extrapolate beyond to calculate the profile response under different white balance lighting conditions.


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1. The first thing you need to do is to take a photograph of an X-Rite Gretag Macbeth ColorChecker chart. I suggest you shoot this against a plain dark backdrop and make sure that the chart is evenly lit from both sides. It is also a good idea to take several photos and bracket the exposures by two-thirds of a stop either side. This is because if the raw original isn’t correctly exposed you’ll see an error message when trying to run the DNG Profile Editor. The other thing you’ll need to do is to convert the raw capture image to the DNG format, then go to the Develop module, select the Adobe Standard profile as your starting point (don’t apply any other Develop adjustments), and use Image (Mac) or Image (PC) to save the Lightroom-edited metadata to the DNG file.

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2. The next step is to launch DNG Profile Editor. Once launched, go to the File menu and choose File Image Open DNG Image... Now browse to locate the DNG image you just edited and click Open. The selected image appears in a separate window and you can see the base profile is using the Adobe Standard profile for whichever camera was used to capture the ColorChecker chart.

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3. Now click on the Chart tab and drag the four colored circles to the four corner swatches of the chart. If you are measuring just the one chart, select the Both color tables option before clicking the Create Color Table... button.

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4. The camera profiling process will take less than a second to complete. Once this has happened you can then go to the Edit menu and choose File Image Export name of camera Profile, or use the Image (Mac) or Image (PC) shortcut. Next, rename the profile as desired.

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5. Custom camera profiles are saved to a default user folder but won’t appear in the Camera Calibration Profiles list until after you have quit and restarted Lightroom. Once you have done this you’ll be able to select the newly created camera profile and apply it to any photographs that have been shot with this particular camera.

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6. If you want, you can go to the Develop module and make sure that all the Develop controls are set to the default neutral settings, the White Balance is set to “As Shot,” and in the Camera Calibration panel the relevant Camera Profile is selected. You can then go to the Develop menu and choose Set Default Settings... This ensures that the custom camera profile is now applied by default to all newly imported raw photos from this particular camera (see also page 326 for details on how to save the Camera Calibration profile setting as part of a Camera default setting and linking default settings to ISO values).


Note

If you create a custom camera profile for your camera and apply this to any of the images you process through Lightroom, you need to be aware that the custom profile component can only be read if that camera profile exists on the computer that’s reading it. If you transfer a raw file that’s been processed in Lightroom to another computer it will look to see if the same camera profile is in the Camera Profiles folder, If it isn’t, it will default to using the Adobe Standard profile. Which leads me to point out an important solution to this problem, which is to convert your raw files to DNG. The current DNG spec allows for camera profiles to be embedded within the file, thereby removing the dependency on the host computer having a copy of the custom camera profile used. But you must remember to explicitly save the metadata to the DNG file for the camera profile data to be embedded.


Creative uses of the Camera Calibration panel

There isn’t much need now for the Camera Calibration sliders, since all you have to do is select an existing camera profile or create one specifically for your camera. However, I do still find these additional color adjustment controls useful, especially if you want to produce false color effects. I have shown some examples of this in Figures 4.75 through 4.78 I. I have also discovered that the Camera Calibration controls can be useful for fine-tuning black-and-white conversions (to read more about this, check out page 347).

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Figure 4.75. This shows a standard version of an image, using the Adobe Standard Camera Profile, but with zeroed Camera Calibration panel sliders,.

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Figure 4.76. This shows a muted color setting, created using the Camera Calibration sliders.

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Figure 4.77. To create this color infrared effect, I used the settings shown here (you may also want to reduce the Vibrance slightly).

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Figure 4.78. To create this magenta sky effect, I used the Camera Calibration settings shown here.

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